U.S. Labour Supply: Recruiting U.S. Workers Construction Sector

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1 U.S. Labour Supply: Recruiting U.S. Workers Construction Sector Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education Report Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 1

2 About the Study Alberta Enterprise and Advanced Education completed a comprehensive research study of the labour supply in select occupations in the United States (U.S.), including a number of professions related to the construction sector. The objective of the study is to provide labour market intelligence that will inform Alberta employers as they seek to address current and future labour shortages. This recruiting guide identifies the top recommended locations for targeted recruitment of workers in the selected construction occupations. The construction occupations reviewed in the study were jointly identified by Enterprise and Advanced Education and the Construction Sector Council as those that are in critical shortage (or under pressure ) in Alberta. The study analyzed the supply of workers in 283 metropolitan areas, collecting information on the number of workers employed in selected occupations, workers wages, demographics, historical mobility patterns, and other factors that influence the probability of migrating in the future. The study is informed by an analysis of data from the American Community Survey (ACS), the largest survey in the United States, as well as other data sources supplied by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau. The use of micro-data from the ACS allows for in-depth analysis of mobility patterns, earnings, and demographic characteristics of workers in each occupation at both the national and local levels. The study makes recommendations on places that can be targeted for worker attraction. These recommendations are based on both the number of workers employed in target occupations and a recruitment score of the workers (an index score that indicates how likely workers are to relocate to Alberta, based on multiple factors) in each location. The recruitment score is based upon three factors that influence recruiting success: (1) the historical mobility patterns of workers 1, (2) the median income of workers in the occupation (workers who stand to earn substantially higher wages in Alberta are more likely to migrate 2 ), and (3) the demographic characteristics of the local pool of workers. 3 1 This variable is based on the percentage of workers in an occupation that are leaving a particular local area (i.e. out of all construction managers in Houston, what percentage is leaving the area?) In the study, this measure is referred to as emigration share. 2 Wage comparisons throughout the report are made using wages reported in the American Community Survey and the Alberta Wage and Salary Survey. The currency conversion rate used is $1 CAD = $ USD (the monthly weighted average for 2011). It should be noted that the wage comparisons in the report highlight differences in income, but do not reflect differences in cost of living between Alberta and U.S. metro locations. 3 Demographic characteristics are a good predictor of an individual s likelihood to migrate. Our analysis found, for instance, that renters are more likely to emigrate than people who own their homes and single people are more likely to move than those who are married. These and other characteristics are evaluated in the study to identify what might be described as an ideal migrant profile. The emigration probability measures how closely the population of workers in a particular city and occupation matches the ideal profile. For instance, are the mechanical engineers working in Phoenix the sort of people who are likely to relocate out of the area? Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 2

3 Key Findings There are 46 target construction-related occupations (some that are indirectly related to the sector) that have been studied in depth. These occupations include a set of professional and technical occupations related to the construction industry, as well as many trades occupations and supervisory workers in those trades. Table 1 Snapshot: Construction Labour Supply and Growth Rate in the United States Construction Industry as a Percentage of National Employment Avg. Annual Growth Rate ( ) Avg. Annual Growth Rate ( ) Estimated Workers in 46 Construction -Related Occupations Reviewed (2010) 5.53% 5.71% 4.32% 3.8% -6.9% 11,858,820 Sources: Share of employment and growth rate figures based on OES database, Bureau of Labour Statistics (figures from November 2003, May 2007 and May 2011); Analysis by RDA Global. Note that not all workers in the construction sector are employed in an occupation studied in this report, and not all workers in the occupations studied for this report are employed directly in the construction sector. Figure 1 Percentage of Construction Workers Making a Long-Distance Move % 2.2% 2.2% 2.0% 1.7% 1.9% 1.9% 1.7% 1.8% 1.5% 1.4% 1.4% 1.0% 0.5% 0.0% Source: American Community Survey. Note: Long-Distance moves are defined as inter-state moves between non-contiguous U.S. states. Figures reflect 46 construction sector occupations. In the United States, there are nearly 14 million workers employed in the construction occupations under pressure. As U.S. employment in the construction sector has declined, unemployment has risen inversely, and was 15 per cent as of April, Many workers in construction occupations are now employed in industries outside the construction sector (e.g. oil and gas mining, maintenance services, etc). Experienced construction-related workers in the U.S. currently experiencing extended periods of 4 Source: Bureau of Labour Statistics, Industries at a Glance, Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 3

4 unemployment may be attracted to Alberta by both the prospects for work, and the opportunity to earn higher wages (See Figure 2 for a comparison of Alberta wages to those of U.S. workers.) A long-distance migration rate for construction workers coincides with the U.S. economic cycle. When the construction sector is growing there are more jobs available than there are workers for fill vacant positions. This promotes high mobility in the labour force. As the U.S. economy and construction sector contracted, mobility rates have fallen. If historical patterns hold, mobility in the construction sector will increase when the number of jobs available increase. Figure 2 Average Annual Salary of Alberta Workers, 2011 (Expressed as percentage of the average salary for U.S. workers in similar occupations) Heavy equipment operators (except crane) 113% Welders and related machine operators Ironworkers Refrigeration and air conditioning mechanics 81% 81% 87% Insulators Bricklayers Floor covering installers Other trades helpers and labourers Construction trades helpers and labourers Crane operators Transport truck drivers Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Plumbers, and Steamfitters, pipefitters and Residential and commercial installers and servicers Plasterers, drywall installers and finishers and lathers Roofers and Shinglers Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians Heavy-Duty Equipment Mechanics Industrial Electricians Sheet metal workers 69% 66% 64% 63% 61% 59% 56% 56% 55% 52% 50% 48% 48% 48% 46% 45% Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, OES database; 2011 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey; Analysis by RDA Global. Alberta workers are currently paid wages that are much higher than those of U.S. workers in similar occupations in most of the construction-related occupations under pressure. Heavy equipment operators in Alberta have average annual salaries that are more than twice that of their U.S. counterparts. Figure 2 shows the percentage by which average annual salaries in Alberta exceed that of U.S. workers in similar Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 4

