The Effect of Customer Relationship Management on Organizations performance and Competitive Advantage- Effect of Process and Information Technology

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1 The Effect of Customer Relationship Management on Organizations performance and Competitive Advantage- Effect of Process and Information Technology Introduction Azza El Borsaly Customer relationship management (CRM) is considered as a holistic strategy that can help organizations to become customer oriented and as a valuable capability to remain stable in today s competitive business world. However there is a lack of research demonstrating how this capability supports organizations growth. This study examines the effects of CRM implementation on organizations performance and on their competitive advantage. Following the resource-based view of the firms and customer centricity approach, CRM strategy is conceptualized as a useful tool employed by organizations to increase customer value and to create a desired customer experience by effectively enhancing their service capabilities given to their customers. Based on Handen (2000) five dimensions (strategy, organization, technology, segmentation and process) to implement a CRM project effectively, this study investigates the effects of technology and process as dimensions of CRM on organizations performance and their competitive advantage. The study is a descriptivesurvey research. The descriptive part was to collect data about the literature on the topic, and the survey method is to confirm or refuse the study s hypotheses. A questionnaire was used for the research hypotheses testing and analysis. The statistical population consists of a sample of 22 banks drawn randomly from the Egyptian market and collected data were subjected to correlation analysis in pursuance of the study s stated objectives. The results indicate that there are positive relationship between CRM implementation and banks performance and their competitive advantages. Developing a superior customer relationship management capability that is creating and managing close customer relationship is expected to be one of the most important sources of superior performance in today's competitive business environment.(day, 2002; Kale,2004)in (Battor, 2010). Ramaseshan, el.al. (2006) pointed out that as the era of globalization continues to manifest through the emergence of global companies, the importance of customer relationship management in these companies has become increasingly significant. Ryals and Payne(2001) argue that CRM is more commonly used in the context of technology solutions and has been described as "information enabled relationship marketing" CRM is often misused with the term CRM technology (e.g. Reinartz et al., 2004; Bouling et al., 2005; Frow and Payne, 2009). Toe et al, (2006) articulate that organizations approach CRM differently, eg, some may view CRM as a technology tool while others may view it as an essential part of business. Hence, there is a need for a holistic approach by organization to integrate IT with its business processes and customer service delivery. Recent research has attemped to correct this over simplification by broadening the view of CRM and regarding it as a strategic method Dr Azza El Borsaly, Assistant professor, Emirates College of Technology, Abu Dhabi - United Arab,

2 that focuses on development of profitable, long-term relationships with key customers by melding relationship marketing and information technology and aligning the organization to foster such relationships(payne and Frow, 2005). Lim & Su, (2003). articulate that formulating CRM strategies can also create valuable marketing opportunities, increase customer value and enhance customer satisfaction in the pursuit of business excellence. CRM is otherwise known as loyalty ( Srivastava, Shervani &Fahey, 1998 ; Thompson, 2002 ). Customer loyalty has been universally recognized as a valuable asset in competitive markets (Srivastava, Shervani &Fahey, 1998 ). It provides an ideal environment for this permission based exchange of information, creating a competitive advantage and driving increase in profit ( Bitner, 1995 in Sahoo 2011 ). In fact some research has found that approximately 70 % of the firms that invested in CRM projects experienced no improvement or even declines in their performance ( Gartner group,2003 ;Gartner research, 2008 ) The banking sector in Egypt is regarded as one of the agencies most respective to CRM. It uses it to enhance its business processes and provide better services to its customers. In this study, the researcher examines the banking sector's success in implementing CRM by focusing on two important dimensions of it: CRM process and CRM information technology as significant capabilities to assist banks to create and manage close customer relationships and examine their effects on the banks marketing performance and their competitive advantages. The researcher in this study choose Handen five dimensions and focus on process and information technology as two dimensions of CRM strategy to examine their effects on marketing performance and competitive advantages in the Egyptian banking market. The study has been developed to answer the following questions: 1 Does the implementation of CRM strategy in the organizations subject to the study has a positive impact on their marketing performance 2 Does the implementation of CRM strategy in the organizations subject to the study has a positive impact on their competitive advantages. Theoretical Background and Research Hypotheses: The Need for CRM: Organizations have identified the importance and necessity to become customercentric due to the increased global competition. As a consequence, implementing CRM strategy has become a vital factor for organizations growth and success. Customer relationship management is the key competitive strategy that firms need in order to stay focused on the needs of their customers and to integrate a customerfacing approach throughout the organization (Zadeh et al, 2012). Brown (2000) pointed out that CRM has several advantages some of them are: Reduces advertising costs; Makes it easier to target specific customers by focusing on their needs; Makes it easier to track the effectiveness of a given campaign;

