Chapter 6 DEVELOPMENT AND THE SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN THE CITY

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1 Chapter 6 DEVELOPMENT AND THE SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES IN THE CITY 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The Millennium City Of The Country Or A Mirage? 6.3 The Role Of Institutions Towards Sustainability of the City: Management Actions To Be Taken Up By The Institutions 6.4 The role of the Respondents towards the Sustainability of the City - Everyday Lives and Practices 6.5 Conclusion

2 6.1 INTRODUCTION The experience of the tangible and the intangible changes that have come with the growth development of the city has been unique to each of the three divided cities in the Millennium City. And the main actors for bringing about this change has been the private players. There have been a series of changes in the city such as in terms of the availability of the health set-up, educational amenities, basic amenities such as water availability, electricity supply and sewage disposal, transport and everyday life conveniences such as options for buying grocery and vegetables, and security. The changes expand to include the kind and nature of entertainment options being used across the spaces in the city. The most striking change has been for the village spaces with these villages adopting the character and nature of the cityscape. This change is in terms of their dressing, entertainment, and interaction with each other. The change is reflected in the shift in everyday life of people whereby they are becoming more self-confined rather than community living. The city has its contrasts and contradictions that live together in the city spaces that have come up in the process of change with the private developers driving it. These contrasts and contradictions are visible in the development differences that have come up across the three spaces. The development differences invite the questions that can be raised on Gurgaon being called as the Millennium City inspite of the niche it has carved for itself. Is it the Millennium city of the country in true sense or is it just an over hyped image rather than a reality? Is the Millennium City truly a representative of development or does these developments themselves require management action for sustainability? 6.2 THE MILLENNIUM CITY OF THE COUNTRY OR A MIRAGE? Since the word millennium comes from the term millennia it means a hundred years and since the study area has grown phenomenally in one decade as if it would have grown over a period of hundred years, it has been called as the Millennium City. It was in 2003, Gurgaon was named the Millennium City owing to its exponential growth post 192

3 But this naming of Gurgaon as the Millennium City is questionable particularly focusing on the nature of developments in the city. The Haryana Government has been promoting Gurgaon, the Millennium City as a Global City and business hub. This was visible in the website 160 of the month-long Special Shopping Festival launched in the city during the Commonwealth Games in 2010, The Gurgaon Shopping Festival (GSF) is aimed to promote the Gurgaon as India s millennium city on the threshold of becoming a global, business and leisure hub. The objective of organizing the GSF is to promote Gurgaon as one of the world s most modern and developing townships and India s foremost shopping destination. The shopping festival is organized by the Real Estate Development Council (REDCO) Haryana, the local government and the Haryana tourism mart. A Report prepared by India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF) on Haryana 161 also brings out the Millennium City as the leading market in the country as it reads Gurgaon is one of the fastest developing property and retailing markets in the country. Gurgaon, the Millennium City has made a niche for itself in the market, yet within the city there have been differential growth and developments across the divided spaces. The different development experiences across the three cities within the Millennium City make it rather as three cities in one. It raises a question mark on the nature of growth, development and the series of changes experienced by Gurgaon as they vary across different divided cities. Thus, this indicates towards the differential development over space. The presence of the divided cities in the city itself raises a question on the city being called as the Millennium City. Can Gurgaon be called the Millennium City of the country as it stands with its divided spaces each having a different experience of development indicating towards the unevenness of progress across the spaces in the city? 159 Jul 6, 2011, 06.29am IST IBEF, Indian States: Economy And Business Haryana. IBEF, CII, Gurgaon. 193