5 occupations, for the top 20 construction-related occupations. There are three occupations for which average annual wages for workers in Alberta are lower than the average for U.S. workers in similar occupations: contractors and supervisors, carpentry trades, construction managers and home building and renovation managers, and financial auditors and accountants. National Worker Estimates Table 2 contains an estimate of the number of workers employed in each relevant construction or related occupation in the U.S. Table 2 Labour Supply in the U.S. by Occupation (2010) Listing by Canadian National Occupation Classification (NOC) Code and Similar U.S. Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System NOC Code NOC Description Construction Managers Home Building and Renovation Managers Financial Auditors and Accountants SOC Code 1225 Purchasing Agents and Officers SOC Description U.S. Employme nt Construction Managers 195, Accountants and Auditors 1,085,150 Agents, Purchasing, except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products 274, Civil Engineers Civil Engineers 254, Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Technologists and Technicians Civil Engineering Technicians 71, Mechanical Engineering Technicians 44, Industrial Engineering Technicians 63, Construction Estimators Cost Estimators 187, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technologists and Technicians Industrial Instrument Technicians and Mechanics Architectural Technologists and Technicians Inspectors in Public and Environmental Health and Occupational Health and Safety Contractors and Supervisors, Machining, Metal Forming, Shaping and Erecting Trades and Related Occupations , , Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technicians Electrical and Electronics Repairers, Commercial and Industrial Equipment, Industrial Machinery Mechanics, Maintenance Workers, Machinery 150, , Architectural Drafters 85, , , , , , Occupational Health and Safety Specialists and Technicians, Occupational Health and Safety Technicians First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers,, First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades Workers, Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers, Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Machine Setters, Operators, and Tenders, Structural Iron and Steel Workers 69,040 1,432,740 Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 5

6 Contractors and Supervisors, Electrical Trades and Telecommunications Occupations Contractors and Supervisors, Pipefitting Trades Contractors and Supervisors, Carpentry Trades Contractors and Supervisors, other Construction Trades, Installers, Repairers and Servicers , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades Workers, First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers, Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers, Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers, First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades Workers, Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Carpentry Managers, First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers, Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, and Tapers, Plasterers and Stucco Masons, Roofers, Construction Painters, Paperhangers, Brickmasons and Blockmasons, Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers, Pest Control Workers 1,692, , ,830 1,103, Sheet Metal Workers Sheet Metal Workers 130, Boilermakers Boilermakers 18, Ironworkers Welders and related Machine Operators Electricians (except Industrial and Power System) , Industrial Electricians Electrical Power Line and Cable Workers Plumbers, and Steamfitters, Pipefitters and Sprinkler System Installers Reinforcing Iron and Rebar Workers, Structural Iron and Steel Workers Welders, Cutters, Solderers, and Brazers 72, , Electricians 512, Industrial Equipment Electrical and Electronics Repairers Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers 67, , Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters 349, Carpenters Carpenters 578, Bricklayers Brickmasons and Blockmasons 62, Concrete Finishers Cement Masons and Concrete Finishers 135, Plasterers, Drywall Installers and Finishers and Lathers , Plasterers, Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers 98, Roofers and Shinglers Roofers 95, Insulators 7294 Painters and Decorators (Except Interior) 7295 Floor Covering Installers , , , , , Insulation Workers, Floor, Ceiling, and Wall, Insulation Workers, Mechanical 52,770 Construction Painters, Paperhangers 189,050 Carpet Installers, Floor Layers, Except Carpet, Wood, and Hard Tiles, Floor Sanders and Finishers, Ceramic Tile Installers 67, Contractors and Supervisors, , First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, 1,259,880 Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 6

7 Mechanic Trades , , Contractors and Supervisors, Heavy Equipment Operator Crews Construction Millwrights and Industrial Mechanics (Except Textile) Heavy-Duty Equipment Mechanics Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanics , , , , Installers, and Repairers, Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics, Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers, Elevator Installers and Repairers First-Line Supervisors of Material- Moving Machine Operators, First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Millwrights, Industrial Machinery Mechanics Construction Equipment Mechanics, Farm Equipment Mechanics, Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers 658, , , , Crane Operators Crane and Tower Operators 41, Residential and Commercial Installers and Servicers 7511 Transport Truck Drivers Heavy Equipment Operators (Except Crane) Construction Trades Helpers and Labourers Other Trades Helpers and Labourers , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , Construction and Related Workers, All Other, Fence Erectors, Home Appliance Repairers, Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers, Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Conveyor Operators, Excavating and Loading Machine and Dragline Operators, Hoist and Winch Operators, Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators, Pile-Driver Operators, Operating Engineers and Other Construction Equipment Operators Helpers--Brickmasons, Blockmasons, Stonemasons, and Tile and Marble Setters, Helpers--Carpenters, Helpers-- Electricians, Helpers--Painters, Paperhangers, Plasterers, and Stucco Masons, Helpers--Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters, Helpers-- Roofers, Helpers, Construction Trades, All Other Helpers--Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 217,750 2,011, , , ,820 Total 11,858,820 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics Database; analysis by RDA Global. Note: Some U.S. SOC occupation categories are associated with more than one Canadian NOC occupation. For instance, U.S. SOC statistics track First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades Workers. Some workers in this SOC category are aligned with the NOC category Contractors and Supervisors, Electrical Trades and Telecommunications Occupations while others are aligned with the NOC category Contractors and Supervisors, Pipefitting Trades The reported total number of workers in the target occupations does not match the sum of workers in individual occupations because duplicates have been removed. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 7

8 United States Mobility Levels by Occupation Table 3 Average Annual Number of Workers who are Movers and Long-Distance Movers, NOC Occupation Construction Managers Home Building and Renovation Managers Workers 2010 Movers Total Movers Long Distance Movers* Share of Workers Total Movers Long Distance Movers 195,000 22,894 2,860 12% 1.50% 1111 Financial Auditors and Accountants 1,085, ,563 19,078 12% 1.80% 1225 Purchasing Agents and Officers 274,540 30,014 4,018 11% 1.50% 2131 Civil Engineers 254,130 36,349 7,717 14% 3.00% Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Technologists and Technicians 71,890 8,909 1,318 12% 1.80% 44,760 5, % 1.80% 63,030 7,811 1,155 12% 1.80% 2234 Construction Estimators 187,730 21,763 2,133 12% 1.10% Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technologists and Technicians Industrial Instrument Technicians and Mechanics Architectural Technologists and Technicians Inspectors in Public and Environmental Health and Occupational Health and Safety Contractors and Supervisors, Machining, Metal Forming, Shaping and Erecting Trades and Related Occupations Contractors and Supervisors, Electrical Trades and Telecommunications Occupations Contractors and Supervisors, Pipefitting Trades Contractors and Supervisors, Carpentry Trades Contractors and Supervisors, other Construction Trades, Installers, Repairers and Servicers 150,020 18,592 2,749 12% 1.80% 437, ,517 36,260 24% 8.30% 85,740 11,264 1,304 13% 1.50% 69,040 10,093 1,832 15% 2.70% 1,432, ,100 12,201 11% 0.90% 1,692, ,452 29,898 16% 1.80% 852, ,369 10,955 15% 1.30% 654,830 86,101 9,593 13% 1.50% 1,103, ,357 20,158 18% 1.80% 7233 Sheet Metal Workers 130,670 20,048 1,741 15% 1.30% 7234 Boilermakers 18,850 2, % 1.80% 7236 Ironworkers 72,650 13,586 1,406 19% 1.90% 7237 Welders and Related Machine Operators 316,290 54,051 5,420 17% 1.70% 7241 Electricians (except Industrial and Power System) 512,290 79,415 9,159 16% 1.80% 7242 Industrial Electricians 67,220 16,359 5,569 24% 8.30% Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 8

