SEEDS OF REVOLUTION THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR THE SEVEN YEARS WAR

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1 SEEDS OF REVOLUTION THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR THE SEVEN YEARS WAR SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN In 1608, he established the French settlement that is now Quebec City. Champlain was the first European to explore and describe the Great Lakes. He formed positive relationships with local Montagnais and Innu and later with Algonquins and with Hurons, and agreed to provide assistance in their wars against the Iroquois. In 1620, Louis XIII ordered Champlain to cease exploration, return to Quebec, and devote himself to the administration of the country. In every way but formal title, Samuel de Champlain served as Governor of New France, a title that may have been formally unavailable to him owing to his non-noble status. He established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley until his death in Champlain is memorialized as the "Father of New France" and "Father of Acadia 1

2 THE FRENCH COLONIES Established at Quebec Slow growing, autocratic and cold All Catholic Fur trade dominates economy Some farming in Illinois Jesuits convert Indians at a rapid pace Battles between France and England erupt in to frontier battles in the New World English expansion and French-Indian fur trade networks in the contested area heightened tensions and shifted alliances. Colonists were caught in the middle of this conflict. 2

3 THE ALBANY CONGRESS OF 1754 First indications that the colonies should unite for common defense & expansion Albany, New York Only 7 out of 13 colonies represented. Primary purpose was to secure Iroquois loyalty. (Shifting Alliances) Benjamin Franklin was the leader of the premature scheme of local control for the colonies. Plan of unity was unanimously adopted by delegates but not by the colonies or England. The Iroquois left without an agreement. JOIN OR DIE This iconic image would be used twice in early American history First, in 1754 to manage Indian relations & defend against the French Again, in 1765 urging colonial unity against the English 3

4 FRENCH and INDIAN WAR The war that raged in North America from 1754 to 1763 was a part of a larger struggle between France and England, known as the Seven Years War FRANCE Algonquin Indians Huron Indians Spain Who Is Fighting? BRITAIN Colonists (House of Burgesses) British Iroquois 4

5 Where Is The Fighting Taking Place? Started as a struggle over the Ohio River Valley The war began when the English became alarmed at the Forts being built by the French in the Ohio River The French were hoping to link their Canadian and Mississippi land holdings. The first years of the war went terrible for the British and their American colonies. Native American allies began staging raids on frontier farms from New York to what is now West Virginia Warpath of the natives set tone for all future relations. EDWARD BRADDOCK First Commander in Chief of the 13 colonies Led the Braddock Expedition into the Ohio River Valley George Washington was an officer. Got worked by the French, Indigenous, and Canadian Militia! Died from a gunshot wound to the chest. This is not an accurate depiction of death. 5

6 MEN IN CHARGE Edward Braddock James Abercrombie Jeffery Amherst Died Sucked Won the War THE CONQUEST OF CANADA William Pitt became British Prime Minister promising to win the war. Pitt s plan called for the conquest of Canada and the elimination of all French competition from North America. He committed TONS of resources to the Western Theater, and consolidated troops against Prussia. The British gained more support from the Iroquois Confederacy and Ohio Indians and committed over 50,000 British and colonial troops to the Canada campaign. British forces captured Louisburg, the French forts on the New York border, Quebec, and Montreal. 6

7 The death of General James Wolfe, at the conclusion of the battle in which the British captured Quebec in 1759, became the subject of American artist Benjamin West s most famous painting, which was exhibited to tremendous acclaim in London in SOURCE: Benjamin West ( ), The Death of General Wolfe, Oil on canvas,152.6 x cm. Transfer from the Canadian War Memorials,1921(Gift of the 2nd Duke of Westminster, Eaton Hall,Cheshire,1918). National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. TREATY OF PARIS 1763 The Treaty of Paris marked the end of France as a power in North America England receives Canada and most of Frances islands east of the Mississippi River, England also receives Florida from Frances ally Spain Spain receives French land West of the Mississippi River (the Louisiana Territory) as well as the port of New Orleans The continent was now divided between Great Britain and Spain with the Mississippi River marking the boundary Huge war debts for both sides. 7

