Performance of tractor operated seed drill for sowing of paddy

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2 Problems identified: 1. Low yield in paddy 2. Labour shortage at peak period 3. Higher cost of cultivation Considering the above points, the assessment of seed drill was done at farmers fields for three years (2009/2010/2011). The comparison was made between conventional method of sowing (Random transplanting of Seedlings at 35 to 45 days, with two hand weedings) and paddy sowing using seed drill (Drilled paddy). Seed drill not only conserved the time and energy, but also reduced the cost of cultivation, and increased the crop yield. Materials and Methods Laboratory Testing The nine furrows tractor mounted seed drill was tested in laboratory before taking to actual field conditions. PKV-HMT variety of wheat was selected for the study. The seed were passed through the grooves of the fluted roller to check the regularity of flow and damage. The line to line spacing of seed drill was adjusted at 20 cm. The machine was calibrated for 70 kg/ha normal conditions. The calibration for fertilizer per hectare was also done. Calibration of seed drill The seed-drill was calibrated for paddy sowing using the metering mechanism. The seed-drill was placed on a level ground and jacked up to facilitate the rotation of ground drive wheel freely. Laboratory test was carried for ten revolution of ground drive wheel for each exposure length of fluted rollers. The following steps were followed for calibration of seed-cum fertilizer drill (Sahay, 1990). 1. Determine the nominal width (W)of drill W = MxS Where M is the number of furrow openers and S is the spacing between the openers in metre and W is in metre th 2. Find the length of a strip (L) having nominal width W necessary to cover 1/25P P of a hectare L = X 1 W 25 = metres W 3. Determine the number of revolutions (N) the ground wheel has to make to cover the length of strip (L) Π x D x N = X 1 W

3 = rev/min π X D X W 4. Jack up the drill so that the ground wheel turns freely. Make a mark on the drive wheel and a corresponding mark at a convenient place on the body of the drill to help in counting the revolutions of the drive wheel. 5. Put the selected seed and fertilizer in the respective hoppers. Place a sack or a container under each boot for seeds and fertilizers. 6. Set the rate control adjustment for the seed and the fertilizer for maximum drilling. Mark this position on the control for reference. 7. Engage the clutch or on-off adjustment for the hoppers and rotate the drive wheel at the speed N N = rev/min π X D X W 8. Weigh the quantity of seed and fertilizer dropped from each opener and record on the data sheet 9. Calculate the seed and fertilizer dropped in kg/ha and record on the data sheet. 10. Repeat the process by suitable adjusting the rate control till desired rate of seed and fertilizer drop is obtained. The seed drill was field evaluated in comparison to conventional system (Random transplanting of Seedlings at 35 to 45 days, with two hand weedings) for raising paddy crop during the Kharif season over an area of 0.20 ha at farmers field. The test conditions during the assessment of seed drill are given in Table 1. Table 1: Test conditions during the assessment of seed drill Sr. No. Particulars Farming situation Rainfed Rainfed Rainfed 2. Location Farmers field Farmers field Farmers field 3. Type of soil Sandy loam Sandy loam Sandy loam 4. Field preparation Ploughing and before direct drilling Ploughing and before direct drilling Ploughing and before direct drilling 399

5 Table 2: Field performance of tractor operated seed drill for sowing of paddy Parameters of assessment Convent ional method Conventio nal method Conventi onal method Field capacity, ha/h Sowing of paddy using seed drill Sowing of paddy using seed drill Sowing of paddy using seed drill Cost of operation, Rs/ha Labour requirement, manh/ha Yield, q/ha The performance of the seed drill was found more satisfactory in field compared to conventional paddy transplanting method. Conclusion Sowing of paddy using tractor operated seed drill was found to be more economical for the farmers as it reduced the cost of production and give higher yield compared to conventional method of paddy transplanting. References [1] Ved Prakash Chaudhary and Varshney, B.P., Influence of seedling mat characteristics and machine parameters on performance of self- propelled rice transplanter. In: Agriculture mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 34: [2] Hobbs, P. R., 1988, A perspective on research need for the rice-wheat rotation. A.R. Klatt, ed., Wheat Production Constraints for Tropical Environment. Mexico, D. F. CVMMYT pp: [3] Sahay J. (2008), Farm power and machinery. Standard publishers distributors, Delhi

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