3 Allows organizations to compete for customers based on service, not prices; Prevents overspending on low-value clients or understanding on high-value ones; Speeds the time it takes to develop and market a product( the customer relationship lifecycle); and Improve the use of customer channel thus making the most of each contact with a customer. Concepts and Perspectives In an attempt to summarize the most important concepts of CRM, it can be understood as a business philosophy, a business strategy, a business process, or a technological tool. As a business philosophy Ryals and Knox (2001) stated that " CRM is a relationship orientation, customer retention and superior customer value created through process management ". As a business strategy " CRM is a customer focused business strategy that aims to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty by offering a more responsive and customized services to each customer"( Croteau and Li, 2003). CRM as a business process was defined as " a macro-level (ie. highly aggregated ) process that subsumes numerous sub-processes, such as prospect identification and customer knowledge creation " (Srivastava et al, 1999). As a technology, " CRM is an enabling technology for organizations to foster closer relationships with their customers" (Hsieh, 2009 in Rababah et al 2011). Ku (2010) point out that CRM provides analytical, operational, and direction capabilities : the analytical capabilities enhance profitability maximization from the customer relationship, operational capabilities cut across the customer value process, and direction capabilities depend on strategic skills and reflect the sharpness of long term cooperation and organizational values. A CRM implementation model integrates the three key dimensions of people, process, and technology ( Sin,Tse & Yim, 2004 ; Sigala,2005 ) Kim et al (2003) divided CRM systems into four stages : Customer knowledge, customer interaction, customer satisfaction and customer value. Zablah et al 2004, emphasized five points of view for defining CRM. ( Process, strategy, philosophy, ability and technology ). Brown (2000) defines CRM as the key competitive strategy you need to stay focused on the needs of your customer and to integrate a customer-facing approach throughout your organization. The author presents the strategic customer care five- pillars model to build up a CRM model for enterprises. Handen ( 2000 ) considers five dimensions ( strategy, organization, technology, segmentation and process ). Pepper & Roger (1999) have focused on four steps ( identify, differentiate, interact and customize ( in Lim and Su 2003.) Payne and Fraw (2001) suggest that CRM can be defined from at least three perspectives narrowly and tactically as a particular technology solution, wide-ranging technology, and customer centric. The researcher in this study choose Handen five dimensions and focus on process and information technology as two dimensions of CRM strategy to examine their

