1 CUSTOMS UNION: AN END IN ITSELF OR A STEP TOWARDS ACCESSION? Prof. Dr. Canan Balkır Sedef Eylemer İlkay Taş Graduate Department of EU Studies, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir.
2 The Path towards the Customs Union Ankara Agreement establishing an association between Turkey and the EEC was signed on 12 September Article 28 of Ankara Agreement states: As soon as the operation of this Agreement has advanced far enough to justify envisaging full acceptance by Turkey of the obligations arising out of the Treaty establishing the Community, the Contracting Parties shall examine the possibility of the accession of Turkey to the Community. The Ankara agreement envisioned three phases: a five-year preparation period, a transition period (two separate periods of 12 and 22 years as of 1973), by the end of which a Customs Union was to be completed. the final period following the launching of the Customs Union.
3 The timetable of the transitional stage was upset by the oil crisis and the following global recession of the mid 1970s. In 1978 Turkey took the step of freezing the terms of the Association Agreement under Article 60 of the Additional Protocol, which allowed both parties to take the requisite measures in case of fundamental sectoral or regional disruption or disruption of general economic stability. The relations of Turkey with the Community came to a standstill after the military intervention in 1980.
4 With Turkey s 1980 stabilization and structural adjustment program, aiming to integrate the domestic economy with the global economy, Turkey had made radical changes in its economic structure. The Community has also reversed its stance, by reactivating the Association Agreement. The western-oriented business community began to voice the idea of application for EC membership. This was also backed up in other circles, not only for economic reasons but also to protect the recently gained civilian democracy. Thus on 14 April 1987, when Turkey applied for full membership, economic considerations were still at the forefront of the discussion.
5 The Commission, in its reply in 1989, stated that along with the economic and political drawbacks concerning Turkey, the Community would not be able to accept a new member until it had completed its internal market harmonization; and suggested the reactivation of the Association Agreement and proposed a set of measures towards increasing interdependence between the partners which included the completion of the CU. Customs Union between Turkey and the EU took effect on 1 January 1996 with Association Council decision 1/95.
6 Scope of the CU The CU mainly involves the free circulation of industrial goods between Turkey and EU and excludes trade in agricultural goods. Its basic components are the elimination of all customs duties and quantitative restrictions in trade of industrial goods; alignment of Turkish customs tariffs with the Common Custom Tariffs (CCT); harmonisation of Turkey s commercial policy with the Common Commercial Policy; progressive adoption of the EU s preferential trade agreements with third countries by Turkey; alignment of Turkish legislation with EU legislation in the areas of competition rules and protection of intellectual, industrial and commercial property rights. Thus, the CU doesn t just mean opening to trade competition from the EU but also a considerable degree of policy dependency.
7 Perspectives on the Customs Union Turkey has become the only country realizing CU without becoming a full member, while the latest ten new countries have adopted the acquis on CU upon their full membership to the EU, two of them being even granted a further period of full adoption for certain goods. The EU s ex-ambassador to Turkey, Michael Lake, explained the situation as follows: The customs union created misconceptions on both sides. The European side felt that Turkey would be preoccupied with making it work and not press for full membership for the time being, while Turkey had the misconception that the customs union was a stepping stone towards full membership in the next year or two
8 Customs Union: A Scapegoat for EU Opponents? The debate concerning the CU in Turkey has been basically between the defenders who believe that the CU will yield positive results in the long term, and the opponents, who argue that it will harm Turkey s economic interest. The CU as a cure-all that would impose discipline on the domestic market, correct the foreign trade imbalance, provide financial resource, and promote foreign investment. The CU as a reason of deficiencies in the Turkish economy
9 Prior to the CU ( ) Commitments Payments Implementation Rate Loan Grant Following the CU ( ) Commitments Payments Implementation Rate Loan Grant Grant Loan Financial Aspects % 63 % 80 % 17 % 33 % 37 % 7 Candidacy Process Commitments ( ) million (Loan: m & Grant: 453 m) million (Loan: 927 m & Grant: 78 m) million Loan: m & Grant: 768 m 755,3 million Loan: 557 m & Grant: 52 m : 698 m : m : m. Source: Turkish Secretariat General for the EU Affairs, abgs.gov.tr.