9 NOC Occupation Workers 2010 Movers Total Movers Long Distance Movers* Share of Workers Total Movers Long Distance Movers 7244 Electrical Power Line and Cable Workers 105,570 14,722 1,573 14% 1.50% Plumbers and Steamfitters, Pipefitters and Sprinkler System Installers 349,320 52,587 4,488 15% 1.30% 7271 Carpenters 578, ,684 12,098 18% 2.10% 7281 Bricklayers 62,560 11,719 1,383 19% 2.20% 7282 Concrete Finishers 135,330 26,696 2,388 20% 1.80% 7284 Plasterers, Drywall Installers and Finishers and Lathers 173,850 40,607 5,713 23% 3.30% 7291 Roofers and Shinglers 95,840 24,568 3,192 26% 3.30% 7293 Insulators 52,770 9, % 1.40% 7294 Painters and Decorators (Except Interior) 189,050 36,047 4,314 19% 2.30% 7295 Floor Covering Installers 67,930 13,835 1,407 20% 2.10% Contractors and Supervisors, Mechanic Trades Contractors and Supervisors, Heavy Equipment Operator Crews Construction Millwrights and Industrial Mechanics (Except Textile) 1,259, ,258 24,774 12% 2.00% 857, ,138 10,661 14% 1.20% 330,200 35,917 3,636 11% 1.10% 7312 Heavy-Duty Equipment Mechanics 364,850 48,134 6,812 13% 1.90% 7313 Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanics 231,160 35,404 2,890 15% 1.30% 7371 Crane Operators 41,070 5, % 1.60% 7441 Residential and Commercial Installers and Servicers 217,750 38,328 4,592 18% 2.10% 7511 Transport Truck Drivers 2,011, ,072 24,670 14% 1.20% Heavy Equipment Operators (Except Crane) Construction Trades Helpers and Labourers 481,410 66,869 5,791 14% 1.20% 226,170 45,648 6,302 20% 2.80% 7612 Other Trades Helpers and Labourers 122,820 25,699 3,009 21% 2.40% Total 11,858,820 1,780, ,581 15% 1.80% Worker totals are less than the sum of workers for individual occupations. U.S. workers in some occupations are counted for in more than one NOC occupation. Duplicates have been removed in the totals. *Long-Distance Movers are defined as workers who make an inter-state move to a non-contiguous U.S. State. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics Database; analysis by RDA Global. Industrial electricians and industrial instrument technicians and mechanics are the most mobile workers in the construction-related occupations under pressure. On average, 8 per cent of these workers were interstate movers (or long-distance movers) annually between 2005 and 2010, while almost a quarter of these workers (24 per cent) made some type of move (local, intra-state, or to a neighboring state) each year. Roofers, shinglers, plasterers and drywall installation workers have the next highest rate of long-distance mobility among construction-related occupations at 3.3 per cent per year. Roofers and shinglers have slightly higher total mobility with 26 per cent of workers having moved in recent years, while 23 per cent of Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 9

10 plasterers and drywall installation workers were migrants between 2005 and While overall mobility of U.S. construction workers has declined in previous years, workers in these occupations have some of the highest rates of long-distance migration of all the occupations studied for this analysis. Top Locations for Recruiting This guide reviews the top few recommended cities for each occupation. There are 16 cities that are recommended as one of the top three recruiting locations for two or more of the construction-related occupations under pressure (see Figure 3). Houston/Galveston (near Houston), Dallas-Fort Worth, and Phoenix offer some of the best recruiting potential for construction workers. The area around Seattle- Tacoma as well as the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area would also be good locations for recruiting workers. Figure 3 Best Locations for Recruiting in Construction Related Occupations (Number of occupations for which each city is in the top three recommended locations to recruit) Houston, TX 26 Dallas-Fort Worth, TX 23 Galveston, TX 16 Phoenix, AZ 13 West Palm Beach, FL Tacoma, WA 8 8 Fort Lauderdale, FL Miami, FL 6 6 Austin, TX Atlanta, GA 4 4 Seattle, WA Los Angeles, CA 3 3 Milwaukee, WI San Diego, CA Norfolk, VA Yolo, CA Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Employment Statistics Database; analysis by RDA Global. The best places to recruit differ somewhat for individual occupations. The following section outlines the best locations to recruit for each of the 46 target occupations. See Table 4 at the end of this section for a summary of the number of workers and average wages in the top-recommended cities. Construction Managers and Home Building and Renovation Managers Construction Managers and Home Building and Renovation Managers are closely aligned with a single U.S. SOC code, titled Construction Managers. The top ranked recruiting location for these two occupations is the Miami-Ft. Lauderdale area, which has over 3,700 workers in the combined metro area. Both cities have relatively high recruitment scores (1.19 and 1.18, respectively) and relatively high unemployment (9.3 per cent). Dallas-Fort Worth has the largest labour force among the top recommended cities however with a low recruitment score and low unemployment in the area, employers Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 10

