# Evaluation of the protective effect of bicycle helmets (A GIDAS-analysis )

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Evaluation of the protective effect of bicycle helmets (A GIDAS-analysis 2000-2007)"

## Transcription

2 there is a team of two technicians, one medicine and a coordinator on every shift. The coordinator keeps in touch with rescue coordination centers and police directions. He is in charge to instruct by sample design. Of course every collected data of an accident is made anonymous. Between 2000 and 2007 a total of 2691 accidents with involvement of bicyclists were recorded including the information whether a helmet was worn or not. Statistics Chisquaretest of Independence The Chisquaretest of Independence tests the univariate relation between 2 categorical variables. The following hypotheses are put: Null (H 0 ): There is no association between the two variables. Alternate (H 1 ): There is an association between the two variables. We agree upon the level of significance of =0.05. If our test- * is lower than 0.05, we drop H 0 and accept H 1. Cramer s V Cramer s V is used as a test to determine strengths of association after Chisquare has already determined significance between the two variables. The following limits are set: V<0,2 slight correlation, 0,2V<0,5 distinct correlation, V0,5 strong correlation. Mann-Whitney-U-test The test is appropriate to the case of two independent samples of observations that are measured at least at an ordinal level. The test assesses whether the degree of overlap between the two observed distributions is less than it would be expected by chance putting the null hypothesis (H 0 ) that the two samples are drawn from a single population. We agree upon the level of significance of =0.05. If our test- * is lower than 0.05, we drop H 0 and accept the alternate hypothesis (H 1 ) that the samples are independent. Logistic Regression Logistic regression is useful for situations in which you want to be able to predict the presence or absence of a characteristic or outcome based on values of a set of predictor variables. It is similar to a linear regression model but is suited to models where the dependent variable is dichotomous. Logistic regression coefficients can be used to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Logistic regression is applicable to a broader range of research situations than discriminant analysis. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE Personal characteristics First part of the study was a descriptive analysis of the characteristics of the two groups Cyclists with helmet and Cyclists without a helmet. It is absolutely necessary to remind that we only consider cyclists who had an accident and have been registrated by scientific teams in Hannover and Dresden. We used following variables: - Age {Children up to 13 years; teenagers years; adolescents years; years; >60 years} - Gender {male; female} - Body-Mass-Index {<18.5 kg/m 2 ; kg/m 2 ; kg/m 2 ; >30 kg/m 2 } - Cycling speed - Type of bicycle {Mountainbike; BMX; road bike; touring bicycle; others}

4 Collision speed of opponent The two groups of casualties wearing and not wearing a helmet are comparable regarding the collision speed of the opponent. Mean collision speed of the opponent in the group of helmeted cyclists was 17.4 km/h (SEM=1.1) and 19.2 km/h (SEM=0.4) in the group of non-helmeted cyclists. Type of opponent Both groups are comparable. In the group of helmeted casualties cars were in 73.4% the main opponent, compared to 75.5% in the group of non-helmeted cyclists, followed by 16.2% bikes in the group of helmeted cyclists compared to 14.1% in the group of non-helmeted riders. Injuries In fact 7560 injuries including the information whether a helmet was worn or not were recorded. We observed that casualties not wearing a helmet have had more injuries to the head (13%, 901 of 6950) compared to other body regions. Casualties wearing a helmet less often suffered from head injuries. (6%, 37 of 610). There seems to be no significant difference between the frequency of affection of the face in the group of non-helmeted riders (11%, 791 of 6950) compared to the group of helmeted riders (11%, 68 of 610). Nevertheless when arranging a simple crosstable between AIS (abbreviated injury score) and body region, we find differences in injury severity distribution for facial injuries in our data. Head injury severity seems to be homogenously distributed for both groups, helmeted and nonhelmeted bicycle riders. Indeed we found no injury with an AIS more than 4 in the group of helmeted riders who had an accident (n=214). We observed that 1% (49 of 6950) of all injuries to cyclists without a helmet was recorded with AIS 5 or 6. But however, there seems to be no difference in the frequency of death: 1% (2 of 222) of helmeted riders and 1% (24 of 2597) of non-helmeted riders died. Among all killed cyclists the head was 14 times the most grievous injured body region and the chest 13 times. Only 1 killed cyclist did not suffer from polytrauma (only injuries to the head). This person did not wear a helmet. Figure 1: Injuries to the face by region and severity; without helmet: n=791; with helmet: n=68

