# Cylinder Drag Coefficient

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1 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient COSMOSFloWorks can be used to study flow around objects and to determine the resulting aerodynamic lift and drag forces on the objects due to the flow. In this example we use COSMOSFloWorks to determine the aerodynamic drag coefficient of a circular cylinder immersed in a uniform fluid stream. The cylinder axis is oriented perpendicular to the stream. The computations are performed for a range of Reynolds numbers (1,1000,10 5 ), where ρud Re= , D is the cylinder diameter, U is the velocity of the fluid stream, ρ is the µ density, and µ is the dynamic viscosity. The drag coefficient for the cylinder is defined as: F C D D = ρu 2 DL 2 where F D is the total force in the flow direction (i.e. drag) acting on a cylinder of diameter D and length L. The goal of the simulation is to obtain the drag coefficient predicted by COSMOSFloWorks and to compare it to the experimental data presented in Ref.1. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-1

2 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient Click File, Open. In the Open dialog box, browse to the cylinder 0.01m.SLDPRT part located in the Tutorial 2 - Drag Coefficient\cylinder 0.01m folder and click Open (or double-click the part). Alternatively, you can drag and drop the cylinder 0.01m.SLDPRT file to an empty area of SolidWorks window. The Cylinder analysis represents a typical COSMOSFloWorks External analysis. External flows analyses deal with flows over or around a model such as flows over aircrafts, automobiles, buildings, etc. For external flow analyses the far-field boundaries are Computational Domain boundaries. You can also solve a combined external and internal flow problem in a COSMOSFloWorks project (for example flow around and through a building). If the analysis includes a combination of internal and external flows, you must specify External type for the analysis. The first step is to create a new COSMOSFloWorks project. Creating a Project 1 Click FloWorks, Project, Wizard. The project wizard guides you through the definition of a new COSMOSFloWorks project. In this project we will analyze flow over the cylinder at a Reynolds number of 1. 2 Select Create new. In the Configuration name box type Re 1. This is a name of the SolidWorks configuration that will be created with the associated COSMOSFloWorks project. Click Next. 5-2

3 3 In the Unit System dialog box you can select the desired system of units for both input and output (results). In this project we will specify the International System SI by default. Click Next. 4 In the Analysis Type dialog box select an External type of flow analysis. This dialog also allows you to specify advanced physical features you want to include in the analysis. In this project we will not use any of the advanced physical features To disregard closed internal spaces within the body you can select Exclude internal spaces; however no internal spaces exist within the cylinder for this tutorial. The Reference axis of the global coordinate system (X, Y or Z) is used for specifying data in a tabular or formula form with respect to a cylindrical coordinate system based on this axis. The flow over a cylinder is steady at a Reynolds number Re < 40 (see the cylinder Re definition above) and unsteady (time-dependent) at Re > 40. Since in this tutorial the first calculation is performed at Re=1, to accelerate the run, we performed a steady-state analysis. Click Next. 5 Since we use water in this project, open the Liquids folder and double-click the Water SP item. Click Next. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-3

4 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient 6 Since we do not intend to calculate heat conduction in solids, the Wall Conditions dialog box appears, where you must specify the default thermal wall conditions applied to all the model walls in contact with the fluid. In this project we keep the default Adiabatic wall setting denoting that all the model walls are heat-insulated and the default zero wall roughness. Click Next. For a steady External problem, such as the cylinder in this tutorial, the Initial and Ambient Conditions dialog box asks you to specify the ambient flow conditions of the undisturbed free stream. Thus you will specify initial conditions inside the Computational Domain and boundary conditions at the Computational Domain boundaries. The ambient conditions are thermodynamic (static pressure and temperature by default), velocity, and turbulence parameters. In this project we consider the flow under the default thermodynamic conditions (i.e., the standard atmosphere at sea level), and set the incoming stream (X-component) velocity in accordance with the desired Reynolds number. For convenience we can use the Dependency box to specify the incoming flow velocity in terms of the Reynolds number. 7 Click in the Velocity in X direction box. The Dependency button is enabled. 8 Click Dependency. The Dependency dialog box appears. Using Dependency you can specify data in several ways: as a constant, as a tabular or formula dependency on x, y, z, r, θ, ϕ coordinates and time t (only for time-dependent analysis). The r, θ, ϕ coordinates can be used to specify data in cylindrical or spherical coordinate systems. The radius r is the distance from a point to the Reference axis selected from the reference coordinate system (the Global Coordinate System for all data set in the Wizard and General Setting dialog boxes). 9 In the Dependency type list select Formula definition. 5-4