10 Croatia Allocation of Pre-Accession Assistance among Candidate and Potential Candidate Countries Population Total Financial Support for (Euro) *Per capita Financial Support for (Euro) The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Serbia Montenegro Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Turkey Source: European Commission Enlargement Website, ; Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) Multi-Annual Indicative Financial Framework for
11 The Implications of the Customs Union for Turkey
12 The Impact on Foreign Trade The CU trade creation trade diversion The Breakdown of Turkey s Foreign Trade By Country Group (%) * Export EU Non-EU Import EU Non-EU * EU-25 after May 2004 Source: Undersecretary of Foreign Trade, Turkey
13 The Impact on Foreign Trade The Share of the EU in Turkey s Foreign Trade (%) Years Year (EU-27) Export The Share of Turkey in EU s Foreign Trade (%) Share in total extra EU exports (%) Import Volume Share in total extra EU imports (%) 1.70 *EU-25 after May 2004 Source: Undersecretary of Foreign Trade, Turkey;, Panorama of European Union Trade Data , 2007 edition, s
14 Considering the significance of agriculture in Turkey s foreign trade and economy, the exclusion of agricultural goods from the CU creates a major setback. Turkey is a net exporter in agricultural products, the EU being the first destination The share of agriculture in the merchandise trade increased to 10.7% in 2007 from 5.7% in 2006 and 6.7% in The relative share of agriculture fell from 10.3% of GDP in 2005 to 9.2% in The share of agriculture in total employment declined from 30% in 2005 to 27% in 2006
15 Lehmann, Herzer, Zarzoso and Vollmer (2007) Although a full integration of Turkish agriculture seems quite costly if today s CAP and structural fund rules were applied, the abolition of all tariffs or tariff-like protection would certainly be an effective measure for strengthening and increasing Turkish agricultural exports to the EU.
16 Labour productivity per person employed EU-27 EU-15 Bulgaria Poland Romania Turkey (e) 46.7 (e) n.a (e) (f) 41.0 (f) 62.4 (f) e) Estimated value (f) Forecast *GDP in Purchasing Power Standards (PPS) per person employed relative to EU-27 (EU-27 = 100)
17 The Impact on Foreign Direct Investment Although CU was not a big impetus, the decision of December 2004 for the opening of negotiations with Turkey on 3rd October 2005 had a positive impact on the FDI inflow, largely driven by inflows from privatisations.
18 Foreign Direct Investment According to the European Commission s 2007 Progress Report on Turkey, Foreign direct investment inflows to Turkey increased by 105%, reaching 15.2 billion in Foreign investor interest continued in 2007, and FDI inflows reached 8.8 billion in the first half of the year (higher than the 6.7 billion recorded in the first half of 2006). Between 2002 and 2006 approximately 75% of FDI inflows to Turkey have been from the EU countries. Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, UK and Italy are among the major countries investing in Turkey. Apart from these large international investor countries, there are also EU countries ranking high in 2006 because of one big deal such as Greece (Finansbank( Finansbank) ) and Austria (Petrol Ofisi).
19 Impact on Employment Turkey s population growth will still remain much more dynamic compared to other EU members. However, a growing population provides economic opportunity only if employment increases as well. It was assumed that the CU would contribute to the solution of unemployment problem through the use of low labour costs to attract foreign direct investment. However, more than a decade of o implementation of the CU has proved that the mentioned assumption is not valid. The unemployment rate was 5.9 % in 1997; it rose to 8.5% and 10.6% in 2001 and 2002 respectively. The main factor behind this rise in unemployment was the sharp economic crisis and the restructuring process in the banking sector and state-owned enterprises which also led to a decrease in the employment rate from 45.5% in 1997 to 44.6% in 2001 and to 43.5% in The unemployment was 9.9% and the employment rate was 43.1 % in 2007.