4 The recent new link to Modern Gurgaon put up on the Gurgaon s official government website 162 highlights the gap between the divided two cities the Old and the New. It discusses only about the part of the city to the left of NH 8 and it only highlights the features present there, addressing it as the Modern Gurgaon. Gurgaon is spread to both the right and left of NH 8 but most residents find them to be two cities apart along with the urban villages that are present in both. The people of the three cities have a common view largely about the contrasts in developments across the different spaces in the city. Contrasts in The Millennium Story- The World Views: Do the three cities present in Gurgaon can be ranked as same? Their experiences of everyday life have become very different with the growth and development of Gurgaon. As Mr. Gulati 163 said the Old Gurgaon is in shambles. It is horrible as far as drainage is concerned. Likewise a retired Col. Rathore 164 also agreed to the same point of view and while giving marks to the city out of ten he said the other part is different and can get only 3-4 points whereas this part of the city due to which it has been named Millennium city and it deserves 8 points. Similarly Rahul Ahuja 165 is of the same opinion that the two parts of the city are poles apart from each other. The contrast within the city is glaring and as Veena Gulati 166 said like most of the respondents explained that the level of development is moderate but it cannot be called as the Millennium City and elaborated that the level of development varies in the two parts of Gurgoan, itna zaada development bhi nahi hai specially Old Gurgaon mein, ki millennium city bullaya ja sakay, Old Gurgoan mein toh kum development hai aur New Gurgaon ka idea nahi hai but New Gurgaon phir bhi lagta hai ki saaf suthra hai, wahan gaandgi Mr. Gulati as given in footnote number Retired Col. Rathore is a retired army officer and has been living in Gurgaon for past 5 years. He settled here as his native place, Rajasthen is nearby. Moreover, his wife got a job with one of the leading hospitals in the city 165 Rahul Ahuja resides in secto-7 extension, Old Gurgaon. His native place is Agra. He has come to Gurgaon for job. 166 Veena Gulati is 45 years old and has been born and brought up in Gurgaon. She resides in 4-Marla, Old Gurgaon. She is a home-maker and studied till class X. 194

5 naazar nahi aati, security bhi aachi hai chahe private hi ho (Development is not that much, specially in Old Gurgaon that it can be called as the Millennium City. Old Gurgaon has less development and do not have any idea about New Gurgaon but it still seems to be neat and clean, there garbage is not visible and security is also good though it is private). Likewise Mr. R.S.Sehjwal 167 opined that the two parts of the city Old Gurgaon and New Gurgaon have different status with respect to being called as Millennium City. New Gurgaon can very much be addressed as the Millennium City as it has high rise buildings, posh areas, and Sohna Road pe toh kammal ho gaya hain (on the Sohna roads there are wonders). Old Gurgaon on the other hand, is in total contrast to it. He also mentioned that the changes have taken place such as when my child used to go to DPS till , nothing was there - only open land was there, it has changed since then and developed fast. Vinod Khanna 168 mentioned the change has come in over the last 10 years and it is both positive and negative, the positives are lot of job options, better living and the negative is selective development, drainage problem and problem of roads. The existing visual contrast has been further corroborated as Mr. Amit Verma 169 who expressed New Gurgaon can be given the score of 8 out of 10 whereas the old part can be given only 5 out of ten as New Gurgaon ko dekh ke lagta hain ki yeh different hain (On seeing New Gurgaon, it seems to be developed). In this part of Gurgaon the level of development is 0, whereas that part is moderately to highly developed. This difference in level of development as described by the residents can also be seen in difference in the level of medical amenities present as highlighted by the respondent all the change in the medical amenities has been in the other part of Gurgaon (like change in the nature of hospitals-more private hospital, availability of speciality and multi-speciality hospitals), but in this part nothing has been there except an ESI hospital has come up for private employees. 167 Mr. R.S.Sehjwal as given in footnote number Vinod Khanna as given in footnote number Amit Verma as given in footnote number