4 effects on marketing performance and their competitive advantage in the Egyptian banking market. The study has been developed to answer the following questions: 1 Does the implementation of CRM strategy in the organizations subject to the study has a positive impact on their marketing performance 2 Does the implementation of CRM strategy in the organizations subject to the study has a positive impact on their competitive advantages Process and Information Technology as CRM Dimensions: A central premise of the resource-based view is that firms compete on the basis of their resources and capabilities ( Peteraf and Bergen, 2003). Porter (1991, p.108) points out that resources are not valuable in and of themselves, but because they allow firms to perform activities that create advantages in particular markets. According to resource-based view, organizations put greater emphasis on their ability to use their organizational resources, capabilities to gain a superior competitive advantage that help in achieving the organizational goals. As the use of the term "resource base" implies, the researcher consider capabilities to be resources for the purposes of this study. In order to accomplish the organizational goals, organizations find a way things should be done. Hence CRM processes are the activities the organizations perform related to identifying their customers, managing and maintaining relationships with them.. According to Bull (2003), CRM involves business process change and the introduction of new technology. The objective of CRM process is to form customers' perceptions of an organization and its products through identifying customers, creating customer knowledge, and building customers relationship (Srivastavan, et al 1999; Ragins and Gzeco, 2003). Reinartz et al(2004) argue that customer process encompasses the customer activities performed to satisfy a need or to solve a problem. The authors further have differentiated among three kinds of customeroriented CRM processes; (i)crm delivery processes, (ii) CRM support processes, and (iii) CRM analysis processes. CRM delivery processes are the processes of direct contact with customer and are considered as part of the customer process including campaign management process, sales management process, service management process,and complaint management process. CRM support processes deal with accomplishing supporting purposes through the market research process and loyalty management process while, CRM analysis processes concentrate on combining and analyzing the collected customer knowledge in other CRM processes, including the processes of customer scoring and lead management, customer profiling and segmentation, and feedback and knowledge management.. Anderson et al (2007) state that use of information technology to manage customer relationships has been perceived as a critical dimension of relationship marketing They further argue that there is a need for holistic approach by organizations to integrate IT with its business processes and customer service delivery. CRM information technology is adopted by companies for the specific purpose of building and maintaining better customer relationships. CRM technology has the potential to constitute a sustainable competitive advantage( Bharadwaj et al, 1993 ).

5 CRM technology can foster gathering, analyzing, and interpreting various kinds of customer data in order to enhance the relationship with the customer. Through converting customer information into usable data, CRM can increase the overall performance of a company (Yim et al., 2004; Stein and Smith, 2009 in Kim et al, 2012). Zablah et al (2004) categorize CRM technology by the function it supports (sales, marketing, and service and support), and its functionality: either to help coordinate tasks, automate routine tasks, provide detailed insight, or standardize common tasks and processes. Sandoe et al (2001) argue that advances in database technologies such as data technologies and data mining, are crucial to the functionality and effectiveness of CRM systems. Reichheld and Sasser(1990) adopt similar view and argue that information technology enable enterprises to manage individualized relationships with key customers. The authors further state that the benefits come by way of lower costs of customer retention, improved profitability and lower defection rates. The Relationship between CRM Implementation and Organization's Marketing Performance and Competitive Advantage: Marketing Performance: The purpose of CRM is to efficiently and effectively increase the acquisition and retention of profitable customers by selectively initiating building and maintaining appropriate relationships with them. Using their marketing strategy, organizations deliver values to their customers. They consider capturing values from them in return. (Boulding et al, 2005)point out that the core of CRM is" dual creation of value". Through CRM activities, value is created for both the marketer and the customer. Payne and Frow, 2005 opine that value creation entails discerning what value the organization might offer their customers, ascertaining what value customers provide the firm, and maximizing the lifetime value of the customer. Kale,(2004) defined customer lifetime value as the predicted profitability of a customer during the entire relationship with the company. Payne and Frow.,( 2006) argue that.advances in information technology can assist with the development of improved customer relationships Reinartz et al(2004)summarize recent measurement attempts that relate satisfaction from CRM initiatives to a variety of business performance( Kamakura et al., 2002); customer loyalty to profitability( Reinartz and Kumar,2000);customer profitability heterogeneity(niraj, Gupta andnarasimhan,2000); and customer loyalty programs(verhoef, 2003). Also, Hooley et al (2005) find that CRM capability is an important determinant of superior performance. From the above discussion, the researcher in this study concluded that the better the usage and applicability of an organization's resources and capabilities, the higher the organization's performance. Thus the following hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 1: It is expected that no statistically significant correlation be found between CRM implementation and marketing performance in the organizations subject to the study.