11 may face challenges finding workers willing to relocate to Alberta. RDA Global recommends a recruiting strategy that focuses on the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area, but which also considers recruiting in Austin and San Antonio. Both of these Texas cities have relatively high recruitment scores and over 2,000 workers. Home building and renovation managers are paid approximately 10 per cent less in the U.S. than in Alberta, and may be likely to relocate based on a desire for more income. Annual salaries for construction managers are higher in the U.S. than in Alberta, so employers may be challenged to locate workers in that occupation. Effective strategies may include focusing on markets where workers earn lower average salaries, such as Oklahoma City, Nashville, Austin or San Antonio. Financial Auditors and Accountants Phoenix ranks at the top of the list based on a moderately high recruitment score and a moderately large labour force. The area around Seattle-Tacoma may also be a good recruiting location based on the size of the labour force and a relatively high recruitment score. Recruiting in Orlando and Miami may also have good results. Orlando has a labour force of over 9,000 workers and a fairly high recruitment score (1.24). Conversely, Miami has a sizeable labour force with over 24,000 workers however the recruitment score is fairly low at just Gainesville has the highest recruitment score and average salaries in the city are the lowest among top ranked cities. While the labour force is the smallest among recommended cities, there are more than 1,000 workers in the area, which may lead to some emigration. RDA Global recommends recruiting efforts that focus on cities in the Western U.S., where workers may be more receptive to relocating to Alberta. Phoenix, the area around Seattle-Tacoma and possibly Las Vegas or Dallas-Fort Worth may be the best locations for employers to recruit, provided they are able to meet the salary expectations of workers in those cities. Accountants and auditors in the U.S. have average annual salaries that are slightly higher than the average for accountants in Alberta. As a result, employers may wish to consider recruiting strategies focused not only on cities with a large labour force or a high recruitment score, but also on cities where workers have lower wages in order to attract workers to relocate to Alberta for financial reasons. Purchasing Agents and Officers Los Angeles (LA) is the highest recommended city for purchasing agents and officers. The city has a low recruitment score, but the score is offset by the high number of available workers and high unemployment (11 per cent). Tacoma may also be a good recruiting location based on its sizeable labour force and a moderate recruitment score (0.78). A comparison of labour force demographics reveals that there are few non-u.s. citizens in the Tacoma labour force, and only about 15 per cent are under age 35. The Houston- Galveston area should be considered a good recruiting location. With more than 6,000 workers in the metro area, there is a strong potential for locating workers there. Jamestown, the Yolo-Sacramento area and Oklahoma City have strong recruitment scores, although a smaller labour force of available workers. Employers seeking to find a small number of workers may consider those locations in their recruiting efforts, and workers in all three areas have average annual salaries that are below the average in Alberta. RDA Global recommends a recruiting strategy focused on the large labour markets in LA, Seattle-Tacoma and the Houston-Galveston area. Civil Engineers Civil Engineers have the largest U.S. labour force in this occupational group, with 254,000 workers. Employers are advised to consider recruiting in the Seattle-Tacoma area where there is a large labour force of nearly 7,000 civil engineers. Tacoma has a relatively young and mobile group of civil engineers, with approximately 39 per cent of workers under age 35 and 10 per cent who are long-distance movers. In addition while Seattle-Tacoma has a mean income that is above the U.S. average ($85,000 CAD), it is lower than the Alberta mean annual salary ($88,000 CAD). The prospect of higher wages may encourage Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 11

12 some workers to emigrate. The Ft. Lauderdale-West Palm Beach area is another location that may be good for recruiting civil engineers. With approximately 4,000 workers, and relatively high unemployment some workers in the area may consider relocating to Alberta. Recruitment scores are generally low for civil engineers, so we recommend recruiting in the larger markets of Seattle-Tacoma and Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach in order to find workers who may be facing extended periods of unemployment, or who earn below-average wages and are more willing to relocate to find work or earn higher wages. Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians In the U.S., there are nearly 72,000 civil engineering technologists and technicians. The top recommended locations for recruiting workers are Austin, Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, Seattle and Dallas-Fort Worth. Austin leads the top-ranked cities with over 1,200 workers and a favourable recruitment score of More than a quarter of workers there are under age 35, and slightly more than that are renters. In addition, wages are about 34 per cent lower in Austin than for workers in Alberta. Miami-Ft. Lauderdale has more than 1,000 workers, and a may be a good possibility for recruitment, due to currently high unemployment in the area (9.3 per cent). Seattle has slightly fewer than 1,000 workers and 28 per cent are young workers who are renters, indicating it may have good potential for recruiting. Dallas-Fort Worth has the most workers among the top-four recommended locations for this occupation and average salaries are 38% lower than Alberta. The mean salary in this field is $71,000 CAD in Alberta and $48,000 CAD in the U.S. Of the recommended cities, Dallas has the lowest salary, followed by Austin, Miami and Seattle. RDA Global recommends recruiting in these locations. Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians Boise City is the top recommended city for this occupation in the U.S. The city is home to over 500 mechanical engineering technologists and technicians and almost 40 per cent of its workers are under 35, and 20 per cent of workers in the area are renters. The average annual salary in Boise City is less than the U.S. average of $52,000 CAD. Milwaukee also has a favourable recruitment score (1.18) and nearly 600 workers. Seven per cent of workers in Milwaukee are non-u.s. citizens and the city has more than 30 per cent of workers that are under age 35, and who are renters. Dallas-Ft. Worth has a much larger labour force, with over 1,200 workers, but a lower recruitment score of The average salary in Alberta in this field is $81,000 CAD, while in the U.S. the average salary is 34 per cent lower at $52,000 CAD. Employers are likely to find workers willing to relocate for higher wages in many U.S. cities. RDA Global recommends recruiting in any of the top five ranked locations, all of which have a high recruitment score or a large labour force. Industrial Engineering and Manufacturing Technologists and Technicians Phoenix has by far the largest recommended U.S. labour force with 2,370 workers, however the recruitment scores are lower than some other recommended cities for this occupation, at just 34, indicating a relatively low likelihood of migration. Milwaukee is a recommended location, based on positive factors that indicate workers are likely to migrate. The pool of workers is smaller with just over 600 workers, 34 per cent of which are young and 32 per cent of them are renters. Dallas-Ft. Worth is another recommended location for this field with almost 1,500 workers in the metro area however the recruitment score is similar to that of Phoenix. The mean annual salary for workers in Alberta is $67,000 CAD and is higher than the average salary for workers in all of the top recommended U.S. cities. In this occupation, the U.S. average salary is $51,000 Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 12

