1 Bisphenol A in plastics: is it making us sick? a hazard of modern living Europe for the people for the planet for the future promoting a healthy planet for healthy people
2 The use of plastics has become one of the defining characteristics of modern life. An increasing number of scientific studies have made a direct link between one of the major components of most clear, shatterproof plastic articles - Bisphenol A or BPA - and a surprising number in many diseases. BPA is a known endocrine or hormone disruptor and is implicated in diseases ranging from infertility, obesity, breast and prostate cancer, to diabetes, thyroid malfunction and attention deficit syndrome. Most of the clear, shatterproof plastics used in baby bottles, food storage containers, small kitchen appliances and hard plastic water bottles are made of plastic which contains Bisphenol A. Bisphenol A is also used in the lining of food, beer and soft drink aluminium and tin cans. Evidence of leaching of BPA has been observed for all of the above general public uses. Bisphenol A in plastics: is it making us sick? Bisphenol A 1 and health avoid plastics numbered 1 For a more detailed insight into the issue of BPA, please see Friends of the Earth report: Blissfully unaware of BPA; Reasons why regulators should live up to their responsibilities available at Front cover Stephen Morris/Istockphoto
3 Bisphenol A in plastics: a is it making us sick? hazard of modern living The endocrine system: an essential and hypersensitive regulatory system of the human body The endocrine system of the human body is a complex network of glands, hormones and receptors that carefully regulates many body functions, including our metabolism, immunity, behaviour, growth and development during childhood. This very finely balanced network is involved in developmental processes of cells and organs, including the development of sexual organs. The hormones also regulate our response to disease and even influence our behaviour and relationships with each other: e.g. mother-child bonding. The endocrine system is a messaging system: the glands secrete hormones, which act as chemical messages and are transported by the bloodstream. Hormones are received by receptors, which detect and react to specific hormones in particular cell/tissue types. This mechanism functions very much like a lock and key. Under certain conditions, extremely small amounts of endocrine-mimicking chemicals may disturb this endocrine network. This can be the case during pregnancy, early childhood, and in particular during the vulnerable periods of the development of the reproductive system. Thus, while at a certain concentration Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) may not alter the hormone system of adults, the same concentration may have serious effects on a baby during pregnancy or during other sensitive periods, possibly leading to permanent changes to the organ functions.
4 how how BPA can harm you infertility, obesity, cancer, diabetes, thyroid malfunction and attention deficit syndrome. Stephen Morris/Istockphoto
5 how BPA can harm you a hazard of modern living Scientific research has shown again and again that BPA is a known and proven 2 endocrine disrupting chemical (a chemical that disturbs the hormone system). A 2007 scientific review linked exposure to BPA with an increased risk of cancer of the hematopoietic system (e.g. marrow, spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes), a significant increase in cell tumours of the testes and an alteration of the number of chromosomes in some cells and tissues (potentially leading to mutations and ultimately cancer). Additionally, early life exposure may induce or predispose humans to an increased risk of breast cancer. When exposure occurs during foetal or early childhood development, BPA may increase a person s susceptibility to cancer by affecting their genetic developmental programming. The ability of BPA to affect and/or mimic oestrogen, a key female hormone, is well documented, but BPA s effects are not just limited to the inhibition of oestrogen. BPA also has a number of direct impacts apart from the oestrogen inhibition. These include: effects on the androgen regulation system (which regulates the growth, development, and function of the male reproductive system), disruption of thyroid hormone function, diverse influences on the development and function of the central nervous system, and potentially adverse influences on the immune system. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that BPA can alter how genes are expressed (i.e. turned on or off) and that low-dose BPA exposure during pregnancy has multigenerational consequences; it increases the likelihood of chromosomally abnormal grandchildren. (Susiarjo et al. 2007). In humans, abnormal chromosomes may lead to miscarriages, death soon after birth or conditions such as Down s syndrome and Turner syndrome. It is now obvious and indisputable that BPA can have adverse effects on human health even at low doses. But how exactly does BPA get from consumer goods into our blood streams? 2 See the Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel Consensus Statement 2007 where thirty-eight of the world's leading scientific experts on Bisphenol A have warned policymakers of potential adverse health effects of the widespread exposure to this chemical in Reproductive Toxicology 24:
6 how BPA can harm you a hazard of modern living The scientific understanding about toxic chemicals is undergoing a revolution One of the key arguments of the chemical and plastics industry and some governments is that the amount of BPA we ingest is so incredibly small that we do not have to worry about it. It is the traditional idea that the greater the amount of a poison, the more harmful it is. However, research into endocrine disrupting chemicals is seriously challenging traditional thinking about toxicology. New understanding about how hormones act at extremely low concentrations is putting the dose makes the poison credo into a whole new and much more sophisticated context. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as Bisphenol A, can interfere with the body's hormonal system by acting like natural human hormones at concentrations much lower than those at which other toxic chemicals have an impact. 3 Sometimes a low dose may be as or more harmful than a higher dose (this is known as the low dose effect). Industry and many governments still dispute the low dose effect, but scientific evidence of its existence continues to mount, both for Bisphenol A and for other chemicals. In addition, the amount and kind of harm the chemical may cause depends on the timing and length of exposure. Furthermore, when several different kinds of chemicals mix together in human body, they can act additively or synergistically and cause adverse effects at concentrations that are insufficient to cause harm when a chemical is by itself. This is commonly known as the cocktail effect. 3 Since the 1980s, scientists have been able to measure concentrations of a chemical in parts per trillion, or 1 part in 1 trillion (1012) or the equivalent of one grain of sand in a sand-filled Olympic-size swimming pool of 50 x 25 meters.