20 Alignment with the Competition Policy Concerning the regulatory framework of competition, such as state subsidies, anti-trust trust law, and the law concerning industrial and intellectual property rights, Turkey was expected to bring its legislation in line with that of the EC. According to the Progress Report of Turkey in 2007, harmonization with the antitrust acquis is well advanced. The level of enforcement by the Competition Authority is satisfactory. Turkey was to adapt all aid schemes other than those granted to the textile and clothing sector to the rules laid down in Community frameworks and guidelines under 87 and 88 of EC Treaty within two years after the entry into force of the CU. However, Turkey failed to adopt legislation on state aid and also o to establish an independent state aid monitoring authority. According to the Progress Report of 2007, their absence delays the t adoption of implementing rules for competition under the Customs Union Decision 1/95 and results in serious distortions of competition.
21 Alignment with the Common Commercial Policy As the Community has granted trade preferences to many third countries through either bilateral trade agreements or unilateral decisions, the application of the common customs tariff obliges Turkey to give preferential access to its markets to the countries to which the EC has given or will give preferential access Not being in the decision mechanism, Turkey has no voice in the agreements that the EU concludes with third countries. Complaints have been voiced regarding the neglect by the EU of the necessity of consultation with Turkey before the EU starts a FTA negotiation with a third country. Although Turkey, due to CU, has to give the same concessions provided by the EU to these third countries, they are generally reluctant to give the same trade concessions to Turkey.
22 The situation may get more complex as the EU aims to increase its FTAs within the context of its new strategy introduced by a communication titled Global Europe- Competing in the World dated 4 October 2006 For instance, it is expected that in the near future, EU will conclude FTAs with Korea and India which are also important trade partners of Turkey.
23 Political Implications of the Customs Union Turkey, being a candidate country since the Helsinki Summit of 1999, started accession negotiations on 3 October Nevertheless, the CU still forms an important part of the relations between Turkey and the EU.
24 The accession of G. Cyprus to the EU has raised a politically sensitive issue between Turkey and the EU concerning the Additional Protocol extending the EC Turkey Association Agreement to 10 new countries. Negotiation Framework Document for Turkey states that the advancement of negotiations will be guided by Turkey s progress in preparing for accession and this progress will be measured in particular against some requirements. The fulfilment of Turkey's obligations under the Association Agreement and its Additional Protocol extending the Association Agreement to all new EU Member States, in particular those pertaining to the EU- Turkey customs union is among these requirements.
25 Turkey s refusal to open its ports and airports to trade from Greek Cyprus, resulted in the partial suspension of accession negotiations between Turkey and EU. Following the Commission s recommendation on 29 November 2006, EU foreign Ministers decided, on 11 December 2006, to partially suspend negotiations with Turkey for eight of thirty-five chapters including the chapter on customs union
26 The screening report issued on 9 March 2007 highlights the considerable level of alignment of the Turkish customs law with the acquis. Discrepancies stated in the screening report covers issues such as control at the borders, customs status of goods, duty relief, rules of origin, counterfeit, free zones which are considered as being outside Turkey s customs territory The screening report as long as restrictions on free movement of goods carried by vessels and airplanes registered in Cyprus or where the last port of call was Cyprus remain, Turkey will not be in a position to fully implement the acquis relating to the EU-Turkey customs union.
27 Conclusion The impact of the CU on Turkish economy does not seem to be negative, but far from fulfilling the expectations. The failure of the financial obligations to be met by the EU gave rise to frustration on the Turkish side, strengthening the euro sceptic trends in Turkey. Given the share of agriculture in trade and the share of service sector in the Turkish economy, the exclusion of both sectors from CU is a major disadvantage to Turkey.