5 10 In the Formula box type the formula defining the flow velocity using the Reynolds number: 1*( /0.01/998.19). Here: 1 the Reynolds number (Re) (Pa*s) - the water dynamic viscosity (µ) at the specified temperature of K 0.01 (m) - the cylinder diameter (D) (kg/m 3 )- the water density (ρ) at the specified temperature of K 11 Click OK. You will return to the Initial and Ambient Conditions dialog box. For most flows it is difficult to have a good estimation of their turbulence a priori, so it is recommended that the default turbulence parameters be used. The default turbulence intensity values proposed by COSMOSFloWorks are 0.1% for external analyses and 2% for internal analyses and these values are appropriate for most cases. In this project we will specify a turbulence intensity of 1% to compare the results with the experimental data since typical wind tunnels have this level of turbulence. 12 Expand the Turbulence parameters item and in the Turbulence Intensity box type 1. Click Next. 13 In the Result and Geometry Resolution dialog box specify a result resolution level of 7 and accept the automatically defined minimum gap size and minimum wall thickness. Click Finish. The project is created and the 3D Computational Domain is automatically generated. In this tutorial we are only interested in determining the drag coefficient of the cylinder without including the 3D effects. Thus, to reduce the required CPU time and computer memory, we will perform 2 - dimensional (2D) calculations in this tutorial. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-5

6 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient Specifying 2D Plane Flow 1 In the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree, expand the Input Data icon. 2 Right-click the Computational Domain icon and select Edit Definition. The Computational Domain dialog box appears. 3 Click the Boundary Condition tab. 4 In the 2D plane flow list select XY-Plane Flow (since the Z-axis is the cylinder axis). Automatically the Symmetry condition is specified at the Z min and Z max boundaries of the Computational Domain. Click the Size tab. You can see that the Z min and Z max boundaries are set automatically based on the model dimensions. Thus the reference cylinder length L in the cylinder drag (C D ) formula presented above is equal to L = Z max-z min = m. For most cases, to study the flow field around an external body and to investigate the effects of design changes it is recommended to use the default Computational Domain size as determined by COSMOSFloWorks. However, in this case we will compare the COSMOSFloWorks results to experimental results and we would like to determine the drag coefficient with a high degree of accuracy. In order to eliminate any disturbances of the incoming flow at the Computational Domain boundaries due to the presence of the cylinder, we will manually set the boundaries farther away from the cylinder. The accuracy will be increased at the expense of CPU time and memory due to the larger Computational Domain. In order to eliminate any disturbances of the incoming flow at the Computational Domain boundaries, we manually set the boundaries farther away from the cylinder. 5 Specify the coordinates of the Computational domain boundaries as shown on the picture. 6 Click OK. Since the incoming flow is aligned with the X-axis direction, the cylinder drag coefficient is calculated through the X-component of the force acting on the cylinder. The X-component of force can easily be determined by specifying the appropriate COSMOSFloWorks goal. For this case you will specify the X - Component of Force as a Global Goal. This ensures that the X - Component of Force in the entire computational domain (i.e. on the cylinder surface) will be fully converged. 5-6