7 Alice Millikan/Istockphoto where where BPA can be found food and drink containers, cans, compact discs, household appliances, fresh food and many other products.
8 where BPA can be found and how it gets into you a hazard of modern living Bisphenol A is one of the most commonly used industrial chemicals in the world today. BPA is a key ingredient in the production of plastic materials and makes them strong and shatterproof, resistant to temperatures between 40 and 145 degrees Celsius, and resistant to many acids and oils. It is also an ingredient in epoxy resins, a type of product that is tough and resistant to many chemicals, and adheres well to numerous surfaces. In addition, BPA is also used in a variety of minor applications, such as brake fluids, dental sealants and pesticides (please refer to Table 1 for a sample list of products containing BPA). table 1 Examples of products containing Bisphenol A Polycarbonate Plastics (65% of use) Impact-resistant glazing Street-light globes Household appliance parts Components of electrical/electronic devices Compact discs Automotive applications Reusable bottles Food and drink containers Sunglasses Refrigerator shelving Microwave ovenware Eating utensils Epoxy Resins (30% of use) Coatings Food and beverage can linings Electrical laminates for printed circuit boards Composites Adhesives Paints Nail polish Other Uses (5% of use) Pesticide formulations Antioxidants Flame retardants Brake fluids Rubber and PVC stabilisers Water supply pipes Dental sealants Thermal paper additives Water main filters Reinforced pipes Floorings Electric insulators sources: Bro-Rasmussen 2006, Weise and Szabo 2008, Endocrine/Estrogen Letter 2003.
9 The scientific literature showing that BPA is leached from countless consumer products, food contact materials and is released during its production into the environment is extensive (see Table 2). Whether BPA leaches out from plastics or epoxy resin coatings is related to the type of food or liquid, the temperature and heating time. Leaching rates under normal conditions of use have been measured in food containers, epoxy resins, plastics, baby bottles, take-away food containers and plastic wraps. The BPA that has leached from food containers into food products has been detected in vegetables, fish, fruit (including fresh), canned instant coffee, powdered milk and infant formula, canned milk as well as honey. BPA has also been found to migrate from polyvinyl chloride or PVC hoses and water storage tanks, contributing to the possible contamination of drinking water. An unexpected source of BPA may be fresh fruit and vegetables grown in greenhouses, as the chemical migrates from the PVC panels used for the walls of greenhouses into the indoor atmosphere. 4 The potential overall environmental contamination due to BPA production is considerable and largely unacknowledged. BPA has been found in freshwater, seawater, landfill leachates (the liquid that drains from landfill), air, and dust particles. Human exposure to BPA is worldwide and pervasive. Numerous studies have found BPA in human serum, urine, amniotic fluid, follicular fluid, placental tissue, and umbilical cord blood 5 despite the chemical being metabolized (i.e. broken down) in the human body within 6 hours. 6 table 2 Major sources of Bisphenol A exposure Product Baby bottles Polycarbonate plastic bottles Microwave plastic containers Polyvinyl chloride plastic wraps Paper towels from recycled paper Polycarbonate plastic tubing Canned food lining Fresh food How Leaching from bottle into milk increases with the temperature of the content, length of contact with the bottle and significantly after repeated use. 55 fold increase in leaching when filled with boiling water Leaching increases with heating of containers Leaching observed when in contact with water, olive oil, acetic acid Bisphenol A is used in the production of thermal paper. Different types of recycled paper contain very different levels of BPA. Leaching levels greatest in river water Leaching into foods, including vegetables, fish, fruit, instant coffee, powdered milk and infant formula Leaching from PVC in glass house panels via air onto fruit and vegetables sources: as cited by Vandenberg et al. 2007, Lopez-Espinoza et al. 2007, Le et al See Vivacqua et al and Sajiki et al Vandenberg et al See Chapel Hill Bisphenol A Expert Panel Consensus Statement 2007, as cited.