6 The similar contrast was highlighted by Mrs. Bina Sharma 170 as she expressed me and my family don t relish the Mall Culture that forces one to be more showy and fake. Gurgaon on a scale of 1 to 10 can be said to be having 8 points as there is heterogeneous development with separate sections within the city. But Gurgaon can be called as Millennium City as the drastic and sudden changes have happened even if compared with foreign cities, every big corporate is ready to invest in Gurgaon. As per Mr. Rajnath 171, City Plaza, Signature Tower is as comparable to USA, England. This is the cyber city also. Shyam Singh 172 feels about the change that bohot tez badlav hoa hai, Manesar tak faal gaya hai (the change has been very rapid and has spread till Manesar) he further described his visits to mall as meant only for roaming around and not shopping as he said mall mein toh gohmana jata hai par kuch khared ta nahi hai (one goes to roam around in the malls but we don t buy anything.. In contrary to this Amit Verma 173 opined that Gurgaon cannot be called as a Millennium City as there are no government facilities. Likewise, Mr. Gulati 174 said that to refer to Gurgaon as the Millennium City is like making joke of Millennium city itself. According to Sharda Yadav 175, who is of the view, Gurgaon mein overall bahut paisa aa gaya hain, phir chahe vo landlords ke paas ho ya companies ke corporate employees ke paas, lekin localities mein ya toh same hain aur yaa deteriorate ho gaya hain, lekin jahan education hain wahan par better hain, unki groups aur communities ban gayi hain aur aage improvement ka bhi scope hain (Overall a lot of money has come in Gurgaon, it might be in the hands of the 170 Mrs. Bina Sharma lives in sector 17 B near IFFCO Chowk since Her native place is Rajasthan and she came to Gurgaon as her husband got a job here. 171 Mr. Rajnath given in footnote number Shyam Singh is a taxi driver and has been residing in South City, New Gurgaon for more than 5 years. His native place is Rajasthan and he moved to Gurgaon for work. 173 Amit Verma as given in footnote number Mr. Gulati as given in footnote number Sharda Yadav is 55 years old and has been living in Gurgaon for 17 years. Her native place is Mahendargarh, Haryana, but they moved moved to Gurgaon as her husband works with Delhi Police. They used to reside in sector-7, Old Gurgaon and in 2004 they have moved to DLF Phase III, S block. 196

7 landlords or the corporate employees working in the companies, but in the residential localities either the conditions are still the same or have deteriorated. But where there are educated people, it is better there and their groups and communities have got formed with the scope of improvement in future). Manoj Paswan 176 said pata nahi ki Millennium City hain ya nahi, ye pata hain isko Job City kahte hain (I don t knoe whether it is the Millennium City or not but I know that it is called Job City). Thus, there is a mixed response of the residents about the Millennium City of the country. Some are not familiar with the fact that it is known as the Millennium City and some amongst them even don t know its meaning. On the other hand some respondents don t agree that it can be referred to as the Millennium city whereas majority feels that it can very much be called the same. Thus, the development story of the Millennium city varies across the spaces within the city, but can this practice of development be better managed and can be made more sustainable? Beall and Fox, have answered the same by identifying and explaining about the role of actors who do development. They have defined development as conscious interventions that are designed to enhance the quality of human life. They have mentioned those who do development are the development actors and these actors include individuals, communities, government, bilateral agencies such as USAID. According to them, these actors that might be working in collaboration or sometimes with conflicting objectives are involved in the design and implementation of policies, the mobilization of communities or interest groups, administration and governance. Thus, those engaged in the practice of development seek to effect change through public action. These actors play a vital role in sustainability through public action. They have further quoted Nobel Laureate, Amartya Sen and identified sustainability component as indispensible part of development 176 Manoj Paswan as given in footnote number Beall, Jo and Fox, Sean op. cit. 197

8 Sen emphasizes human development, and says progress can be understood as the expansion of real, substantiative freedoms to human populations across the globe and differentiation to the observable unevenness of freedom across populations within and between countries. To this definition of development that he regards as powerful he has added a second dimension that is: sustainability (without which he said it would be incomplete). Sustainable development is the expansion of real freedoms through means that do not threaten the possibility of future generations to enjoy and continue expanding real freedoms. In particular, sustainable development refers to interventions that expand real freedoms while taking account of long-term environmental consequences. Sustainability can be assessed both at local and global levels. So, sustainability can be said to be essentially linked to the development and the public actors play an important role in it. For instance, in Gurgaon these actors include the Government authorities, private developers and the residents themselves. Development has brought with it a series of changes in Gurgaon ranging from the availability of grocery shops to vegetables availability, transport, security and the everyday needs of power and water. These all are available but from a mix of sources such as only in Old Gurgaon, these are available from the government and in other parts of the city a small share is from the government and the rest is through private developers. With the growth and development of the city, these basic amenities have increased in terms of availability and there are options assuring their availability. Since there are problems associated with these amenities and infrastructure, their availability needs to be managed. Thus, the availability of these amenities and the parallel demand being made needs to tally and managed. The management can contribute towards a more sustainable solution for the city. Thus, management measures for a more sustainable Gurgaon can be looked into two levels: firstly, at the level of authorities such as governmental authorities like HUDA, MCG, Public Health and the Private Developers and secondly, at the level of people of the city in terms of practices in their everyday lives. 198