7 Specifying a Global Goal 1 Click FloWorks, Insert, Global Goals. 2 In the Parameter table select the first check box in the X - Component of Force row. 3 Accept selected Use for Conv. check box to use this goal for convergence control. For the X(Y, Z) - Component of Force and X(Y, Z) - Component of Torque goals you can select the Coordinate system in which these goals are calculated. In this example the default Global Coordinate System meets the task. 4 Click OK. The new GG X - Component of Force 1 item appears in the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree. Specifying an Equation Goal After finishing the calculation you will need to manually calculate the drag coefficient from the obtained force value. Instead, let COSMOSFloWorks to make all the necessary calculations for you by specifying an Equation Goal. 1 Click FloWorks, Insert, Equation Goal. 2 In the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree select the GG X - Component of Force1 goal. It appears in the Expression box. 3 Use buttons in the calculator or keyboard to complete the expression as follows: {GG X - Component of Force1}/(0.002*(1* )^2)*(2*998.19*0.01). 4 Select No units in the Dimensionality list and click OK. The new Equation Goal 1 item appears in the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree. 5 Rename the Equation Goal 1 to Drag Coefficient. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-7

8 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient To compare the COSMOSFloWorks results with the experimental curve taken from Ref.1, we will obtain the results at a Reynolds number of 1, 10 3 and As with Re = 1, the cylinder 0.01m.sldprt is used to calculate the flow at a Reynolds number of The cylinder 1m.sldprt is used to calculate the flow at a Reynolds number of Cloning a Project and Creating a New Configuration 1 In the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree, right-click the top Re 1 icon and select Clone Project. 2 In the Configuration name box, type Re Click OK. The new Re 1000 configuration is created with the attached COSMOSFloWorks project. Since the attached project is a copy of the Re 1 COSMOSFloWorks project, you only need to change the flow velocity value in accordance with the Reynolds number of Use the General Settings dialog box to change all data specified in the Wizard, excepting settings for Units, Result and Geometry Resolution. The General Settings always presents the current state of the project parameters. You can apply General Settings to correct the settings made in the Wizard or to modify the project created with the COSMOSFloWorks Template in accordance with the new project requirements. 5-8

9 Changing Project Settings 1 Click FloWorks, General Settings. The General Settings dialog box appears. 2 Since, as it has been mentioned above, the flow over a cylinder is unsteady at Re > 40, select the Time dependent physical feature in this project. 3 In the Navigator click Initial and ambient conditions. 4 Click the Velocity in X direction box, and then click Dependency. 5 In the Formula box, type the formula for the new Reynolds number: 1e3*( /0.01/998.19). Click OK to return to the General Settings dialog box. 6 Click OK to save changes and close the General Settings dialog box. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-9

10 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient Changing the Equation Goal 1 Right-click the Drag Coefficient icon and select Edit Definition. 2 In the Expression box type the new formula for the new Reynolds number: {GG X - Component of Force1}/(0.002*( *10^3)^2)*(2*998.19*0.01). 3 Click OK to save changes and close the Equation Goal dialog box. In experiments performed with one fluid medium, the Reynolds number s large rise is usually obtained by increasing both the velocity and the model overall dimension (i.e. cylinder diameter) since it is difficult to increase only velocity e.g times. Since our simulation is being performed with water only, let us increase the cylinder diameter to 1 m to perform the calculation at a Reynolds number of Cloning a project is convenient if you want to create similar projects for the same model. The easiest way to apply the same general project settings to another model is to use the COSMOSFloWorks Template. Template contains all of the general project settings that can be used as a basis for a new project. These settings are problem type, physical features, fluids, solids, initial and ambient flow parameters, wall heat condition, geometry and result resolution, and unit settings. Notice that Boundary Conditions, Fans, Initial Conditions, Goals and other features accessible from the FloWorks, Insert menu, as well as results are not stored in the template. Initially, only the New Project default template is available. You can easily create your own template. Creating a Template 1 Click FloWorks, Project, Create Template. The Create Template dialog box appears. 2 In the Template name box, type Cylinder Drag. 3 Click Save. The new COSMOSFloWorks template is created. All templates are stored as.fwp files in the <install_dir>/template folder, so you can easily apply a template for any previously developed models. 4 Save the model. Open the cylinder 1m.sldprt file located in the cylinder 1m folder. Next, create a new project based on the Cylinder Drag template. 5-10