13 CAD. We recommend recruiting in the top three recommended cities Phoenix, Milwaukee and Dallas- Fort Worth. Construction Estimators Seattle-Tacoma leads the top-ranked cities for this occupation and there are more than 3,000 workers in the area. The recruitment potential is relatively high, with a recruitment score of 1.24 while about a quarter of workers are under age 35, and are renters. Los Angeles has the largest labour force among recommended U.S. cities with over 7,000 workers however the recruitment score for workers in LA is lower, indicating many workers may be less likely to migrate. Phoenix has over 2,700 workers and Orlando has over 1,400 workers; both cities have moderate to high recruitment scores, indicating workers may be slightly more likely to relocate. In the U.S. construction estimators make an average salary of $62,000 CAD, while the average for workers in Alberta in this occupation is $74,000 CAD. This 16 per cent differential may be an attractive option compelling many U.S. workers to relocate. Recruiting is recommended in the Seattle-Tacoma area as well as LA and Phoenix. Electrical and Electronics Engineering Technologists and Technicians In this occupation, there are over 150,000 workers in the U.S., with 2,500 or more workers in each of the top five locations for recruiting. Austin is the top recommendation for this occupation with 3,250 workers and a recruitment score of 0.63, indicating a moderate potential for migration. Workers in Austin are young (25 per cent under age 35) and many are renters (27 per cent). The average wage in Austin is also lower than both the U.S. average and the Alberta average. Dallas-Ft Worth has a large labour force with over 5,000 workers in the area, although with a low recruitment score (0.30), many workers there may be unwilling to consider relocation. San Diego, Portland and Phoenix all have around 3,000 workers and moderate to low recruitment scores. The primary attraction for these cities lies in the sizeable labour force present in each location. The average salary for this occupation in Alberta is $70,000 CAD while workers in the U.S. have an average salary of $56,600 CAD. Recruiting in the top five ranked locations is recommended in order to locate the greatest number of qualified workers. Some workers will likely be attracted by the opportunity to earn higher wages. Industrial Instrument Technicians and Mechanics Industrial instrument technicians and mechanics is the largest occupation within this occupational group, with 438,000 workers. Recruitment potential seems favourable in the U.S. for this occupation. Many cities have a sizeable labour force as well as recruitment scores over 1.0. As a group, workers in this field are young (35 per cent are under age 35) and many are also renters. The top recommended location for this occupation is Galveston, located near Houston. The labour force is by far the largest in the U.S., with nearly 16,000 workers in Galveston and they also have the highest recruiting score of any recommended U.S. city at Miami-Ft. Lauderdale may also be a good location for recruiting. There are over 5,000 workers in the area, and the area has a good recruitment score of Norfolk has nearly 3,000 workers, a recruitment score of 1.70 and is the third ranked recruiting location for this occupation. The average U.S. salary for workers is approximately $47,000 CAD, while in Alberta the average salary for workers is $74,471 CAD. Employers may locate workers interested in earning higher wages in most U.S. cities, but we recommend recruiting in Galveston, the Miami-Fort Lauderdale area and Norfolk. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 13

14 Architectural Technologists and Technicians, Drafting Technologists and Technicians The U.S. labour force for architectural technologists and technicians includes more than 85,000 workers. Approximately 30 per cent of these are young workers and a large share of them rent their homes, both characteristics that are common to migrants. The Seattle-Tacoma area and Phoenix are very similar in the demographic profile that may indicate possible migrant workers. Both cities have over 1,000 workers and relatively high recruitment scores (1.07 in Tacoma and Phoenix, and 0.64 in Seattle), indicating workers there may be potential migrants. The Yolo County area in California (adjacent to Sacramento) has 850 workers in this occupation, which is the top-ranked area with a recruitment score of 1.68, indicating that workers may be willing to relocate. Los Angeles also has a large number of workers, but workers there are less likely to relocate with a 0.18 recruitment score. Architectural technologists and technicians in the U.S. have average annual salaries of almost $50,000 CAD, while the average for workers in Alberta is $58,000 CAD. Salaries in the top-recommended areas are similar to those of workers in Alberta. Recruiting is recommended in the Seattle-Tacoma and the Phoenix and Sacramento-Yolo areas, provided employers are able to meet workers salary expectations. Inspectors in Public and Environmental Health and Occupational Health and Safety This profession has relatively few workers (69,000) in the U.S. in comparison with other occupations in this occupational group. The largest labour force among recommended cities is in Houston. Houston is the top recommendation for this occupation, with 2,900 workers. While the area does not have the highest recruitment score (0.43), recruiting may be effective because of the number of workers. Beaumont is 137 km away and may also add some workers to the recruitment pool. Workers in Beaumont may be more likely to relocate than workers in Houston. The recruitment score for the Beaumont area is 1.06, however there are only 300 workers in the city. Kansas City has almost 400 workers who may be likely to migrate, and it is the second-ranked city in this occupation. The city has the highest recruitment score among recommended cities, at Norfolk and Denver are very similar, in both labour force size and recruitment score and may be good recruiting locations. Norfolk has 630 workers and a recruitment score of 0.67, while Denver has 540 workers and a recruitment score of The U.S. weighted average salary in this occupation is approximately $65,000 CAD, while the Alberta mean salary is $72,000 CAD. Some workers may be attracted by the prospect of earning higher wages. RDA Global recommends recruiting in the Houston and Beaumont area, as well as Kansas City, Denver and Norfolk. Contractors and Supervisors, Machining, Metal Forming, Shaping and Erecting Trades and Related Occupations In the U.S., there are approximately 1.4 million workers in this occupation, and the largest labour force is in the Houston-Galveston area with more than 60,000 workers. Workers in Houston have average annual salaries that are approximately 28 per cent lower than workers in Alberta. With a large labour force that may be able to increase their earnings, Alberta employers are likely to find workers in Houston willing to relocate. Phoenix and West Palm Beach have around 20,000 workers in each location, making them attractive recruiting locations. These areas also have higher recruitment scores than Houston, making them attractive locations as well. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 14