28 Given the fact that Turkey, not being in the decision-making mechanisms of the EU, cannot participate in the EU s FTA negotiations with the third countries and such a relationship seems hardly sustainable in the long run. Customs Union between Turkey and the EU is not a kind of relationship in itself, but should be regarded rather as an integral part of a gradual process of integration.
CUSTOMS UNION: AN END IN ITSELF OR A STEP TOWARDS ACCESSION? Canan Balkır * Sedef Eylemer** İlkay Taş** Abstract The Customs Union between Turkey and the European Union, which took effect on 1st January
THE WESTERN BALKANS The EU has developed a policy to support the gradual integration of the Western Balkan countries with the Union. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the first of the seven countries to join,
NEGOTIATING FRAMEWORK FOR TURKEY Principles governing the negotiations 1. The negotiations will be based on Turkey's own merits and the pace will depend on Turkey's progress in meeting the requirements
Civitas: Online Report The Costs and Benefits of the European Union Would we be better off if we left? If the UK were to leave the EU, there would be no net loss of jobs or trade. In addition, we would
92/2015-27 May 2015 Energy prices in the EU Household electricity prices in the EU rose by 2.9% in 2014 Gas prices up by 2.0% in the EU In the European Union (EU), household electricity prices 1 rose by
PORTABILITY OF SOCIAL SECURITY AND HEALTH CARE BENEFITS IN ITALY Johanna Avato Human Development Network Social Protection and Labor The World Bank Background study March 2008 The Italian Social Security
OHIO & The European Union Why the EU Matters for the Buckeye State Indiana University European Union Center Table of Contents Why does the EU Matter? 1 Ohio s Trade with the EU 2 The EU s Investments in
EUROPEAN STUDIES IN TURKEY: PRESENT STATE AND PROPOSALS FOR THE FUTURE European studies in Turkey have gone through intensive development in the last few years, especially after the Helsinki summit. Today
EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 25.9.2014 COM(2014) 592 final REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation in the period from 4 December 2011 until 31 December
U.S. Trade Overview, 213 Stephanie Han & Natalie Soroka Trade and Economic Analysis Industry and Analysis Department of Commerce International Trade Administration October 214 Trade: A Vital Part of the
Trade Barriers Ing. Mansoor Maitah Ph.D. et Ph.D. Economic Basis for Trade Distribution of Economic Resources Different Technologies Goods are Differentiated as to Quality and other Non - price Attributes
EU s Asylum Policy and the Danish Justice and Home Affairs Opt-Out Marlene Wind, Professor and Director of Centre for European Politics, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen Professor
C O N T E N T 4. Leased lines... 39 4.1. Market players... 39 4.2. Market volume and market players... 39 4.3. Prices for the leased lines service... 4 4. Leased lines 4.1. Market players Besides the incumbent
Joint Declaration On the Establishment of the Regional Co-operation Council (RCC) Representatives of the Participating States of the South East European Co-operation Process (SEECP), the United Nations
31/01/2013 S22 European Investment Bank - Service contract - Contract notice - Restricted procedure L-Luxembourg: EIB - Assistance to the Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) for the implementation of the
Consultation on the future of European Insolvency Law The Commission has put the revision of the Insolvency Regulation in its Work Programme for 2012. The revision is one of the measures in the field of
Statistical Data on Women Entrepreneurs in Europe September 2014 Enterprise and Industry EUROPEAN COMMISSION Directorate-General for Enterprise and Industry Directorate D SMEs and Entrepreneurship Unit
The education system and lifelong learning in Finland October 2015 Petri Haltia FINLAND Population: year 2012: 5,421,827 density: 16/km 2 Area: total 338,424 km 2 water 10 % GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate:
- Assessment of the application by Member States of European Union VAT provisions with particular relevance to the Mini One Stop Shop (MOSS) - BACKGROUND The information available on this website relates
TURKISH PERSPECTIVE ON FTAs under the Turkey-EU CU (with a Special Emphasis to TTIP) Murat YAPICI DG for EU Affairs Ministry of Economy Brussels, June 18, 2013 1 Contents I. Turkey-EU Association Relations
Definition of Public Interest Entities (PIEs) in Europe FEE Survey October 2014 This document has been prepared by FEE to the best of its knowledge and ability to ensure that it is accurate and complete.