11 Creating a Project from the Template 1 Click FloWorks, Project, New. The New COSMOSFloWorks Project dialog box appears. 2 In the Configuration name box, type Re 1e5. 3 In the List of templates, select Cylinder Drag. 4 Click OK. The newly created project has the same settings as the Re 1000 project with the cylinder 0.01m model with the exception of Geometry Resolution and Computational Domain size, which are calculated by COSMOSFloWorks in accordance with the new model geometry. Notice that the 2D plane flow setting and the Global Goal setting are retained. Next, you can modify the project in accordance with the new model geometry. 1 Click FloWorks, Computational Domain and adjust the computational domain size as shown in the picture. Click OK. 2 In the General Settings dialog box, click Initial and ambient conditions, click the Velocity in X direction box, then click Dependency. 3 Change the velocity X component formula as follows: 1e5*( /1/998.19). By default, COSMOSFloWorks determine the default turbulence length basis equal to one percent of the model overall dimension (i.e. cylinder diameter). Since the Re 1e5 project was created from the template, it inherited the turbulence length value calculated for the small cylinder (d = 0.01m). For the cylinder 1m we need to change this value. 4 In the General Settings dialog box click the Turbulence parameters item. Type 0.01 in the Turbulence length box. 5 Click OK. COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-11

12 Chapter 5 Cylinder Drag Coefficient 6 Create the Equation Goal for the drag coefficient of the cylinder as shown above. In the Expression box type the formula: {GG X - Component of Force1}/(0.2*( *10^5)^2)*(2*998.19*1). 7 Select No units in the Dimensionality list. 8 Click OK. Rename the Equation Goal 1 to Drag Coefficient. Now you can solve all of the projects created for both the cylinders. Solving a Set of Projects COSMOSFloWorks allows you to automatically solve a set of projects that exist in any currently opened document. 1 Click FloWorks, Solve, Batch Run. 2 For all projects (Re 1, Re 1000, Re 1e5) select the Run check box. Select Shutdown Monitor for all the projects. When the Shutdown Monitor check box is selected, COSMOSFloWorks automatically closes the Solver Monitor window after the calculation finishes. 3 Click Run. Getting Results After all the calculations are complete, go to the cylinder 0.01m model and activate the Re 1000 configuration. Create a Goal Plot to obtain the Drag Coefficient value. 1 Click FloWorks, Results, Load\Unload Results. 2 In the Load Results dialog box, keep the default project s results file (2.fld) and click Open. 3 In the COSMOSFloWorks analysis tree, under Results, right-click the Goals icon and select Insert. The Goals dialog box appears. 4 Click Add All. 5 Click OK. The goals1 Excel workbook is created. Switch to Excel to obtain the value. 5-12

13 cylinder 0.01m.SLDPRT [Re 1000] Goal Name Unit Value Averaged Value Minimum Value Maximum Value GG X - Component of Force1 [N] E E E Equation Goal 1 [ ] Activate the Re 1 configuration and load results. Create the goal plot for both the goals. cylinder 0.01m.SLDPRT [Re 1] Goal Name Unit Value Averaged Value Minimum Value Maximum Value GG X - Component of Force1 [N] E E E E-09 Equation Goal 1 [ ] Switch to the cylinder 0.1m part, activate the Re 1e5 configuration and create the goal plot for both the goals. cylinder 1m.SLDPRT [Re 1e5] Goal Name Unit Value Averaged Value Minimum Value Maximum Value GG X - Component of Force1 [N] Drag Coefficient [ ] Even if the calculation is steady, the averaged value is more preferred, since in this case the oscillation effect is of less perceptibility. We will use the averaged goal value for the other two cases as well. You can now compare COSMOSFloWorks results with the experimental curve Re 1E+07 Ref. 1 Roland L. Panton, Incompressible flow Second edition. John Wley & sons Inc., 1995 COSMOSFloWorks 2006 Tutorial 5-13

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