9 6.3 INSTITUTIONAL ROLE TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE CITY Institutions decide the governance of the area and hence, play a crucial role as development actors in an area. Thus, the role played by them is of utmost importance to the sustainability aspect of development. Gurgaon s present is a result of the two institutional groups that is how the Government has shaped it and the way non- Governmental institute - the Private Developers have moulded it. People have mixed response for the role played by the Government. On the one hand, some of the people are satisfied by the Government s role whereas others have really given thumbs down to its role. The later are well spread across the spaces in the city. Alok Ranjan 178 said Government kahaan kuch karti hain, log apne aap hi kar lete hain (Where does Government do anything, people manage on their own). Focusing on government s role Bhagwan Singh told Nagar Nigam toh chor hain, 18 crore rupees gaon ke panchayat ke naam kea aye the aur ek eet bhi nahi bichai road pe (Municipal Corporation is a thief, 18 crore rupees has come in the name of Panchayat, but not even a single brick has been laid on the road). Similarly the people from Jharsa village also sounded to be unhappy with the Government not only in terms of various provisions but also in terms of compensation paid for the land acquired from the villagers. Their complaint against the Government was largely for the financial part of the compensation which according to them is low. Likewise, the people from Dundahera and Mulahera village are also unhappy with the government as their land was acquired by Maruti and they were promised jobs, which have not been given. The jobs were given to the villagers but only during the initial time period after coming up of Maruti. Thus, the people from across the villages are not happy with the Government as according to them Government have a say in the matter but it is not playing its due role. Whereas in Old Gurgaon as well as in New Gurgaon people have mixed response for the Government s role. They found it to be positive as they said that there have been continuous 178 Alok Ranjan is a migrant from Bihar who settled in Mulahera Village. He has come to Gurgaon 7 years back looking for a job and presently runs a shop. 199

10 improvements over time thus, government is taking some measures on its part. These people are also hopeful about the role of government in future as Retired Col. Rathore 179 said Muscat is one of the most developed cities and the day is not far when Gurgaon will be under the same category. In Muscat, everything is computerized and automated, at 4 a.m. in the morning the road cleaning machines are automatically on the roads for cleaning and Gurgaon hopefully will soon be on the same track. Whereas the majority feel that inspite of planning there are huge gaps that needs to be plugged in from the Government side. Though they have planned but the estimates of growth that formed the base for planning of the city has gone wrong and thus, it has lagged behind in the total growth. This category of the people finds the government s efforts to be lacking as they find the condition of roads, transport and everyday amenities to be very poor. The Private Developer s role has largely been evaluated by the residents of New Gurgaon only. On the one hand, they find the facilities and amenities provided by them as a blessing. On the other hand, majority of them alleged that the Private Developers have not kept their promises. As Dr. Anuradha Mal 180 remarked DLF toh chor hain (DLF is a thief). DlF says and charges for a particular thing and then delivers something else. Kunal Goel 181 who is resident of Omaxe Nile Condominiums also agreed to her and described DLF toh sirf towers banata hain (DLF only makes towers) whereby he indicated that it does not build homes but only one block of house over another and thus, maximizes its profit. Mr. Yadav 182 too upheld the same view as he narrated his experience as President of different phases of DLF plotted societies DLF promised a community centre to its residents. In order to take the land from the Government, it filed an application for land for constructing the community centre. This application was written and signed by the residents. Based on this application, 179 Retired Col. Rathore as given in footnot number Dr. Anuradha Mal as given in footnote number Kunal Goel - as given in footnote number Mr. Yadav the President of all plotted DLF Phases (I to V). He lives in Pink Town Apartments next to Nathupur village, Old Gurgaon. He is an ex-serviceman and now is a property dealer. 200