15 The weighted average U.S. salary for workers in supervisory occupations is approximately $60,000 CAD, while trades workers have weighted average salaries of around $40,000 CAD. The average salary in Alberta for this occupation is more than $76,000 CAD. RDA Global recommends recruiting in the large labour markets of Houston, Phoenix and West Palm Beach. Contractors and Supervisors, Electrical Trades and Telecommunications Occupations In the U.S., there are almost 1.7 million workers in this occupation, and there are seven cities in the top 20 recommended recruiting locations with a labour force of approximately 20,000 workers or more: Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, the area around Miami-West Palm Beach-Fort Lauderdale, Seattle and Phoenix. Of those locations, workers in Houston have the highest recruitment score (0.98), followed by Miami-West Palm Beach (both with 0.78). Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth have similar migration demographic profiles. Both cities have around 50 per cent of workers under the age of 35, and around 40 per cent of workers are renters, while 15 per cent are non-u.s. citizens. Average salaries of workers in Dallas-Fort Worth are slightly lower than in Houston, which could make it a more attractive recruiting location. The average salary for this occupation in Alberta is $88,210 CAD, while in the U.S. it is approximately $55,000 CAD for trade workers and approximately $61,000 CAD for supervisory workers. Recruiting is recommended in larger labour markets such as Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth, Miami-West Palm Beach- Fort Lauderdale and Phoenix. Contractors and Supervisors, Pipefitting Trades The total size of the U.S. labour force in this occupation is almost 853,000 workers. Dallas-Ft Worth and the Houston-Galveston area are the top recommendations, and both areas have more than 15,000 workers as well as relatively high recruitment scores. A third recommendation for this occupation is in LA, which is home to over 12,000 workers. Recruitment scores are slightly lower in LA, at just The average U.S. salary for workers in supervisory occupations in the U.S. is almost $64,000 CAD, while trade workers make approximately $51,000 CAD per year. The average salary for workers in Alberta is $82,000 CAD. Employers are likely to find workers in the U.S. who are willing to relocate for the opportunity to earn higher wages. In addition, the demographic characteristics that are common to migrants are not largely different from one city to another for workers in this occupation. As a result, we recommend recruiting in the large labour markets of Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston-Galveston and LA. Contractors and Supervisors, Carpentry Trades This occupation has more than 650,000 workers in the U.S. and the area around Houston-Galveston has over 25,000 workers with favourable migration demographic profiles; 47 per cent of workers are younger than 35 and almost half of workers are renters. Dallas-Fort Worth has nearly 21,000 workers and a similar demographic profile. No other top-ranked U.S. city has a labour force that exceeds 10,000 workers. The weighted U.S. average salary for this occupation is $73,000 CAD, while the Alberta average salary is $75,000 CAD. Due to this small difference in wages, we recommend recruiting efforts that consider areas where wages are lower than in Alberta; however employers may have some success recruiting in the larger markets of Houston-Galveston and Dallas-Fort Worth. Contractors and Supervisors, Other Construction Trades, Installers, Repairers and Servicers This broad category hosts 1.1 million workers in similar occupations in the U.S., and Phoenix is the top recommended recruiting location, with nearly 21,000 workers. Demographic factors that indicate the presence of potential migrants are favourable in Phoenix, where 50 per cent of workers are under age 35, Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 15

16 57 per cent of workers are renters and 48 per cent are non-u.s. citizens. Omaha is the second-ranked city in this occupation. The worker pool is considerably smaller than Phoenix, with less than 5,000 workers; however the city has one of the highest recruitment scores among recommended recruiting locations due to a large share of renters (89 per cent), and non U.S. citizens (81 per cent) in the labour force. Other top-ranked cities with a large pool of workers include Houston (34,000 workers), Dallas-Fort Worth (28,000 workers), as well as Denver and San Diego, both of which have around 13,000 workers. The weighted average salary for U.S. workers in similar occupations is approximately $49,000 CAD, while workers in Alberta earn over $66,000 CAD per year and average wages are lower than the U.S. average in several of the top-recommended cities. Recruiting is recommended in the large labour markets such as Phoenix, Houston, Denver and Dallas-Fort Worth. Employers are likely to find workers willing to relocate to earn higher wages in these locations. Sheet Metal Workers The three highest ranked U.S. cities for recruiting sheet metal workers have a recruitment score that is about double the score of the fourth-ranked city. Phoenix has the highest recruitment score of the three cities (1.38), but the smallest labour force of under 3,000 workers. Phoenix also has the largest share of workers under age 35 (42 per cent), and the largest share of workers who are renters (51 per cent), among the three cities. Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston have slightly lower recruitment scores (0.78 and.070, respectively), but have larger sized labour forces of over 3,000 workers. LA and Atlanta may also be favourable recruiting locations. Both cities have more than 2,000 workers in the labour force, but the recruitment scores are about half that of Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston. Other cities that may be good locations for recruiting include Raleigh-Durham and El Paso, where there are high rates of young renters in the labour force. RDA Global recommends a recruiting strategy focused primarily on the Phoenix market, with consideration to Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston. Average annual salaries of workers in all of the top recommended cities are lower than the average for workers in Alberta. The top 20 ranked city with the highest average salary is Las Vegas, where workers earn approximately $63,000 CAD, compared to nearly $67,000 in Alberta. Boilermakers The U.S. labour force of boilermakers is approximately 19,000 workers. Recruitment scores are very high in the top two ranked recruiting locations, Galveston and Indianapolis. There are over 1,000 workers in the area around Houston-Galveston; however Galveston appears to have a slight edge over Houston in demographics that may indicate the potential for migration. Approximately 57 per cent of the labour force of boilermakers in Galveston is under age 35, and half are renters. In Houston those rates are 49 per cent and 38 per cent respectively. Despite its much smaller labour force, Indianapolis may be a highly attractive location to recruit boilermakers. The city has a high recruitment score (4.17) and about 440 workers in the labour force. Many of the people who migrate in the U.S. are those who rent their homes, and in Indianapolis 63 per cent of boilermakers are renters, while 54 per cent are under age 35. Atlanta has a comparatively high proportion of workers who made a long-distance relocation in recent years (36 per cent of the labour force); however the labour force is slightly smaller than Indianapolis with only about 300 workers. RDA Global recommends recruiting for boilermakers primarily in Indianapolis and Galveston. Saint Louis may also be an attractive location for recruiting, with its large labour force and reasonably high recruitment score of Average annual salary figures were not released in the 2011 Alberta Wage and Salary Survey for boilermakers. The average annual salary for workers in the U.S. in 2011 was $56,650 USD or $56,030 CAD. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 16