10 Diego Cervo/Istockphoto act what you can do to reduce BPA exposure choose safe options and engage with the retailer and producer.
11 what you can do to reduce BPA exposure choose safe options for food packaging and storage a hazard of modern living Whenever possible: choose safe options Store food in glass, ceramic or stainless steel containers. Buy fresh local products; try to avoid fruit and vegetables grown in greenhouses. If you need to use plastic that comes into contact with food, choose safer options where possible: Suitable plastics are those with a recycling code no.1 (Polyethylene terephthalate or PETE), no. 2 (high density poly ethylene or HDPE), recycling code no.4 (low-density polyethylene or LDPE) and no.5 (polypropylene or PP), in any case, take care to avoid polycarbonate plastics (PC) as much as possible. Avoid plastics with recycling codes no. 3, no.6 or no.7. No.7 (other plastics) may contain Bisphenol A and are best avoided. Additionally take care and avoid PVC (no.3) and polystyrene (no.6), as the possible residues (vinyl chloride and styrene) may also be harmful. 7 PVC has negative environmental and health impacts during production, use and after disposal, for instance when waste is incinerated. Avoid heating foods or drinks in plastic containers Avoid heating all plastics, irrespective of their recycling numbers. If you need to store heated food or liquid in plastic containers, wait until the food has cooled down before transferring it. Avoid canned food and foods grown in plastic greenhouses. Although it is not always possible to identify fruits and vegetables grown in greenhouses, eating seasonal products can be first step and a good way to avoid food grown in greenhouses. Caution: food wrapping: Meats, cheeses, and other commercially-wrapped foods in delis/speciality food shops and standard food shops/supermarkets may be wrapped in PVC, which we recommend you avoid. Some of the commercial wraps sold for home use are made from polyethylene (no.4). Caution: unlabelled could mean unsafe Many plastic items are unlabelled and the only way to find out what they are made of is by contacting the manufacturer. We encourage you to do so and to express your concerns. In the absence of information: avoid using plastics where possible. The safer alternatives are glass and stainless steel. Take care with all plastic products Take plastic products to recycling stations where possible. Ask your dentist to use dental sealants that do not contain BPA. 7 Mutti A, Mazzucchi A, Rustichelli P et al, Exposure-effect and exposure-response relationships between occupational exposure to styrene and neuropsychological functions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 5: Benignus VA, geller AM, Boyes WK et al, Human neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to styrene: a metaanalysis. Environ Health Perspectives, 113(5):
12 what you can do to reduce BPA exposure minimize baby and infant exposure a hazard of modern living Here are some suggestions to reduce exposure Babies and infants are especially at risk from low dose BPA exposure. Here are some suggestions: Feeding Breastfeed whenever possible for as long as possible. Breast milk is the optimal food for your baby, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends six months of exclusive breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding thereafter until two years or longer, so no need for infant formula and bottles. If you need to use infant formula, choose a powdered one, as liquid formulas have higher levels of BPA, and use glass bottles or cups for feeding. Use as few cans as possible, as the metal will probably be coated with epoxy resin which contains BPA. Do not use ready-to-eat liquid formulas in metal cans. Avoid liquid formulas that are in rigid and transparent plastic containers marked with PC. When expressing breast milk, use breast pumps, shields and jars and bags that are BPA free. Baby bottles/sippy cups: Use glass or plastic baby bottles that are labelled Bisphenol A-free or made of polyethylene, polypropylene or polyamide. 8 Teats, dummies or pacifiers Choose teats/ dummies or pacifiers made from silicon. They are the most durable and inert options. Ask your local childcare centre to get rid of all polycarbonate food contact and food storage materials Plastic Code Quick Guide Avoid no.3-pvc (Polyvinyl chloride) no.6-ps (Poly Styrene) no.7- PC (Poly Carbonate) 9 Probably Safe no.1-pet (Polyethylene terephthalate) no.2-hdpe (High-density Polyethylene) no.4-ldpe (Low-density Polyethylene) no.5-pp (Polypropylene) 8 National Childbirth Trust UK Number 7 is the general code for other plastics and may therefore include many sorts of plastics. When followed by the letter PC, it clearly indicates Poly Carbonate plastics, which contains BPA and should therefore be avoided.