5 Figure 1 shows that 791 injuries were recorded to the face of non-helmeted riders, 68 to the face of helmeted casualties. We found that cyclists with a helmet have more often suffered from mild injuries to the chin (19.1% compared to 8.7%), whilst cyclists without a helmet had a higher number of injuries to the forehead (19% compared to 9%). According to our data helmeted cyclists only suffered from mild injuries to the face. 6.5% (51 of 791) of the injuries to the face of non-helmeted cyclists were found severe. The others were mild as well. We observed that the type of injury to the face of cyclists without a helmet was much more often a contused laceration (33%, 258 of 791 compared to 24%, 16 of 68 in the group of cyclists with helmet). We found that cyclists who had worn a helmet had more mild injuries like bruises and abrasions: 24%, 16 of 68 and 32%, 22 of 68 compared to 16% bruises (129 of 791) and 25% abrasions (193 of 791) in the group of cyclists who did not wear a helmet. We observed that cyclists who have worn a helmet seem to have more often suffered of damages to their teeth: 6% (4 of 68) compared to only 2% (16 of 791) in the group of non-helmeted riders. Figure 2: Without helmet (n=882), Injuries to the head by region and severity Figure 3: With helmet (n=35), Injuries to the head by region and severity

7 The only model that worked was regarding to the target variable Death {yes; no}. The only variable that did have significant influence is the collision speed of the opponent Cases that include the information of collision speed contribute to this model. 21 Riders within this group were killed, 2301 stayed alive. The usage of a bicycle helmet did not have a significant influence in this model like the other variables also did not have. Unfortunately only 2 casualties that died did wear a helmet and so a definite conclusion could not be made whether the helmet has a multivariate effect on death as long as the number of recordings is so low. DISCUSSION When considering the extent of injuries to the head or the face, one might attribute a protective effect to the bicycle helmet. As long as this is based on observations and descriptive analysis, we did not find AIS 5 or AIS 6 or severe facial injuries in the group of helmeted cyclists. This is why we support the thesis of a protective effect of the bicycle helmet. Nevertheless until now we have no final multivariate model that helps us to give clear evidence of how effective the bicycle helmet is. Beside the ongoing discussion concerning mandatory helmet use we probably also have to concentrate on improving safety measures as the most frequently recorded accidents occurred in the area of crossings (35.5%) and junctions (25.6%) as figure 5 shows. Figure 5: Location of accident with cyclists (n=3276) Furthermore helmets are tested and certified by the EN EN 1078 specifies requirements and test methods for bicycle helmets, skateboard and roller skate helmets. It covers helmet construction including field of vision, shock absorbing properties, retention system properties including chin strap and fastening devices, as well as marking and information. The standard's key features are: Test anvils: Flat and kerbstone; Drop apparatus: Guided free fall; Impact velocity, Energy or drop height flat anvil: m/s; Impact energy criteria: <250g; Roll-off test: Yes; Retention system strength: Force applied dynamically, Helmet supported on headform. One has to agree that in high speed impacts a helmet will not prevent death, especially concerning the low criteria of impact energy. [4] Additionally you will find the expression of risk compensation in international literature. [5] Drivers wearing a helmet thus feel kind of invulnerable and adapt their driving habits. As formerly described even in our research we found that riders with helmet were in average at higher speed. By the way this may be due to gender differences and difference of type of bicycles (both correlate to helmet use, men were faster than women and did more often wear a helmet) Figure 6 shows the main cause of accidents surveyed by the estimation of the scientific team. This variable is encoded basing on the official accident cause index. We observed that casualties with