6 This hypothesis leads to the following sub-hypotheses: 1. It is expected that no correlation of statistical significance be found between the processes applied by the banks and their marketing performance. 2. It is expected that no correlation of statistical significance be found between information technology used by the banks and their marketing performance. Competitive Advantage: Achieving a sustainable competitive advantage can help banks to face the fierce competition in the banking sector and to establish a self-sustaining position in the marketplace. Kale (2004) posits that developing and maintaining customer relationships is vital for competitive advantage. Porter(1980) argues that a competitive advantage grows fundamentally out of value a firm is able to create for its buyers that exceeds the firm's cost of creating it. Peteraf (1993) defines competitive advantage as sustained above average returns. Alipour and Mohammadi (2011) state that one of the requirements of competitiveness is the ability of the organizations to adjust themselves with the customer needs quickly. Increasingly competitions make the organizations have more contacts and have relationships with the customers in the world of markets. The authors further clarify that CRM is a strategic process of support, against the competitors, providing value for the buyers and sellers, and gaining excellent benefits. Oliver (1997) combines resource-based and institutional factors in her model of sustainable competitive advantage. From the above discussion, the researcher concluded that the better the usage and applicability of an organization's resources and capabilities, the more sustained its competitive advantages. Thus the following hypothesis is proposed: Hypothesis 2: It is expected that no statistically significant correlation be found between CRM implementation and Competitive advantage in the organizations subject to the study. This hypothesis leads to the following sub-hypotheses: 1. It is expected that no correlation of statistical significance be found between the process applied by the banks and their competitive advantage. 2. It is expected that no correlation of statistical significance be found between information technology used by the banks and their competitive advantage. Research Methodology The research model investigates the effects of implementing process and information technology ( Independent variables ) as dimensions of CRM strategy on organizations' marketing performance and their competitive advantages(dependent variables).the marketing performance represents :sales growth, customer satisfaction, customer retention. Competitive advantages represents lower prices, high quality, differentiation, preemptive..

7 The study sample is a representative sample that consists of 22 banks of a population of 39 banks working in the Arab republic of Egypt. Dealing with a bounded population to determine the number of observations, the researcher draws a simple random sampling that represents 56% of the whole number of banks. The researcher selected a sample of 113 observations. Number of observation of each bank is determined by dividing the number of employees in the bank over the total number of employees of in the sample banks. The sampling unit is represented for supervisors of senior management for banks working in the Arab republic of Egypt. Data Tool Development and Data Collection: A questionnaire was used to collect the data to confirm or refuse the study's hypotheses. The questionnaire was pretested and some modifications to the questionnaire were made in order to clarify the intent of particular questions. There are four parts in the questionnaire in this study: part 1 collects the data of the activities the banks perform that consist their CRM process; part 2 collects the data about the information technology used by the banks subject to the study. Part 3 collects the data about the marketing performances of the banks. Part 4 collects the data about the banks ' competitive advantages. All parts were designed using a fivepoint Likert-type scale ranged from strongly disagree(1) to strongly agree(5). This study has measured the effects of CRM implementation with the two dimensions mentioned on banks marketing performance and their competitive advantage subjectively. Subjective measures ask respondents to assess their banks' marketing performance relative to that of their competitors. The researcher avoided the objective measures for their difficulties and secretiveness. Testing and Results The following table proposes the means of the CRM dimensions (Independent variables), the means of banks' marketing performance and the means of banks' competitive advantages (Dependent variables)as follows:

8 Table 1: Effective Variables and Their Nature Determinant Variables Nature of the Variables Coding Mean Process Independent Xft1-1, Information Technology Independent Xft2-1, Banks' Marketing Dependent Y Performance Banks' Competitive Advantage Dependent Y ** Denote to Pearson Correlation significance at Results of Testing the First Hypothesis of the Study Correlation relationships of customer relation management and the banks' marketing performance. The following table proposes the results of Pearson correlation matrix of the variables of customer relationship management (Independent variables ) and the banks marketing performance ( Dependent variables ) Table 2: Correlation Matrix for Customer Relationship Management and Banks' Marketing Performance Variables Process Information Technology Banks' Marketing Performance Process ** Information Technology ** Banks' Marketing Performance 0.407** ** Denote to Pearson Correlation significance at ** 1