11 DLF was granted the land and on its Bhumi Pujan all of us were invited but now what stands on that piece of land is not the community centre but the DLF Club. This narrative supports the blame laid by the residents on DLF. Moreover, it clearly brings out the false promise made to the people for getting their support. The community centre is a hall used by the people for celebrating on different occasions. It is usually available to the people at a nominal cost. Whereas the club entry is restricted and it is accessible only to the members with a hefty annual fees attached to it. Thus, the community centre would have served the common men as against the DLF Club which has limited accessibility to the elites only. And in place of the community centre DLF got constructed the club which is an important means of profit earning to it. This explains the reason of lack of belief of the residents towards the Private Developers. Likewise, the people have similar complaints against the other Private Developers like Ansals. For instance, Ms. Bali 183 mentioned that those areas that were under green belt earlier have now been put under construction and allotted for construction of houses and thus, they are gradually reducing the green belt that was initially there in the plan of the area. The developers manage to give the assured supply of the amenities within the complex but the Government lags behind in the same. Thus, the people prefer the Private Developers as they provide facilities and amenities that are not being assured by the Government, yet they do not trust the developers. The developers focus on attracting the buyers and making the maximum profit in which they forget the assurances made by them to the customers. Hence, both the Governmental authorities and the Private Developers play an important role as actors in the city s development but stand face to face with set of loopholes in their working. They steer the city s development and can contribute towards the sustainable development by giving solutions to the loopholes in these institutions. This necessitates examining the role of both the set of institutions - Government as well as non-governmental in terms of their positives like strengths and negatives that is their 183 Ms. Bali as given in footnote number

12 weaknesses. This examination has been done through SWOT Analysis. It provides an insight into the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the institutions and thus, reflects upon the nature of governance in the area. Table 3 gives a detailed SWOT Analysis of the institutions in Gurgaon - the two Governmental authorities and the Non- Governmental authority the Private Developers. Table 6.1 SWOT Analysis of the Institutions Institutions Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats HUDA Lays out the basic land use plan and infrastructure with the civic amenities when the sectors are made and developed. The quality of the amenities lacks behind and is delayed. Ongoing Phenomenal growth of the city, and simultaneous rapid expansion with laying of sectors and thus, huge inflow of funds. Many people prefer living in private apartments where the amenities within the complex are provided by a private agency. MCG Private Developers It is a new organization so the work culture and the outlook towards maintenance of civic amenities will be new and can. The facilities and amenities that they provide though on a chargeable basis Source: Field work, Has come only in mid-2008 and is still in the process of taking over from HUDA The residents living in different sized plotted housing are not interested in paying the monthly maintenance charges. From signage to santiation (infrastructure and maintenance of civic amenities) Since there was no municipal corporation in Gurgaon till recently it has a world of opportunities To partner with the government agencies in providing civic amenities. The rapid expansion of Gurgaon while the MCG is still nascent. Their financial strength depends on the vitality of the real-estate market. The SWOT table reflects that each of the three important players in Gurgaon s development today are crippled with their own weaknesses. Out of the three, the MCG has the highest burden of the weaknesses as well as has maximum opportunities. Two of 202