EVN Hydropower Development in Albania The River Devoll Project Dr. Michael Laengle, CFO Agenda > EVN Overview and strategy > Albania Electricity market in SEE > The River Devoll project 2 Company profile
Direct Trade Regulation: An Exit Strategy For All Parties? Nilgün Arısan Eralp TEPAV AB Institute Director TEPAV Policy Note June 2010 DIRECT TRADE REGULATION : AN EXIT STRATEGY FOR ALL PARTIES? The EU
/ Insurance Regional Highlights * /March 2015/ The insurance sector in South Eastern Europe has undergone considerable change in recent years, marked by Croatia s accession to the EU, amendments to legislation
November 2014 THE BILATERAL FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHINA AND SWITZERLAND A NEW WORLD OF OPPORTUNITIES Studio Fiam S.A. Gestioni e consulenze aziendali DFK (SWITZERLAND) SA Via Frasca, 3 CH 6901 LUGANO
Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2876228/ Electricity, Gas and Water: The European Market Report 2014 Description: The combined European annual demand for electricity,
MALTA TRADING COMPANIES IN MALTA Trading companies in Malta 1. An effective jurisdiction for international trading operations 410.000 MALTA GMT +1 Located in the heart of the Mediterranean, Malta has always
Electricity and natural gas price statistics 1 Source: Statistics Explained (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/) - 21/11/2011-09:11:44 Electricity and natural gas price statistics Data
Sofia - Bulgaria March 2013 Table of Contents I. Background of the Balkan Horse Park Development II. Overview of the Balkan Horse Park Development III.Horse Racing Industry & the Expected Economic Impact
Panel: How broadband policy can contribute to deploy secured and universal broadband access Presentation: Initiatives to deploy broadband access in Europe Erik BOHLIN Chalmers University of Technology,
Greece Country Profile EU Tax Centre March 2013 Key factors for efficient cross-border tax planning involving Greece EU Member State Double Tax Treaties With: Albania Estonia Lithuania Serbia Armenia Finland
COMPOSITE PAPER Reports on progress towards accession by each of the candidate countries TABLE OF CONTENTS COMPOSITE PAPER Reports on progress towards accession by each of the candidate countries I. INTRODUCTION
1 Vienna 2 Initiative Working Group on the European Banking Union and Emerging Europe 12 General considerations The countries of Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe (CESEE) have today very different
European Patent Office The European Patent Office Serving industry and the public Patent Office What is a patent? The European patent Patent Office European Patent Organisation Member states Organisational
Believe in Olive Oil promotion campaign gears up for launch in Japan The International Olive Council will be officially launching its Believe in Olive Oil campaign to promote olive oil in Japan this coming
Towards a Single Market for Occupational Pensions Without Tax Obstacles May 25 9:00 AM 9:45 AM Peter Schonewille, European Commission, DG TAXUD/E/3 Competence Centre for Pension Research, University of
Macroeconomic Imbalances Factsheet Introduction Since the outbreak of the credit crunch crisis in 2008, and the subsequent European debt crisis, it has become clear that there are large macroeconomic imbalances
ANNEX A CABINET OFFICE THE CIVIL SERVICE NATIONALITY RULES Introduction The Civil Service Nationality Rules concern eligibility for employment in the Civil Service on the grounds of nationality and must