9 Evidence in this study suggests that: A significant correlation is between the process used by the banks and their performance (0.407) Pearson correlation significance at 0.01 and significance < 0.05 which implies significant correlation. Another significant correlation that exists between the information technology used by the banks and their marketing performance.( )-- Pearson correlation significance at ( 0.001) and significance <0.05 which implies significant correlation. Consistent with the above findings, the researcher refuses to accept the first hypothesis and accept the alternative one that accept the correlation between the CRM implementation with the two dimensions mentioned - Process, Informational technology-and the banks marketing performance. Results of Testing the Second Hypothesis of the Study Correlation relationships of customer relation management and the banks' Competitive Advantages. The following table proposes the results of Pearson correlation matrix of the variables of customer relationship management (Independent variables) and the banks competitive advantage (Dependent variables) Table: 3 Correlation Matrix for Customer Relationship Management and Banks' Competitive Advantages Variables Process Information Technology Banks' Competitive Advantages Process ** Information Technology ** Banks' Competitive Advantages 0.492** ** Denote to Pearson Correlation significance at ** 1 Evidence in this study suggests that: A significant correlation exists between the process used by the banks and their competitive advantage (0.492) Pearson correlation significance at 0.01 and significance < 0.05 which implies significant correlation.

10 A key empirical finding in our study which represents one of the most important and highest correlation that exists between the information technology used by the banks and their competitive advantage (0.522) Pearson correlation significance at 0.01 and significance < 0.05 which implies significant correlation. Consistent with the above findings, the researcher refuses to accept the second hypothesis and accept the alternative one that accept the correlation between the CRM implementation with the two dimensions mentioned - Process, Informational technology-and the banks competitive advantages. Discussion and Conclusion: The main focus of this study was to measure the effects of the implementation of CRM as a capability on organizations' performance and their competitive advantages. The findings provide support for the proposed relationships. The findings show that CRM capability contributes to banks' marketing performance and their competitive advantages, findings that are consistent with previous research ( e.g.reinartz et al 2004; Coltman et al 2011;Bridoux 1997; Kim et al, 2012;Slater and Narver, 2000; Day and Van den Buttle,2002; Fahey and Hooley,2002). The study shows positive relationships. The first two positive relationships were between CRM process, and banks marketing performance and between CRM process and banks competitive advantages. Through identifying customers, creating customer knowledge,and building customers relationships. CRM process help to understand how the banks' service operations influence their customers perceptions and behaviors, and consequently how these are related to sales growth, customer acquisition, customer satisfaction, customer retention, and customer lifetime value. Through CRM process banks are able to develop their services based on customer wants, interact with them to detect changes in their preferences, offering low prices, and to create value for them. The second two positive relationships were between CRM information technology and banks' marketing performance and between CRM information technology and banks' competitive advantages. Information technology helped to develop closer relationship with customers and have frequent contacts with them via , sms, etc. By using CRM information technology, banks foster gathering, analyzing, and interpreting various kind of customer data in order to develop the relationship with their customers. Advancements in information technology, data warehousing and data mining capabilities enable enterprises to manage individualized relationships with key customers.(, Reichheld and Sasser, 1990) With currently available technology CRM applications allow the firm to learn about customer preferences in real time, continuously update the firm's knowledge of customer preferences, and analyze customer insights (Sun, 2006). The researcher concludes that process and information technology have been the driving forces of CRM success. Limitations and Research Perspective The objective of the study is to propose a research model about the links between the Customer Relationship Management strategy adopted by the banks subject to the study and their effects on the banks marketing performance and their competitive