8 helmet more often had accidents because of speeding (8.8% compared to 3.1%) and right-of-way mistakes (40.7% compared to 26.9%), whereas consequently casualties who did not wear a helmet had more often accidents because of using the wrong lane (33.1% compared to 23.0%) and because of inadequate roadworthiness (5.2% compared to 0.9%) Figure 6: Estimation of main cause of accident However the theory of risk compensation is not proven yet [7]. It is also assumable, that riders that wear helmets are more aware of safety and security and therefore ride more alertly and defensively. Unfortunately we are only able to test the helmets function against impacts of different directions if we analyze every single accident and having a closer look on photographies taken on the place of the accident. GIDAS contains the variable KWINK which is a reconstruction of the collision speed vectors of both participants and thus is not properly helpful. Nevertheless there is no difference between the both groups of casualties wearing a helmet and not wearing one in KWINK. All discussion about cycling safety probably leads to the wrong assumption that cycling is dangerous at all. In fact it should not detain from cycling and its benefits. CONCLUSION Unless we have got no multivariate model, we can only compare the injuries of the two groups. The helmet seems to have a protective effect, but it is at the moment not possible to estimate any risk reduction concerning injury severity for example by using the bicycle helmet as a protective device. A further multivariate analysis is in progress. REFERENCES Macpherson A, Spinks A. Bicycle helmet legislation for the uptake of helmet use and prevention of head injuries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD DOI: / CD pub3. 4 Dr. W Lucas, Toronto Coroner, September J Adams,M Hillman,The risk compensation theory and bicycle helmets, Injury Prevention 2001;7: W.S. Copes, H.R. Champion, W.J. Sacco, M.M. Lawnick, S.L. Keast, L.W. Bain: The Injury Severity Score revisited. The Journal of Trauma. 28, 1988, Lardelli-Claret P, de Dios Luna-del-Castillo J, Jiménez-Moleón JJ, García-Martín M, Bueno-Cavanillas A, Gálvez-Vargas R., Risk compensation theory and voluntary helmet use by cyclists in Spain, Inj Prev Jun;9(2):128-32

### Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

### MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS

HSRC MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 113 8 MOTORBIKE RIDERS AND CYCLISTS 8.1 INTRODUCTION Motorbike and bicycle riders constitute only a small portion of road accident victims. In the RAF system only 1%

### Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system.

Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system. M. Jänsch, D. Otte, H. Johannsen Abstract Vulnerable

### Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture

Maryland s Motorcycle Crash Picture Cindy Burch University of Maryland, Baltimore National Study Center for Trauma and EMS Maryland Center for Traffic Safety Analysis Challenges Motorcycle safety is not

### Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System

Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System HEALTH AND COST OUTCOMES RESULTING FROM TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY CAUSED BY NOT WEARING A HELMET, FOR MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN WISCONSIN, 2011 Wayne Bigelow Center for Health

### Cycling Safety in Europe

Proceedings, International Cycling Safety Conference 2012 7-8 November 2012, Helmond, The Netherlands Cycling Safety in Europe Claus. Pastor Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt) Brüderstraße 53, D-51427

### BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models

Archives of Emergency Medicine, 1985, 2, 209-213 BMX bicycles: accident comparison with other models J. WORRELL Senior Registrar, Accident and Emergency Department, Queen Alexandra Hospital, Portsmouth,

### BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

### VERY SERIOUSLY INJURED

Young Researchers Seminar 2011 Young Researchers Seminar 2011 DTU, Denmark, 8 10 June, 2011 DTU, Denmark, June 8-10, 2011 VERY SERIOUSLY INJURED In-depth investigation of road accident characteristics

### Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

### ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

### the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

### Summary. How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents

Summary How severe are the injuries of victims of road traffic accidents Analysis of the MAIS severity scale for injuries suffered by victims of road traffic accidents hospitalized in Belgian hospitals

### A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY

A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY Jikuang Yang Hunan University, Changsha China Dietmar Otte Hannover Medical University Germany

### ITARDA INFORMATION. No.106. Special feature

ITARDA INFORMATION Special Special Motor vehicle accidents with child passengers ~ Is your child well-protected from danger? ~ Introduction Child casualties in traffic accidents by means of transport for

### Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O.