1 UNITED KINGDOM DEMOGRAPHICS AND MACROECONOMICS Data from 2008 or latest available year. 1. Ratio of over 65-year-olds the labour force. Source: OECD, various sources. COUNTRY PENSION DESIGN STRUCTURE
Preparation of the Informal Ministerial Meeting of Ministers responsible for Cohesion Policy, Milan 10 October 2014 Cohesion Policy and economic governance: complementing each other Background paper September
Flash Eurobarometer HOW COMPANIES INFLUENCE OUR SOCIETY: CITIZENS VIEW REPORT Fieldwork: October-November 2012 Publication: April 2013 This survey has been requested by the European Commission, Directorate-General
5 April 2006 Screening report Turkey Chapter 5 Public procurement Date of screening meetings: Explanatory meeting: 7 November 2005 Bilateral meeting: 28 November 2005 Turkey: chapter 5 Public procurement
A DECADE OF ALLIANCE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH IN SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE THIRD HEALTH MINISTERS FORUM With the special participation of policy-makers from other government sectors and representatives of RCC initiatives
DEEP AND COMPREHENSIVE FREE TRADE AREA EU-MOLDOVA I. What is the DCFTA? Argumentaire The Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA) is an arrangement between the EU and the Republic of Moldova that
Flash Eurobarometer INVESTING IN INTANGIBLES: ECONOMIC ASSETS AND INNOVATION DRIVERS FOR GROWTH REPORT Fieldwork: January February 213 Publication: May 213 This survey has been requested by the European
Robert Waldburger University of St. Gallen Tax competition in Europe National Report Switzerland I. General aspects of the domestic tax situation 1. The notion of 'tax competition' in domestic legal and
Economia Aziendale online 2000 Web Giurgiu A. Trade Effects Of EU Membership: Study Case Onto The Romanian External Trade International Business and Management Review N. 1/2008 Special Issue 3 rd International
EUROPEAN COMMISSION MEMO Brussels, 12 November 2014 SMEs access to finance survey 2014 This memo outlines the results of a survey undertaken by the European Commission to provide policy makers with evidence
Flash Eurobarometer INNOVATION IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR: ITS PERCEPTION IN AND IMPACT ON BUSINESS REPORT Fieldwork: February-March 22 Publication: June 22 This survey has been requested by the European Commission,
EN EN EN EUROPEAN COMMISSION Brussels, 10.3.2011 COM(2011) 105 final REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL under Article 7 of Decision 2006/500/EC (Energy Community Treaty)
International Call Services Affordable rates for business calls. Wherever you are in the world. We ve got plenty to say when it comes to staying in touch when you re overseas. We have agreements with 443
Public administration and business environment Access to markets, infrastructure and services Energy, raw materials Investment and skills Access to finance productivity 3.13 Cyprus Cyprus Position compared
FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN ROMANIA AND BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA PREAMBLE Romania and Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter called the Parties ), Reaffirming their commitment to pluralistic democracy based
About us At RoamingExpert we specialise in mobile roaming tariffs which are tailored to the specific needs of the yachting industry. Our unique offering generates significant savings when compared to standard
INFORMATION SHEET No. 126 Malta in International Tax Structuring February 2015 Introduction Malta is a reputable EU business and financial centre with an attractive tax regime and sound legislative framework.