11 advantages. However, this model has some limitations that need to be discussed. First, it should be noted that other components could have an effect on the marketing performance and competitive advantage. Second, the focus was solely on the banking industry. Therefore, empirical work should consider alternate industries to ascertain the stability of the findings. Third, the use of managerial perceptions to evaluate the different model variables and the results of CRM implementation could be considered also as a limitation. References: Battor, M and Battor,M(2010),The impact of customer relationship management capability on innovation and performance advantages :testing a mediated model, Journal of Marketing Management Vol 26 No.9 pp Day, G. (2002). Winning the competition for customer relationships. Working paper, Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania. Kale, S. (2004).CRM failure and the seven deadly sins. Marketing Management, 13(5), Hooley, G., Greenley, G.,Gadogan, J., Fahey, J.(2005). The performance impact of marketing resources. Journal of Business Research, 58(1), Verhoef, P.C., Understanding the effect of customer relationship management efforts on customer retention and customer share development. Journal of Marketing. Vol.67, No.4, Oct Payne, Adrian and Frow, Pennie (2005), A strategic Framework for Customer relationship Management, Journal of Marketing, Vol 69, No.4 Oct, pp Payne, Adrian and Frow, Pennie. (2006), Customer Relationship Management: from Strategy to implementation, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol 22,pp Payne, Adrian and Frow, Pennie. (2009), Customer Relationship Management:A strategic perspective. Journal of Business Management. Vol 3 (1) pp:7-27. Sahoo, Debjani (2011), Integrating Customer Relationship Management in Hotel Operations: A Comparative Study, Journal of Management Sep pp Rynals, L. and Knox, S.(2001), Cross-functional issues in the implementation of relationship marketing through customer relationship management, European Management Journal, Vol. 19 No 5, pp Kamakura, W.A., Mittal, V., De Rosa, F. and Mazzon, J.a.(2002) Assessing the service-profit chain. Marketing Science 21(3): Srivastava, Raj, Tassaduq Shervani, and Liam Fahey (1998),Marketing-Based Assets and Shareholder Value: A Framework for Analysis, Journal of Marketing, 62(January), 2-18 Zablah, A.R., Bellenger, D.N.and Johnston, W.J.(2004) An evaluation of divergent perspectives on customer relationship management: Towards a common understanding of an emerging phenomenon. Industrial Marketing Management 33(6): Bitner, M.J.,(1995). Building service relationships :it's all about promises. Journal of the academy of Marketing Science 23(4),

12 Handen,L. (2000). The three Ws of technology. In S.A.Brown(Ed.) Customer relationship management- a strategic imperative in the world of e-business. Toronto: John Wiley and Sons Canada. Brown, S.A. (2000). A case study on CRM and mass customization. In S.A. Brown(Ed), Customer relationship management- a strategicimperative in the world of e-business. Toronto :JohnWiley and Sons Canada. Reichheld, F.F., and Sasser, W.E.(1990) Zero defections: Quality comes to services, Harvard Business Review, 68(5), Croteau, A.M. and Li, P. (2003) Critical Success Factors of CRM Technological Initiatives, Canadian Journal of Administrative Science, 20, Ryals L and Payne A (2001), Customer Relationship Management in Financial Services: Towards Information-Enabled Relationship Marketing, Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol.9, No.4, pp.3-27 Bull, Christopher. (2003). Strategic issues in customer relationship management(crm) implementation, Business Process Management Journal, 9(5): Gartner Group CRM success is in strategy and implementation, not software. [online] URL: Accessed3 March,2003. Srivastava, R.K., Shervani, T.a. and Fahey, L.(1999) Marketing, business process, and shareholder value: An organizationally embedded view of marketing activities and the discipline of marketing. Journal of Marketing 63(4): Reinartz, W., Krafft, M. and Hoyer, W.D.(2004) The customer relationship management process: Its measurement and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing Research 41(3): Rababah,K.,Mohd,H, and Ibrahim,H(2011) Customer relationship management (CRM) processes from theory to practice: The pre-implementation plan of CRM system., -International Journal of e-business, e-management and e- Learning, Vol.1,No.1, April. Porter, M.E.(1980). Competitive strategy, The Free Press, Peteraf, M.A. (1993). The cornerstones of competitive advantage: A resource-based view, Strategic Management Journal, 14, pp Anderson, R.E.,Dubinsky, A.J. and Mehta, R.(2007), personal Selling: Building Customer Relationships and Partnerships, South-western/Cengage Learning, Florence, Ky. Gartner Research (2008), Personal correspondence with Mr Ed Thompson of Gartner Research, Oct 2008, Gartner, Stamford, CT. Boulding, W., Staelin, R., Ehret, M. and Johnston,W.J.(2005), A CRM roadmap: what we know, potential pitfalls, and where to go, Journal of Marketing, Vol 69, Oct, pp Kim, M., Park, J.E, Dubinsky, A.J, Chaiy, S.,(2012) Frequency of CRM implementation activities: a customer-centric view, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 26 (2) pp Yim, F.H.K., Anderson, R.E. and Swaminathan, S.(2004), Customer relationship management: its dimensions and effect on customer outcomes, Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, Vol. 24, pp Reinartz, W and Kumar, V(2000), On the profitability of long lifetime customers: An empirical investigation and implications for marketing Journal of Marketing, 64,