13 what you can do to reduce BPA exposure engage with retailers, producers and government departments a hazard of modern living Here are some ways Always read the labels. Sometimes a company declares that their product is free of BPA. Ask your retailer to stop using and selling polycarbonate food contact materials. Contact the manufacturer and ask them whether the food contact material contains BPA. Help ensure that endocrine disrupting chemicals, like BPA, are tightly controlled under the new European Chemicals law, REACH. To have BPA identified as a Substance of Very High Concern and subject to a strict authorisation procedure which can stop certain uses from being put in the European market, write to your government (see below) to request that they nominate BPA to the so-called candidate list. Once the chemical is on the candidate list, the producers and sellers of any articles containing this substance will be obliged to inform a consumer, should they request it (see overleaf). The candidate list is expected to be published by the European Commission in October You will be able to find it then on the website of the European Chemicals Agency ( For each EU member state, the relevant government authority can be found on pages of the booklet Navigating REACH which can be found here: /2007/Navigating_REACH_Chem_React_Sept07.pdf
14 what you can do to reduce BPA exposure write to companies about its use a hazard of modern living Sample letter to a manufacturer: Date Dear Sir/Madam In accordance with the new regulation on chemicals REACH, I am writing to ask you to inform me about the presence in the product XXX or its packaging of any chemicals from the group of substances of very high concern as specified by REACH. Should any of these substances be present in the product XXX or its packaging, I wish to be informed of the name of the chemical substance(s), and any other accompanying information. I would be grateful to receive this information within 45 days as required by REACH. Furthermore, I am also very concerned about the presence of Bisphenol A in XXX and/or its packaging. I would therefore be grateful if you would provide me with any relevant information. Please note that should you fail to provide me with a relevant answer to these questions I would have to switch to a product that I consider safer for my health and that of my family. I would also be grateful if you would inform me about steps you are taking to provide products intended for the same use but which do not contain such potentially hazardous chemicals. Yours faithfully CC: European Chemical Agency Annankatu, 18, Helsinki, Finland. references Bro-RasmussenFn (2006). BisphenolAasanendocrinedisruptingchemical. Short notesandanopinionexpresseduponrequest fromthedanishparliament Committeefortheenvironment. Chapel Hill bisphenol A expert panel consensus statement (2007). Integration of mechanisms, effects in animals and potential to impact human health at current levels of exposure. Reproductive Toxicology 24: Endocrine/Estrogen Letter (2003) BPA Concerns: an E/E Letter Special Report Endocrine/Estrogen LetterVol. 9:2&3. Le HH, Carlson EM, Chua JP and SM Belcher (2008). Bisphenol A is released from polycarbonate drinking bottles and mimics the neurotoxic actions of estrogen in developing cerebellar neurons. Toxicology Letters 176: Lopez-Espinosa MJ, Granada A, Araque P, Molina-Molina JM, Puertollan MC, Rivas A, Fernández M, Cerrillo I, Olea-Serrano MF, López C and N Olea (2007). Oestrogenicity of paper and cardboard extracts used as food containers. Food Additives & Contaminants 24(1): National Childbirth Trust UK (2008) Susiarjo M, Hassold TJ, Freeman E and P A Hunt (2007). Bisphenol A Exposure In Utero Disrupts Early Oogenesis in the Mouse. PLoS Genet 3(1): e5. Sajiki J, Miyamoto F, Fukata H, Mori C, Yonekubo J and K Hayakawa (2007). Bisphenol A (BPA) and its source in foods in Japanese markets. Food Additives & Contaminants 24 (1): Vivacqua A, Recchia, A, Fasanella AG, Gabriele G, Carpino S, Rago A, Gioia V, Di ML, Leggio A, Bonofiglio D, Liguori A and Maggiolini M (2003). The food contaminants bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol act as antagonistsforestrogenreceptoralphainmcf7breast cancercells. Endocrine: 22: (abstract only). VandenbergLV, HauserR, MarcusM, OleaNandWVWelshons (2007). Humanexposuretobisphenol A (BPA). Reproductive Toxicology 24: (2007) Weise E and L Szabo (2008). Everywhere chemicals in plastics alarm parents. USA TODAY available at: /health/ plasticscover_n.htm?loc=interstitialskip. Mutti A, Mazzucchi A, Rustichelli P et al, Exposure-effect and exposure-response relationships between occupational exposure to styrene andneuropsychologicalfunctions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 5: BenignusVA, gelleram, BoyesWKet al, Humanneurobehavioraleffectsoflong-termexposuretostyrene: ametaanalysis. EnvironHealth Perspectives, 113(5): U.S. EPA, Styrene Fact Sheet, Dec. 1994, available at design print