13 them, the HUDA and Private Developers have though played a key role but have been rather deterimental to the city s development. As the latest news report 184 describe: Anti-corruption activist Arvind Kejriwal Tuesday described the Haryana government as an "agent" of realty major DLF, which has been linked with Congress president Sonia Gandhi's son-in-law Robert Vadra. "The Haryana government has become an agent of DLF, it is not a people's government," Kejriwal told the media, and asked Haryana to bring out a white paper on its dealings with the company. He cited court records and other documents to back his allegations. Days after he alleged questionable business dealings between Vadra and DLF, Kejriwal, who distributed documentary evidence to the media, accused the Haryana government of giving out land at cheap rates to the DLF. Panchayat land has been handed over to DLF, HUDA land has been handed over to DLF, FAR (floor area ratio) has been increased for DLF, land use rule have been changed (for DLF,) he said. Several farmers who alleged that the Haryana government had usurped land from them, using fraudulent methods, also spoke at the press conference. Kejriwal said the Punjab and Haryana High Court had in recent times noted the "malafide nexus" between the Haryana government and DLF. Thus, the two institutions that is HUDA and DLF together have done manipulations and HUDA, a government authority has been biased towards it rather than the people. This indicates about the gaps in governance on the part of HUDA. The two together have built an image of Gurgaon. This is an apparent image of Gurgaon that is glitzy and glam and is confined only to New Gurgaon. At the micro level the institutions have rather led to the differentiated development of the city. Thus, in this process the sustainability aspect of the development has been ignored. Likewise, there are also gaps between HUDA and Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon (MCG). There is a tussle of war going on between the two as MCG has only been th October, Haryana government is DLF's agent, says Kejriwal. 203

14 formed in 2008 and yet to take over its role completely from HUDA. The sustainability of the development icon of the country can be taken care by balancing the role of the two institutions along with the new authority that has been formed that is the MCG Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon. The balancing of the weaknesses and threats of these institutions with their respective strengths and opportunities can give an edge and contribute towards strong and effective governance and thus, sustainability. But it is not only the institutes that play a crucial role in making development sustainable but also the residents themselves. They are vital actors of development. On the one hand, the institutes can manage their challenges and contribute towards sustainable development. And on the other hand are the residents. The active people s participation form key to sustainability. 6.4 RESIDENT S ROLE TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE CITY The residents are also the actors of development as their way of living shapes the way city is developed. Their active participation is possible at the micro-level that is in everyday lives as they are most closely associated and thus, can be strongest there. This section explores the role played by the residents of the city towards making development more sustainable in terms of the practices related to water and power, transport and waste disposal followed by them. These are amenities that constitute key social sectors of development and are closely related to the daily lives of the residents. Without these amenities neither can development nor the everyday lives of the people be complete. Thus, the following section examines the role played by the residents towards sustainable development through these practices that are related to the amenities. For example, awareness of the magnitude of the problem related to these amenities, and the measures taken by the people for addressing the problems in these everyday practices. Although many people did not give any suggestions but did explain the depth of problem and their concern for it. 204

15 Practices related to Water and Power in Everyday lives: People who have recently migrated or moved to the city hardly recognize such issues or regard them as matter of concern rather it is the villagers who have witnessed some of the changes in the problems and regard them as matter of concern, like Surender Yadav 185 said ab ground water level 400 feet niche ho gaya hain, pehle aap jahan khadhe hain ek 20 feet ka well tha (now the ground water level has fallen down to 400 feet and earlier where you are standing, the water level was to 20 feet). The similar point was made by the residents of various villages such as Ghatta, Chakkarpur. Mr. Balram Yadav 186 told that the water table has drastically fallen down from less than 100 ft. to more than 500 ft. and he also explained the reason for the same as lack of water supply and thus, excessive dependence on ground water. But for the migrants in the city it is not a matter of concern and they are not aware about the falling water table in the city. Their need of huge water supply is met by the borewell water which is a common feature in the houses of the city particularly in the plotted houses. But those who do not have the individual borewells, they usually have a backend supply of water from boring itself and most of them are not even aware of this. This is probably the reason that one finds RO being installed in most of the households unanimously. It has therefore been made mandatory to have rain water harvesting for societies in the society complex as well as houses that are bigger than 200 sq yards in size. This will help in raising the ground water table. Image 6.1 shows the board reading Rain Water Harvesting outside DLF Galleria Market. Image 6.1 A Water Harvesting Banner outside DLF Galleria Market 185 Surender Yadav is a resident of Jacombpura, Old Gurgaon. He has been born and brought up in Gurgaon. He used to do farming. 186 Mr.Balram Yadav as given in footnote number 205