17 Ironworkers Based on the recruitment score designed to indicate the likelihood of locating migrants in a particular labour force, Houston is the place to go to recruit ironworkers in the U.S. The city has a score that is more than double that of the next closest city, Washington DC. Among recommended cities with a smaller labour force, Fort Collins and Corpus Christi may be good recruiting locations. Fort Collins has a high share of workers that have migrated across long distances in recent years (27 per cent), as well as a young labour force with 79 per cent of workers under age 35 and 62 per cent are renters. The two cities have the highest recruitment scores (1.62 and 2.05, respectively). Atlanta and LA have larger labour forces with 1,600 and 1,900 workers, respectively, but also have low recruitment scores (both under 0.50). RDA Global recommends that employers consider recruiting ironworkers in Houston and Washington DC because of the large labour force size in the two cities. For employers looking to fill a limited number of positions, the smaller markets of Corpus Christi and Fort Collins may be attractive locations. Average annual salary figures for ironworkers in Alberta indicate that wages are substantially higher than in the U.S. Wages in Alberta are approximately 65 per cent to over 80 per cent higher than average annual salaries for U.S. workers, a factor that may enhance recruiting efforts substantially. Welders and Related Machine Operators Houston is the best overall U.S. location for recruiting welders, primarily due to the size of the labour force. With over 15,000 workers in the area, it is more than twice the size of the next largest recommended city. Two other top ranked U.S. cities have a labour force that exceeds 7,000 workers: Dallas-Fort Worth and LA. Of the three largest recommended U.S. markets for welders, workers in Dallas- Fort Worth have the highest recruitment score at 0.62, while LA has the lowest score of West Palm Beach is the third ranked U.S. city, and has a fairly sizeable labour force with over 2,000 workers and a relatively high recruitment score of RDA Global recommends recruiting for welders in Houston, Dallas-Fort Worth or LA, primarily due to the size of the labour force in those cities. Other attractive cities where there are not as many workers, but workers may be more likely to relocate, include West Palm Beach, Tulsa or Phoenix. The average annual salary for welders in Alberta is significantly higher than the average salaries of welders in all top recommended U.S. cities. Wages in Alberta are approximately $70,000 CAD per year, while average annual salaries in the top recommended cities range from $32,000 CAD to $43,000 CAD per year. Electricians (Except Industrial and Power System) The two recommended U.S. cities with the largest labour force for electricians are Houston and LA, each of which has over 13,000 workers. Of those two cities, Houston is likely the better city for recruiting. The city has a relatively high recruitment score of 1.11, indicating that workers there are likely to consider a long-distance migration. In addition, the average salary of electricians in LA is roughly 30 per cent higher than for electricians in Houston. Several other U.S. cities have a fairly large-sized labour force as well as a relatively high recruitment score. The area around West Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale, as well as Phoenix, have over workers and recruitment scores that are similar to, or slightly higher than Houston, at 1.53, 1.06 and 1.22, respectively, and one quarter of the labour force in West Palm Beach are non-u.s. citizens. Yolo, located adjacent to Sacramento has a large contingent of its labour force (2,000 workers) who are young (63 per cent), and who rent their homes (58 per cent). Because most recommended cities for this occupation have a fairly large labour force, RDA Global recommends that employers focus recruiting efforts on the places where workers are most likely to migrate. The recommended cities with the highest recruitment scores are Yolo, Austin, West Palm Beach, Orlando and Jacksonville. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 17

18 The average annual salary for electricians in the U.S. is $52,000 CAD, while the average salary in Alberta is nearly $74,000. Workers in all of the recommended cities earn less than the average in Alberta. The city with the highest average is Las Vegas, where electricians are paid just over $67,000 USD per year. Industrial Electricians The U.S. labour force for industrial electricians is much smaller than the previous occupation. With just over 67,000 total workers in the U.S., recruiting for industrial electricians will require a focused strategy to recruit in places where mobile workers are likely to be found. Galveston has the largest labour force among recommended cities with 1,400 workers and the highest recruitment score at 2.84, making it the best U.S. location for recruiting. Workers in Norfolk have a recruitment score of 1.70; however with just over 600 workers, the labour force is quite small. San Diego has a slightly lower recruitment score of 1.31 and a larger labour force with nearly 1,000 workers. In terms of demographics, it is interesting to note that there are several cities with a high share of workers under age 35, and a large portion of them are also renters. The labour force also seems to be highly American with only one city (Greensboro) having more than three per cent non-citizen workers in its labour force. RDA Global recommends that employers consider the cities where workers have relatively high recruitment scores, such as Galveston, Norfolk and San Diego. With the exception of Seattle, average annual salaries in Alberta are between 24 per cent and 63 per cent higher than the recommended U.S. cities. Annual salaries in Alberta average near $76,000 CAD per year, while the U.S. average is $59,000 CAD. Electrical Power Line and Cable Workers The most striking characteristic of electrical power line workers in the U.S. is that they don t seem to be highly mobile. In most of the recommended cities the share of workers that made a long distance move in recent years is less than two per cent, excepting only Spokane (25 per cent), Fort Lauderdale (7 per cent) and Oklahoma City (5 per cent). The U.S. labour force is comprised of approximately 106,000 workers who earn an average of almost $59,000 CAD equivalent per year, while the average salary for workers in Alberta is nearly $76,000 CAD per year. Attractive recruiting locations may include cities like Oklahoma City, where approximately 70 per cent of workers are under age 35, and nearly half (45 per cent) are renters. In addition, average annual salaries in Oklahoma City are well below the average in Alberta. The only two recommended cities that have more than 2,000 workers are Dallas-Fort Worth and Atlanta, and the recruitment score for workers in Dallas- Fort Worth is slightly higher than Atlanta (0.76 and 0.53, respectively). Yolo, which is located near Sacramento, California, has the highest recruitment score among recommended cities at 2.16, and a Sacramento-based recruiting strategy will be likely to attract workers in Yolo. RDA Global recommends recruiting in Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston where the sizes of the labour force are among the largest in the U.S. Smaller markets that may be appealing to employers include Spokane, the Yolo-Sacramento area and Oklahoma City. Plumbers, Steamfitters, Pipefitters and Sprinkler System Installers The NOC occupations under pressure Plumbers and 7252 Steamfitters, Pipefitters and Sprinkler System Installers are similar to a single U.S. occupation: SOC Plumbers, Pipefitters, Steamfitters and Sprinkler fitters. The U.S. labour force in this occupation is approximately 350,000 workers. Among the top recommended cities, the metro areas with the largest labour force are LA, where there are over 10,000 workers, the Houston-Galveston area, which has just over 9,000 workers, and Dallas-Fort Worth which has about 7,000 plumbers and related workers. In terms of recruiting potential, Dallas-Fort Worth seems to be the best location with a recruitment score of 1.17, while the Houston-Galveston area has a slightly lower score around LA has a much lower score of 0.36, indicating that plumbers in LA may Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 18