15 out and use as a guide when shopping. Plastic Code Quick Guide Avoid no.3-pvc (Polyvinyl chloride) no.6-ps (Poly Styrene) no.7- PC (Poly Carbonate) 9 Probably Safe no.1-pet (Polyethylene terephthalate) no.2-hdpe (High-density Polyethylene) no.4-ldpe (Low-density Polyethylene) no.5-pp (Polypropylene) & cut Stephen Morris/Istockphoto
16 Friends of the Earth Europe Rue Blanche Brussels, Belgium Health & Environment Alliance (HEAL) 28 Boulevard Charlemagne 1000 Brussels, Belgium Friends of the Earth gratefully acknowledges co-funding by the German Federal Environment Ministry and the German Federal Environmental Agency. Sole responsibility rests with authors. Authors: Dr. Rye Senjen and David Azoulay. The authors would like to thank Dr. Lisette van Vliet, Genon K. Jensen, Monica Guarinoni, Maryse Arendt, Diana Smith and Dr. Heribert Wefers. Published August Printed on 100% recycled paper stock, using vegetable-based inks.
Bisphenol A in the Environment Eileen Ekstrom Lecturer, Harvard Extension School, Environmental Management Program Environmental Management 101, Fall 2010 From The Graduate: Plastics Plastic products are
Types of Packaging Materials Syllabus Link: Packaging Sometimes manufacturers use combination packages to contain their products. Combination packages consist of two or more separate packaging materials.
Toxic Matters Protecting Our Families from Toxic Substances To view this brochure online, go to: www.prhe.ucsf.edu/prhe/toxicmatters.html A Publication of the University of California, San Francisco Program
Lead General information Key Points Fire Reacts with hot concentrated acids May cause explosions on contact with hydrogen peroxide or sodium, potassium or magnesium and their salts In the event of a fire
IDENTIFICATION OF POLYMERS 1998 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant 133 N. Desert Stream Dr., Tucson, AZ 85745 Voice/Fax: 520-624-2207
Promotional Items Promotional Items Introduction This section provides information on currently available promotional item options that can help to move the University of Saskatchewan toward its sustainability
Baby Care Products: Possible Sources of Infant Phthalate Exposure 1 Pediatrics Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics Vol. 121, No. 2, February 2008, pp. e260-e268 Sheela Sathyanarayana,
Griffin Disposal and Recycling Services 1-800-693-0472 We ve all heard the term green or eco. If you are already recycling or composting, you have a head start on going green! Practicing the 4Rs Reduce,
SORTING PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING INTRODUCTION Description Students use the difference in densities of polymers and flame tests as a basis for the development of a scheme to separate plastics. Goals for This
Plastics Recycling: Challenges of Sorting and Marketing additional plastics Kate Davenport Eureka Recycling Eureka Recycling s mission is to demonstrate that waste is preventable, not inevitable. Eureka
Green:Keele Waste and Recycling Guide Estates and Development Directorate May 2013 Introduction Keele University s Waste Policy follows the simple principles of the waste hierarchy to reduce waste at source,
Causes of Birth Defects Some medical / genetic terms: congenital defects: visible defects present at birth (due to any cause (genetic, developmental error ). syndrome: the symptoms that characterize any
Molding Plastic Last modified July 6, 2015 Abstract: Used plastic can be melted down and molded into a new shape. In this module we will look at different types of recyclable plastic and ways to mold them
The most recent statistics show that 2 out of every 10 couples trying to achieve pregnancy will be diagnosed with infertility. For many, this can be an extremely difficult diagnosis to accept and to understand.