16 DLF Galleria Market, New Gurgaon. Source: Field work, Likewise one can find such rain water harvesting at some other community places also in Old Gurgaon. But there is a big question mark placed on the community rain water harvesting that is whether they are in a working condition or not. The same question was raised on the rain water harvesting being installed by the people at the household level. But the residents themselves clearly said that they have got it done since it is mandatory for those living in plots of sizes bigger than 200 sq. yards. And the borings in the household are also usually not in the working condition and there is only a structure which is constructed to show for getting the completion certificate for the house. The residents particularly in New Gurgaon have the rain water harvesting units in their homes but only the structures are present and they are not in functioning order. Even the residents with a well-educated background have got it done for showing that it s present and not for its utility. The construction contractors themselves make a show piece of rain water harvesting unit for getting clearance for house construction. This has also been mentioned by Dr. Anuradha Mal 187. She stated I also have the rain water harvesting unit in my house, but it has never been in the 187 Dr. Anuradha Mal as given in footnote number

17 working condition since there is only a superficial structure that is present. The contractor said that only the superficial structure is sufficient for getting the clearance certificate for house construction. And nobody from the Government is going to check whether the rain harvesting unit is working or not. The energy consumption story is still worse; rather they put a heavy burden on the energy demand because of huge sized and high number of gensets being used in the city. As most of the respondents said that inspite of power cuts it does not bother much since they have individual or community power backups. They therefore don t find power situation as a problem and nor have they thought of any alternative solutions that can be more sustainable. Image 6.2 Use of Solar Power (for street lightening at Orchid Petals near Sohna Road and DLF Ph-I) a) Orchids Petals, near Sohna Road. b) DLF Phase III Source: Field work, As far as the alternative actions are concerned their use and application is extremely limited for instance, solar power can help in reducing the burden on energy demand to a large extent. For instance, solar energy, an alternative power source is also not used 207

18 commonly as the installation of solar panels is expensive and the maintenance cost is high. Though government has made its use compulsory for hotels and institutions yet one finds it only in limited places. Image 6.2 shows the limited use of such alternate measures like solar energy largely only done at community level and only present in elite bungalows which is also a rare sight. The most common feature about the use of alternate measures of power is its limited use. As Satya Singh said hamare ghar main toh solar power nahi hain, ghar ke samne hotel hain - The City Park, isme laga hain (solar power is not there in our home, but it is there in the hotel in front of our home The City Park). This response shows the common absence of alternate power measures across spaces in the city. In a novel initiative, Haryana Renewable Energy Development Agency (HAREDA) has opened Aditya Solar Shops at district Headquarters in Panchkula, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Hisar disricts and private Akshay Urja shops in all other districts to raise mass awareness and to promote various renewable energy and energy conservation devices in the State. The energy conservation devices like solar cookers, solar water heating system, LED-based home lighting systems, LED-based solar lanterns, solar torch, solar streetlighting systems and CFL lamps, T-5 tubelights etc. would be made available in these shops throughout the year. Financial assistance would also be made available on these devices. Although Government has taken an initiative towards sustainable practices of power through encouraging the use of renewable power sources, yet their knowledge is hardly present amongst the people. Practices related to Transport in Everyday lives: likewise, the availability and use of shared or common transport facilities is also negligible in the city such as car pools and the only such use is confined to the use of public means of transport made only by low income class people living either in Old Gurgaon or the Villages. The majority population in Gurgaon has been living on private transport that people commonly refer to as self-conveyance. This is largely due to the missing public means of connectivity and other such modes. Consequently, a lot of people are left with no other option but to have 208