19 not be as likely to consider relocating to Alberta. Plumbers in LA are paid well relative to plumbers in other U.S. cities, with average annual salaries of $58,000 USD; however a large share of plumbers (49 per cent) rent their homes and are non U.S. citizens (32 per cent), both factors that have a positive effect on out-migration. The average salary for plumbers in Alberta is $71,000 CAD ($72,000 USD), and is higher than the average for plumbers in all of the recommended U.S. cities. RDA Global recommends recruiting in Dallas-Fort Worth and LA. Workers in Dallas-Fort Worth may be more likely to consider a long-distance move, while in LA, employers may find some workers who earn lower wages and may be attracted to the possibility of earning higher wages in Alberta. Carpenters In the U.S., there are nearly 600,000 carpenters. The top recommended U.S. cities that have the largest labour force are LA with over 17,000 carpenters, and the Seattle-Tacoma area, with almost 11,000 workers. While these cities have large sized labour forces, they have low recruitment scores (0.16 in LA, 0.24 in Seattle and 0.58 in Tacoma), and wages are among the highest of all recommended recruiting locations. It is likely that employers will find some workers earning below average wages and may be willing to relocate to increase those wages; however there may be other cities that offer better recruiting prospects. Among the top recommended cities, Galveston has the highest share of carpenters who made a long distance move in recent years (12 per cent), and nearly half (48 per cent) are under age 35, while 46 per cent are renters and 44 per cent are non-u.s. citizens. Average annual salaries are low compared to Alberta (approximately $35,000 CAD and $63,000 CAD, respectively). In addition to Galveston, all of the top four ranked cities (Dallas-Fort Worth, Phoenix and Houston) have similar demographic characteristics, i.e. young, non-citizen workers who are also renters, as well as low wages compared to Alberta. All four of these cities also have recruitment scores exceeding 1.1 and a labour force of 8,000 or more workers, making them good locations for recruiting. Employers may also wish to consider LA and the Seattle-Tacoma area based on the large size of the labour force in those cities. Bricklayers On the recruitment score measure, the top ranked city is Houston by a large margin. Houston has the largest sized labour force among all recommended cities with over 1,700 workers, and a fairly high recruitment score of Dallas-Fort Worth has about 900 bricklayers and a slightly higher recruitment score of Outside of these two Texas cities, all of the remaining recommended cities have fairly small sized labour forces with less than 600 workers. The cities with the highest recruitment scores are in Florida: bricklayers in West Palm Beach have a score of 1.46, while in Orlando the score is 1.38, and in Fort Lauderdale All of the top ranked cities have more than 40 per cent of workers under age 35, and in most cities more than half of bricklayers are renters, indicating that workers may be likely to consider relocation opportunities. RDA Global recommends recruiting in Houston and Dallas-Fort Worth based on the large size of the labour force in those two cities, and the relatively high recruitment scores. Among the other recommended cities we suggest recruiting efforts be focused on the cities where recruitment scores are highest in order to increase the chances of success in locating potential migrants. Bricklayers earn average annual salaries in Alberta of over $83,000 CAD, while average salaries in the top recommended U.S. cities range from approximately $35,000 CAD to $66,000 CAD. U.S. workers relocating to Alberta from these cities may be able to increase their earnings by 26 per cent to 140 per cent. Concrete Finishers The U.S. labour force of concrete finishers is approximately 135,000 workers. The largest markets among recommended cities are in Houston, LA, Phoenix and Dallas-Fort Worth, each of which has over 3,000 workers. Out of these large markets, Phoenix has the highest recruitment score of 0.68, while LA has the lowest score of Orlando has the highest recruitment score among all recommended cities (2.23) and Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 19

20 nearly 1,000 workers, making it the fourth ranked U.S. city. Other cities with relatively high recruitment scores and over 1,000 workers in the labour force include West Palm Beach, the top ranked city for recruiting concrete finishers, and Tampa-St. Petersburg. Yolo, California, located adjacent to Sacramento has a high rate of young workers who rent and are non-u.s. citizens (over 70 per cent in all three demographic variables), and there are over 1,000 workers in the area; however wages in Yolo are among the highest in the U.S. (approximately $$46,000 CAD). Compared to average annual salaries in Alberta ($55,000 CAD) workers in all of the recommended cities have average annual incomes that are below the average for workers in Alberta. RDA Global recommends recruiting in Phoenix and Houston as a primary option due to the large size of the labour force in those cities. West Palm Beach and Tampa-St. Petersburg may also be attractive locations for recruiting concrete finishers. Plasterers, Drywall Installers and Finishers and Lathers The U.S. SOC classifies plasterers and drywall installers into two separate occupations. Between the two U.S. occupations there are almost 100,000 workers. Average annual salaries for workers in both occupations are approximately $41,000 CAD annually. Compared to the average in Alberta ($62,000 CAD), U.S. workers earn much lower salaries and may be motivated to migrate north in search of higher wages. The single largest market among top recommended cities is LA, which has approximately 13,000 workers in the labour force; however the city has a very low recruitment score of 0.26 and average annual salaries are the highest among all of the top ranked cities. The Houston-Galveston area has over 6,000 workers and relatively high recruitment scores (0.64 and 1.08, respectively) making it an attractive spot for recruiting. The area around Sacramento, including Yolo, CA, may be another attractive recruiting location; the labour force is over 2,000 workers and Yolo has the highest recruitment score among all recommended cities, at 2.92 (the score for Sacramento is 0.41). RDA Global recommends recruiting in the Houston-Galveston area and the Sacramento-Yolo area. The labour force in both areas is relatively large, and the demographic conditions are favourable toward outmigration. Roofers and Shinglers The U.S. labour market for roofers is approximately 96,000 workers. Of the top 20 recommended cities, only nine have a labour force that exceeds 1,000 roofers, and out of those nine cities none have a recruitment score that is 1.0 or higher. The highest score, 0.73, is for workers in West Palm Beach. Kansas City has a slightly higher recruitment score of 0.81 and 970 workers, but average wages in the city are only slightly lower than in Alberta ($50,000 CAD in Kansas City, and $57,000 CAD in Alberta). Several of the top recommended cities may be more favourable to out-migration but have a smaller sized labour force. Little Rock, Tulsa, Reno and Colorado Springs have the highest recruitment scores in the top ranked cities, but all four cities have fewer than 400 workers, making them potentially attractive niche recruiting locations. Average annual salaries of roofers in Tulsa are the lowest of all recommended cities at just $24,000 USD ($24,000 CAD, rounded), and some workers may be attracted by the opportunity to earn more than twice that amount in Alberta. Oklahoma City has a relatively high recruitment score (1.19) and the labour force largely conforms to the demographic profile of migrants: 71 per cent of workers are under age 35, 78 per cent are renters, and 70 per cent are non-u.s. citizens. Employers are likely to find a few migrants in the Oklahoma City labour force. RDA Global recommends recruiting for roofers in the central U.S. in recommended cities such as Dallas-Fort Worth, Kansas City, Oklahoma City or Tulsa. These cities generally have higher recruitment scores, indicating that workers may be more receptive to relocation. Government of Alberta 22/11/2012 Page 20

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