16 Very Important THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW About Cancer Cells By Ingo Logé and Fitness Forever 1. Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until
PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL CAPSULE COMMON PLASTICS May 2008 WORKING DOCUMENT plastics_capsule_plastics_identification.doc 1 05/02/14 Objective: The objective of this capsule is to draw up a resume of the
How to prepare your baby s bottle feed New Safety Advice Powdered infant formula is not sterile. It may contain bacteria that can make your baby sick. You can reduce the risk to your baby if you prepare
Kalamazoo River Oil Spill Health Hazards This document provides information on the health hazards of crude oil to help people understand the health risks of crude oil exposure. The information is provided
All containers must be empty No need to rinse, just scrape clean No hazardous chemical containers Keep recycling loose - no plastic bags A TO Z RECYCLING GUIDE GLASS Bottles Cosmetic jars Jars Medicine
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2010 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 1 (a) Choose any ONE of the three pollutants mentioned above and respond to each of the following. (i) Describe one specific source, other than
Effect of Sterilization Techniques on Polymers Contents of Presentation Introduction to Polymers Properties and Stability of Polymers Affect of Ionising Radiation and Ethylene Oxide on Polymers The need
HOW TO: Start a School Recycling Programme C urrent legislation puts more emphasis on waste avoidance, minimisation, reuse and recycling. Implementing a recycling programme at your school instils the right
Patagonia Packaging and Merchandising Policy and Implementation Guidelines PACKAGING AND MERCHANDISING SCOPE Packaging is any product or material used to transport, handle, store, protect, display or sell
Bottled Water WHY? www.oceancrusaders.org What s this? A closer look Even Closer Introduction Today we are looking at Bottled Water. That is the water you buy in the shops that comes in plastic bottles.
SITHKOP101 Clean kitchen premises and equipment Release 1 SITHKOP101 Clean kitchen premises and equipment Modification History The version details of this endorsed unit of competency set are in the table
General Recycling Information HOUSEHOLD RECYCLING The four main materials collected in a mixed bin collection system, usually either a blue or green bin are- PAPER FOOD AND DRINK CANS CARDBOARD PLASTIC
BISPHENOL A - INFORMATION SHEET THE COMPOUND Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used primarily as a monomer in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Polycarbonate plastics are rigid plastics
Plastics Explorations Unit Grades 6-8 Grade Level: Middle Grades 6-8 Concepts Taught: Scientific investigations, chemical and physical properties Unit Activity Time: 2 class periods (45 50 min. ea.) or
Utah Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Solid Waste Management Program Mailing Address Office Location Phone (801) 536-0200 P.O. Box 144880 195 North 1950 West Fax (801) 536-0222 Salt Lake City, Utah
Experiment 18-Physical Science Plastics Identification Experiment Plastics are an integral part of our society. They are used for just about anything. They are made up of long changes of carbon based material
How to Prepare Powdered Infant Formula in Care Settings This booklet contains new information to help you prepare powdered infant formula for bottle-feeding and cup-feeding as safely as possible. Powdered
Name: 8931-1 - Page 1 1) The diagram below represents one possible immune response that can occur in the human body. 5) One similarity between cell receptors and antibodies is that both A) are involved
How to prepare your baby s bottle Cleaning and Sterilising Using or storing sterilised bottles Preparing a bottle feed Storing and warming feeds Feeding your baby Crèches, childminders and other childcare
Factsheet UP Resins & you COMPOSITE MATERIALS UP RESINS What is a UP Resin? Unsaturated Polyester Resins (UP Resins) are durable, resinous polymers dissolved in styrene. They are used in combination with
Assessment Requirements for SITHKOP001 Clean kitchen premises and equipment Release: 1 Assessment Requirements for SITHKOP001 Clean kitchen premises and equipment Modification History Not applicable. Approved
Overview: Human Health Effects of Environmental Contaminants 1 1 OVERVIEW: HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS Human activity has led to the production and release into the environment of
1 ABB Oy Product Support 12.11.1998 TLC/Ari Niskanen Comp-AC ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION Recycling instructions for drive of type ACS 200 Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. Product package 3. Product materials
Product Description: Nu G Medical Waste System Technology (Pyrolysis / Thermal Decomposition) The NU G System uses pyrolysis thermal decomposition to treat infectious wastes typically generated in hospitals.