13 Zadeh, A.H,; Teimouri,H; Jafari, S.,(2012) Studying CRM maturity in service organizations in Isfahan province (case study: Sina hospital), Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol 3 No.9., pp Ku, C.S.Edward, (2010), The impact of customer relationship management through implementation of information systems, Total Quality Management, Vol.21, No.11 pp: Lin, Yichen, and Su, Hwan-Yann, (2003).,Strategic analysis of customer relationship management a field study on hotel enterprises, TQM and Business Excellence, Vol. 14, No 6, pp Teo,S.H. Thompson; Devadoss, Paul; and Pan.L.Shan(2006)., Towards a holistic perspective of customer relationship management (CRM) implementation: A case study of the housing and development board, Singapore, Decision Support Systems Vol 42 pp: Sandoe,K.; Corbitt, G., and Boykin, R., Enterprise Integration, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, Porter, Michael, Towards a dynamic theory of strategy, Strategic Management, Journal, Winter 1991, Vol. 12, Oliver, Christine, Sustainable competitive advantage: combining institutional and resource-based views, Strategic Management Journal, 1997, Vol. 18, No.9, pp: Peteraf,Margaret and Bergen, Mark, Scanning dynamic competitive landscape: a market-based and resource- based framework, Strategic Management Journal, 2003, Vol.24, pp: Hsieh, M., A case of managing customer relationship management systems: Empirical insights and lessons learned, International Journal of Information Management,(2009) Vol29, pp Ragins, E.J., and Greco, A.J., Customer relationshipmanagement and E- business: more than a software solution, Review of business,(2003). Vol24, Kim, J.,Suh, E and Hwang,H (2003) A model of evaluating the effectiveness of CRM using the balance scorecard., Journal if Interactive Marketing;available at: Wiley.com Sigala, M., 2005., Integrating customer relationship management (CRM) evaluation: Diffusing CRM benefits into business process. In 12th European conference of information Systems, Turku, Finland, Association of information Systems e- Library, pp Stein, A. and Smith, M. (2009), CRM systems and organizational learning: an exploration of the relationship between CRM effectiveness and the customer information orientation of the firm in industrial markets, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol, 38, pp Yim, F.H.K., Anderson, R.E.and Swaminathan, S.(2004), Customer relationship management: an explication of its domain and avenues for further inquiry, in Kim, Molan et al (2012)Journal of Services Marketing. Vol 26. Ramaseshan, B., Bejou, D., Jain, S.C., Mason, C., Pancras, J., Issues and perspectives in Global Customer Relationship Management Journal of Service Research, 9, (2), pp Sun,.B (2006) Invited commentary: Technologyinnovation and implications for customerrelationship management. Marketing Science, 25(6),

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