Turkish Arab Economic Forum June 29, 2012 Mehmet Şimşek Minister of Finance 1 Outline Turkey: Short Term Outlook Managing a Soft Landing Fallout from the Euro Crisis Turkey & MENA REBALANCING Growing ON
PART TWO ICIES FOR ADJUSTMENT AND GROWTH Economic Survey of Europe, 22 No. 1 CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ECE REGION DURING THE 199s While the task of estimating the contribution of technical
Council of the European Union 7004/15 (OR. en) PROVISIONAL VERSION PRESSE 20 PR CO 12 OUTCOME OF THE COUNCIL MEETING 3375th Council meeting Economic and Financial Affairs Brussels, 10 March 2015 President
Analysis from the CPMR Secretariat July 2015 What do the recent regional GDP statistics tell us about Cohesion? Headline messages - Recent regional GDP statistics reveal that regional disparities are on
1 March 2009 PRESENTATION OF THE CROATIAN PENSION SYSTEM Croatian social security system is mostly the insurance based, with exception of family benefits (children allowance- doplatak za djecu) and the
www.sigmaweb.org PRIORITIES TURKEY MAY 2013 This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official
ARE THE POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT TRULY MAKING THINGS EASIER FOR EUROPEAN COMPANIES? SERVICES DIRECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION REPORT NOVEMBER 2011 EUROPEAN COMPANIES WANT WELL-FUNCTIONING POINTS OF SINGLE CONTACT
The European Commission s strategy on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) 2011-2014: achievements, shortcomings and future challenges Fields marked with are mandatory. 1 Introduction - Background and
4 March 2011 Screening report Iceland Chapter 8 Competition Policy Date of screening meetings: Bilateral meeting only: 6 December 2010 1 I. CHAPTER CONTENT The competition acquis covers both rules applying
Polish insurance market: growth and potential Polish Insurance Association June 2012 Table of contents 1. Polish insurance market general information 2. Non life insurance in Poland 3. Life insurance in
IMPEL European Union network for the Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law The mission of IMPEL is to contribute to protecting the environment by promoting the effective implementation and
economic development in Central and Eastern Europe and its effects on Austria Brief Analysis June 2010 Austria s highest Triple-A sovereign rating is not at risk even in the face of the exposure of its
187/2014-5 December 2014 This News Release has been revised following an error in the data for Gross Fixed Capital Formation. This affects both the growth of GFCF and its contribution to GDP growth. All
Bankruptcy Systems and In-court Reorganisation of Firms, 2010 Content: 1. Perception of the Bancruptcy System... 2 2. Perception of In-court Reorganisation... 4 3. Perception of Creditor Committees, Fast
TRENDS IN WORLD OLIVE OIL CONSUMPTION World consumption of olive oil increased 1.8 fold in volume between 1990/00 and 2015/16. As can be seen from Chart 1, this upward movement has been located primarily
Introduction to the European Patent Office and the European patent system Michaël De Smet European Patent Office 28-09-202 Contents The European Patent Convention The European Patent Office The European
Brief overview TURKISH CONTRACTING IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET Construction plays a crucial role in Turkey s economic development, accounting for 5.9% of GDP and employing some 1.8 million people. When
IMMIGRATION TO AND EMIGRATION FROM GERMANY IN THE LAST FEW YEARS Bernd Geiss* Germany, Destination for Migrants Germany is in the middle of Europe and has common borders with nine countries. Therefore,
Recent U.S. Economic Growth In Charts MAY 212 GROWTH SINCE 29 The Growth Story Since 29 Despite the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression and a series of shocks in its aftermath, the economy
53/2015-20 March 2015 Asylum in the EU The number of asylum applicants in the EU jumped to more than 625 000 in 2014 20% were Syrians Over a year, the number of asylum applicants 1 registered in the European
BSR Innovation Express: Cluster- to- Cluster Conference Funding and network opportunities for cluster internationalization Jens Peter Vittrup Special Adviser Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Why international R&I cooperation?
EUROPEAN SEMESTER THEMATIC FICHE ACCESS TO FINANCE Access to finance is key to business development. Investment and innovation are not possible without adequate financing. A difficulty in getting finance
Quarterly Statistical Release February 2016, N 64 This release and other statistical releases are available on Efama s website (www.efama.org) Trends in the European Investment Fund Industry in the Fourth
PRODUCT SOLUTIONS Business Mobile Plans GUERNSEY Whatever the size of your business, we can provide the ideal mobile solution for you. Our tariffs are flexible to suit all kinds of businesses and are designed