Slide 1 TUR at Home: Lessons from Household Exposure Studies Robin Dodson, Sc.D., Sarah Dunagan, M.S., Julia Brody, Ph.D. Silent Spring Institute TURA 20th Anniversary Symposium and Continuing Education
Lesson Plan 010105 Chlorine-Bleached Paper (Target: Grades 5-8) Objectives: 1. Create awareness of the pollution and related ecosystem devastation caused by using chlorine compounds to bleach wood pulp
Feeding Your Infant Baby Formula 1 Feeding Your Baby Infant Formula There are many reasons why some mothers don t breastfeed. If you feel sad and/or disappointed that you are not fully breastfeeding your
BISPHENOL A: INFORMATION SHEET SAFETY OF POLYCARBONATE PLASTIC Summary Polycarbonate plastic is a lightweight, high-performance plastic that possesses a unique balance of toughness, dimensional stability,
Recycling Plastic in Western Massachusetts Which Plastics are Recyclable? Why? Recycling plastics can be confusing. The chasing arrows (or triangle) with a number in the center is a code that identifies
Endocrine Disruptors Effects of Bisphenol A on Human Health JMAJ 46(3): 103 107, 2003 Yozo NISHIKAWA General Manager, Environment and Safety Department, Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation Abstract: When examining
An introduction to vending There are about 3.7 million vending machines in Europe, run by some 10.000 companies, mostly SMEs and family businesses. Vending machine operators run service and maintain machines
GPS Safety Summary Substance Name: Octadecanoic acid, 12-hydroxy, reaction products with ethylenediamine 1. General Statement Octadecanoic acid, 12-hydroxy, reaction products with ethylenediamine, is a
Scientist Guide Chemistry s Rainbow: The Potential of Hydrogen (ph) Introduction In chemistry, ph is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. The concentration (or amount) of hydrogen
Asbestos in your home How to dispose of Asbestos safely Telephone Number: 01372 732000 firstname.lastname@example.org www.epsom-ewell.gov.uk If you would like a copy of this document in large print, on tape
HEALTHCARE PLASTIC WASTE ANALYSIS OF OLVG HOSPITAL PLASTIC WASTE STREAMS Introduction As part of the Nederland Circulair initiative by the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment, a variety of
PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) IN DRINKING WATER, HOOSICK FALLS, NEW YORK LONG FACT SHEET UPDATED DECEMBER 18, 2015 What is PFOA? Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, also known as C8 or perfluorooctanoate) is
RADIATION CONTROL TECHNIQUE #2 INSTRUCTIONS FOR PREPARATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE FOR DISPOSAL I. PURPOSE: To establish a standard procedure for preparing Radioactive Waste and Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW)
Revision Date November 2012 Revision 9 1 / 5 SAFETY DATA SHEET According to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 SECTION 1: IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/MIXTURE AND OF THE COMPANY/UNDERTAKING 1.1. Product identifier
Sustainable Plastics with Reduced Carbon Footprint & Reduced Waste Joseph P. Greene California State University, Chico Chico, CA 95929-0789 Abstract Plastic products can be made more sustainable by reducing
SECTION 15: REGULATORY INFORMATION This product has been classified in accordance with the hazard criteria of the Controlled Products Regulations and the MSDS contains all the information required by the
Lecture 4.1: Thermoplastics and Thermosets The word plastic comes from the Greek word Plastikos, meaning able to be shaped and molded. Plastics can be broadly classified into two major groups on the basis
European Legislation on food contact materials: The Headlines! Page 1 of 10 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. OVERVIEW of the EUROPEAN LEGISLATION 3 2.1 Legislation applicable to all Food Contact materials 3
CHROMIUM CAS # 7440-47-3 Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine ToxFAQs TM September 2008 This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about chromium. For more information,
HYDRAULIC FLUIDS 1 This public health statement tells you about hydraulic fluids and the effects of exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identifies the most serious hazardous waste sites
European Parliament 2014-2019 Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety 26.4.2016 2015/2259(INI) DRAFT REPORT on the implementation of the Food Contact Materials Regulation (Regulation
Activity 5 Drugs and Development NOTE: This is a 3-part activity (Part A, B and C) Part A: Is John a drug baby? Core Concept: Prenatal drug exposure and many other factors may affect a developing baby.
Autoclave Safety Purpose: Sterilization refers to the complete killing of all living organisms, including spores. Common sterilization techniques include the application of wet heat, dry heat, chemicals,
7. Chemical Waste Disposal Procedures Substances that Can and Cannot be Disposed of via Sink Drains or in Regular Solid Refuse Containers 1. It is prohibited to pour down a sink or floor drain, or place
Concentrated NITRIC ACID MSDS Nitric Acid 98% 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE PRODUCT NAME Nitric Acid 98% 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION Contact with combustible material may cause fire. Causes severe burns.