19 and use individual means of commuting. Infact there is negligible effort and use of sharing of individual vehicles is also absent in the city. This maximizes the traffic load on the roads of the city, making the transport system of the city unsustainable. However, the initiatives are being made in the last two years in terms of new means of transport. All the initiatives have been provided by the private players except Delhi Metro.The other initiatives include coming up of the auto-on-call service that is named tuktuk, the new private buses to the Cyber City, and the forthcoming DLF Rapid Metro. These can be used by the people commonly on sharing basis and thus, can reduce the burden of individual modes of transport on the roads and save fuel as well be more eco-friendly. Thus, the private players are involved in bringing common of modes of travelling to the people and thus, making the transport system more sustainable in the city. Practices related to Garbage or Waste Disposal in Everyday lives: Subodh Yadav 188 said for his village and nature of garbage saara gaon kude ke paas basaa hain, kis bevkuf ne polybag bannane ka idea diya-yeh sadti bhi nahi hain (the entire village is settled next to garbage, who has given the idea of making polybag, it is not even biodegradable). Here one would find an absence of the measures that would ensure minimal waste generated or segregated waste (that is bio-degradable or non biodegradable separately) generation both at the level of authorities or the residents themselves across the spaces in the city. Infact, the case of sector 14 residents brings out very clearly the failure in this regard. A few years back a collective effort was made for a compost plant in the sector for minimum waste generation by disposing of the biodegradable waste at the community level itself. But it was forced to be closed by some of residents themselves inspite of being aware of its utility. No single body in Gurgaon is responsible for waste collection in both the town and city areas. While HUDA takes care of the collection and disposal of wastes in the HUDA s sectors (city), the sanitary department of the Municipal Council is responsible for the overall 188 Subodh Yadav has been residing in Badshahpur village for more than 5 years. He has migrated from Naranaul, Haryana. He works as a driver. 209

20 management of solid wastes in Gurgaon Town. For management of waste in the sectors, HUDA has about 100 community bins about 250 m apart. It has three refuse collectors making six trips daily to the disposal site. Although HUDA is not responsible for door-door collection of waste, it has about 300 sweepers to collect waste from the streets. The major private developers DLF, Unitech, and Ansal have their own arrangements for collecting wastes from households. The resident s welfare associations in these colonies have initiated this arrangement with the contractors who used to dispose the waste in open areas of land nearby (usually not more than 2-3- km from the colony), and/or dumping yards using trolleys or rickshaws till 5 to 6 years back. The new initiatives that have been planned by the Government include: a) Set up sewerage treatment plants adopting appropriate technology options with expert organizations. Encourage and involve private sector by offering certain incentives for setting up compost plant and sanitary land fill. The incentives could be lease of land on long term basis or exemption of customs and excise duty, sales tax and local taxes on equipment and machinery for collection, transportation of solid waste, processing plant etc. for setting up compost plant and sanitary land fill. b) Use water as energy raw material, which could include recycled materials. This would add value by turning cost into commodity, solving landfill problems, reducing methane by reducing landfills, supplying energy for heating, cooling and related energy services. Thus, the present sewerage disposal system is grim but a lot of plans for sustainable solution are in the pipeline. 6.5 CONCLUSION With the phenomenal growth of the city and the series of developments, the cityscape has changed. The phenomenal growth of the city has increased the burden on the means to meet the of everyday life needs of the people. The burden has pressed the need for efforts towards the practices that would ensure minimum wastage and better availability through optimal consumption. There is a need to focus on such measures at two levels that is from 210

21 the authorities as well as from the residents. This would contribute in managing the basic needs in everyday lives of the residents in a rather more sustainable manner. The efforts that can contribute towards sustainable development of the city at the institutional level require the major institutions to work in tandem. This can assure better governance for the city and assure sustainable development. The strict rules towards private developers, transparenscy and accountability of HUDA and complete hand over of role to Municipal Corporation of Gurgaon would lead to effective governance and sustainability. Secondly, the people themselves need to put in an effort so that the developments in the city are sustainable. Their everyday life practices can contribute a big step towards sustainability. These practices involve using the rainwater harvesting for ground water replenishment, use of renewable sources of energy such as solar power to reduce energy consumption, using the shared means of transport to reduce individualistic use of vehicles and individual and community level proper disposal and treatment of garbage. Such practices need to be encouraged and followed in all the three spaces of the Millennium City. These practices are easy to be followed by the people of New Gurgaon and Old Gurgaon as they have the resources as compared to the Urban Villages. The villages have a small proportion of the rich population and large population of migrants that belong to low income class. Hence, both the authorities, both the governmental and non-governmental ones and people of the Millennium City need to put in efforts at the grass-root level to make the development sustainable. 211

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