8 What Are The Results of the War? New Boundaries France lost North American territory to Britain -present day Canada -land east of Mississippi Britain gains Florida from Spain Spain gains Louisiana Territory from France War Debt Britain lost large amount of money debt nearly destroyed English government Parliament desperate to recover money -tax colonists The Extras: Caribbean Slave Trade & India OUTCOMES OF WAR Great Britain s Massive debt from the Seven Year s War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over the colonies. Market Control Increased Taxation Control over Political Institutions This will lead to the division that is loyalty and rebellion amongst colonists 8

9 European Claims in North America, 1750 and 1763 As a result of the British victory in the Seven Years War, the map of colonial claims in North America was fundamentally transformed. PONTIAC S REBELLION As the French withdraw both native and colonial groups attempt to assert their dominance in the interior. Amherst was brutal Gift & Munitions Restrictions Pontiac & The Ottawa Confederacy Fort Pitt, Smallpox & Scalping "You will do well to inoculate the Indians by means of blankets, as well as every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race." 9

10 Massacre of the Indians at Lancaster by the Paxton Boys in 1763 Scot-Irish Colonists on the Penn. Frontier (Killing of the Conestoga) MARCH OF THE PAXTON BOYS Though the British military was fighting off indigenous in the frontier, the colonial leadership was doing little to help. Quaker tolerance of the indigenous peoples. In 1764, 250 of the Paxton boys marched on Philadelphia to protest the civil government for not protecting them. Many colonists in Philadelphia had been outraged by the massacre of the Conestoga. Significance A measure of the hostility that had developed between frontiersman and Indian; many white settlers concluded during Pontiac s Rebellion that the races could not live together. An early example of regional and social tension. Later American history would reflect further cases of the strain between the urban and rural, the haves versus the have-nots and the newcomers against the establishment. 10

11 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 After the French threat had been removed English fur traders and colonists wanted to move west. In the Proclamation of 1763 the crest of the Appalachian Mountains were drawn as the temporary western boundary for the colonies This angered many colonists who were already living in the area, or who have recently purchased land in the area These colonists land claims were now not recognized Apparently not brought on as a reaction to Pontiac s Rebellion The Proclamation of 1763 created friction between the colonies and England Some colonists still went into present day KY & TN A treaty between the Delaware, Shawnee, and Mingo (western Iroquois) Indians and Great Britain, July 13, 1765, at the conclusion of the Indian uprising. The Indian chiefs signed with pictographs symbolizing their clans, each notarized with an official wax seal. 11

12 THE LEGACY The effects of Pontiac's War were long-lasting. "The Royal Proclamation," writes historian Colin Calloway, "reflected the notion that segregation not interaction should characterize Indianwhite relations." The Proclamation officially recognized that indigenous people had certain rights to the lands they occupied, it has been called the Native Americans' "Bill of Rights The relationship between the Canadian government and First Nations is traced to the sovereignty established in the Proclamation of 1763 THE AMERICAN SPIRIT/ANDERSON ARTICLE Read Ch 6 C & D Answer Thought Provoker 3 & 4 (pg 129) Explain the reasons why 1763 is a turning point applying to Colonial-British Relations, Colonial-Native Relations, or British-Native Relations. FIRST WORLD WAR: Precis paragraph and Explain the reasons why 1763 is a turning point applying to Colonial-British Relations, Colonial- Native Relations, or British-Native Relations. Use at least 3 pieces of relevant historic evidence. (I would give each piece of evidence a paragraph) 12

13 What Are The Results of the War? Colonial Unity Colonists angered by taxation begin to make plans to unify retain own constitution governing body to handle military, Native American relations, western settlement Effect on Native Americans Proclamation of 1763 land west of Appalachian Mountains reserved for Native Americans Proclamation not enforced Colonists continued to settle western lands THE REAL FIRST WORLD WAR AND THE MAKING OF AMERICA The Seven Year s War is the True WW1 Precis paragraph and Explain the reasons why 1763 is a turning point applying to Colonial-British Relations, Colonial- Native Relations, or British-Native Relations. Use at least 3 pieces of relevant historic evidence. (HW) 13

14 CRASHCOURSE 14

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