Paramount Pools & Spas a division of PoolQuip Limited North Island: PO Box 12840, Penrose, Auckland, New Zealand 282 Neilson Street, Onehunga, Auckland, New Zealand Phone: 006496349097 E-Mail: email@example.com
Thyroid Cancer Finding It and Treating It Using Radioiodine Your doctor has referred you to Nuclear Medicine to learn more about the extent of your thyroid cancer, and perhaps even for treatment of the
EXPECTING A BABY? ADVICE ABOUT CHEMICALS AND PREGNANCY CHEMICALS AND PREGNANCY Everything around us contains chemicals. They help us every day, for example in the cosmetics that we use and in our cleaning
DEMYSTIFYING RECYCLING PLASTIC You may have seen the plastic resin chart, but what do those numbers actually mean, and why should they be important to you? The industry calls it the resin identification
Dukes of Hazard Activity Time: TEACHERS: Read Populution and Water Source Protection on page 80 of Peel Water Story book. Objectives: Students will: Identify household hazardous waste (HHW) materials around
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET SECTION 1 -- CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION PRODUCT NAME Sav-A-Hoof Protectant PRODUCT CODE 309 ISSUE DATE 11/15/14 EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NUMBERS DISTRIBUTOR SBS EQUINE
1 This Statement was prepared to give you information about fuel oils and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to them. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified
A Resident s Guide to Recycling We understand. We re competing for attention with everything else in your life. Recycling may not be exciting but it s important and easy, and recycling right benefits the
RAW MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Revision Number: 1 Revision Date: 04-04-07 According to EC Directive 2001/58/EC 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE Identification of the substance Product Code: Trade Name:
MEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL POLICY EFFECTIVE DATE: January 31, 1991 REVISED DATE: April 1, 2008 I. AUTHORITY TO ESTABLISH DISPOSAL POLICY: The authority by which the Municipality of Anchorage, Solid Waste Services
THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, PHYSICAL PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION 1389 Pursuant to Article 104 paragraph 1 item 4 of the Waste Act (Official Gazette 178/04, 111/06), the Minister of Environmental
*** SAFETY DATA SHEET *** 1. IDENTIFICATION OF THE SUBSTANCE/PREPARATION AND OF THE COMPANY/UNDERTAKING PRODUCT NAME ECCOBOND 50126 FC PART A RECOMMENDED USE SUPPLIER Adhesive ICI Belgium nv (Emerson &
Spills -General Guidelines: If handled properly, a spill may be nothing more than a nuisance. If handled improperly, a spill can seriously disrupt your activities and the work of your colleagues. At worst,
H U M A N R I G H T S W A T C H MERCURY: A HEALTH AND HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE Towards a Global Treaty on Mercury After a day of illegally panning for gold in the mine s tailings, a young boy is covered with
Breville Customer Service Centre Australian Customers Mail: PO Box 22 Botany NSW 2019 AUSTRALIA Phone: 1300 139 798 Fax: (02) 9384 9601 Email: Customer Service: firstname.lastname@example.org New Zealand Customers
Boil Water Advisory Factsheet #3 Boil Water Advisory For Commercial/Public Facilities How to operate a commercial/ public facility under a boil water advisory Boil water advisories are issued when a municipal,
Mikrobølgeovn Model:OMF20MNIN0TW1 Tjek 306 X 307 X 208 mm 10 kg Tjek Tjek Tjek Tjek tjekke DK-1 mad tjekkes Opsætning af mikrobølgeovnen Navn på ovndele og tilbehør Tag mikrobølgeovnen og alle materialer
LIGHTWEIGHT SAFE STRONG FEATURES, BENEFITS & INFORMATION RESOURCES PET Basics RECYCLED CONTENT RECYCLABLE National Association for PET Container Resources SHATTERPROOF TRANSPARENT VERSATILE > PET Basics
PA HEALTHY & GREEN MINI-GRANT APPLICATION TIPS Remember, programs are required to meet all PA DPW Child Care Licensing Requirements for each category as outlined on the PA Reference Pages for Eco-Healthy
Common Recyclable Materials Paper High-Grade Paper is usually generated in office environments and can earn recycling revenues when present in sufficient quantity. Types of high-grade paper include: Computer