Motorcycle Safety A Trauma Surgeon s Perspective Sean A. Nix, D.O. Disclosure I have nothing to disclose No political or financial attachments I do take care of injured patients Motorcycle Safety Injury

### the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

### V. Martínez Ruiz, E. Jiménez Mejías, C. Amezcua Prieto, J.D. Luna del Castillo, P. Lardelli Claret, J.J. Jiménez Moleón

V. Martínez Ruiz, E. Jiménez Mejías, C. Amezcua Prieto, J.D. Luna del Castillo, P. Lardelli Claret, J.J. Jiménez Moleón Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health University of Granada No conflict

### Head Injuries in Bicyclists and Associated Crash Characteristics

Head Injuries in Bicyclists and Associated Crash Characteristics Axel Malczyk, Klaus Bauer, Christian Juhra, Sylvia Schick Presented at the 2014 IRCOBI Conference in Berlin, Germany Axel Malczyk Unfallforschung

### Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

### New York Study of Booster Seat Effects on Injury Reduction Compared to Safety Belts in Children Aged 4-8 in Motor Vehicle Crashes

New York Study of Booster Seat Effects on Injury Reduction Compared to Safety Belts in Children Aged 4-8 in Motor Vehicle Crashes Kainan Sun, Ph.D., Michael Bauer, M.S. Sarah M. Sperry, M.S., Susan Hardman

### Bike Paths SUGGESTED SAFE BIKE RIDING RULES

SUGGESTED SAFE BIKE RIDING RULES (Courtesy of the Bicycle Manufacturers Association of America, Inc. and the NYS Department of Health) 1. Obey all applicable traffic regulations, lights, signs and markings.

### 1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale di Studi e Ricerche sulla Sicurezza Stradale 2. University of Hannover, Accident Research Unit

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on German In-Depth-Accident Study Chiara Orsi 1, Dietmar Otte 2, Cristina Montomoli 1, Anna Morandi 1 1. University of Pavia, Centro Interdipartimentale

### Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011

Cycling-related Traumatic Brain Injury 2011 The Chinese University of Hong Kong Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery Accident & Emergency Medicine Academic Unit Jockey Club School of Public

### Paediatric Off-Road Vehicle Trauma - a Growing Problem in NSW

Paediatric Off-Road Vehicle Trauma - a Growing Problem in NSW Dr Gideon Sandler Department of Academic Surgery Westmead Children s Hospital The University of Sydney Background ORVs are popular among Australian

### ITARDA INFORMATION. No.97. Special feature

ITARDA INFORMATION No.97 Special feature Introduction P2 Casualties resulting from cycling have not fallen as much as for other accident types P2 Following cycling accidents, which parts of the body are

### Proposal 1. I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212. October 13, 2004

Proposal 1 Cover letter I. M. Writer 520 Safe Drive St. Anytown, Anystate, USA 01000 (555) 555-1212 October 13, 2004 Mr. David Decider Director, Policy Branch Department of Highways 759 Main Rd. E. Suite

### BULLETIN. Road Traffic Injuries. WA Childhood Injury Surveillance. No. 13 January 2008. Introduction Road Traffic Injuries

WA Childhood Injury Surveillance BULLETIN Road Traffic Injuries No. 13 January 2008 Childhood Injury Presentations: October to December 2007 There were 13,607 presentations to Princess Margaret Hospital

### CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA

FACT SHEET CYCLISTS INVOLVED IN ROAD CRASHES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA August 2014 The following data represents police reported incidents of fatal, and minor casualties. Police data does not show the location

### ITARDAInstitute for Traffic Accident

ITARDAInstitute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis ( 財 ) 交 通 事 故 総 合 分 析 センター ITARDA INFORMATION No. 211 91NOVEMBER 1, 2, 3, 4, Crossing 3% 4,258 Number of casualties Collisions while turning

### Serious Injury Reporting An Irish Perspective. Maggie Martin

Serious Injury Reporting An Irish Perspective Maggie Martin Background Investigate the feasibility of adopting the Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) in Ireland assessed at level 3 or more. Having

### Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury

110 Injury Prevention 1997; 3: 110-114 Epidemiology of bicycle injuries and risk factors for serious injury Frederick P Rivara, Diane C Thompson, Robert S Thompson Prevention and Research Center, Department

### Biomechanical Factors to Consider for Optimum Helmet Efficiency

Biomechanical Factors to Consider for Optimum Helmet Efficiency Jocelyn Pedder RONA Kinetics North Vancouver, B.C. Journées annuelles de santé publique What is biomechanics? the science that examines the

### An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims. Ashley Roberts. University of Cincinnati

Epidemiology Article Critique 1 Running head: Epidemiology Article Critique An Article Critique - Helmet Use and Associated Spinal Fractures in Motorcycle Crash Victims Ashley Roberts University of Cincinnati

### Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1. Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009

Iowa CODES Fact Sheet 1 Traumatic Brain Injuries Caused by Motor Vehicle Crash (MVC) - 2007-2009 Of all types of injury, traumatic brain injuries () are among the most likely to cause death or permanent

### What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space?

What happens when walkers and cyclists share the space? Narelle Haworth and Amy Schramm Walk21, Sydney, 21-23 October 2014 CRICOS No. 00213J Outline Safe Systems principles Review literature Crash and

### Main figures on Road Safety Data Spain 2013

Main figures on Road Safety Data Spain 2013 Contents Preface.3 Road Safety Data 2013.4 Injuries related to traffic...10 Evolution of the road safety indicators.....12 Casualties.....14 Drivers...16 Fleet...17

### 40,46 16,22 16,25. no fx thoracic sp. Fx lumbar spine. no fx lumbar. spine

Spine injuries in motor vehicle accidents an analysis of 34188 injured front passengers with special consideration of injuries of the thoracolumbar in relation to injury mechanisms C. W. Müller, D. Otte,

### Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety

Motorcycle Related Crash Victims (What the Statistics Say) Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Illinois Highway Safety Program Areas Occupant Protection

Head Injury in Children The worst fear of every parent is to receive news that your child has been injured in an accident. Unfortunately, in our society, accidental injuries have become the leading threat

### H ypotheses on risk homeostasis and compensation are

128 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Risk compensation theory and voluntary helmet use by cyclists in Spain P Lardelli-Claret, J de Dios Luna-del-Castillo, J J Jiménez-Moleón, M García-Martín, A Bueno-Cavanillas, R Gálvez-Vargas...

### Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1

Analysis of Patients with Severe Trauma Caused by Motorcycle Accidents 1 1 You In-Gyu, 2 Lim Chung Hwan, 3 Shim Jae Goo 1, First Author Dept of Health Care, Hanseo University, semicoma72@daum.net *2,Corresponding

### Speeding. Probability of death at different impact speeds

Speeding CRASH FACTSHEET 2012 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2011 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In this fact sheet speeding is defined as driving too fast for the conditions. The

### ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN

UMTRI-2014-35 NOVEMBER 2014 ANALYSIS OF MOTORCYCLE CRASHES IN MICHIGAN 2009-2013 CAROL A.C. FLANNAGAN PATRICK J. BOWMAN Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. UMTRI-2014-35 2. Government Accession

Road Transport and Road Traffic Accident Statistics (Island of Mauritius) 1. Vehicles registered as at June 2010 January June 2010 As at 30 June 2010, the number of vehicles registered at the National

### Bicycle, In-Line Skating & Skateboarding Safety

Bicycle, In-Line Skating & Skateboarding Safety Overview Over 70 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 14 ride bicycles. In-line skating and skateboarding are also very popular among this age group.

### The momentum of a moving object has a magnitude, in kg m/s, and a... (1)

Q. (a) Complete the following sentence. The momentum of a moving object has a magnitude, in kg m/s, and a.... () (b) A car being driven at 9.0 m/s collides with the back of a stationary lorry. The car

Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional observational study. Andrew Allan, University of Birmingham. AXA615@bham.ac.uk Abstract Motorcycle related trauma is a major cause of morbidity

### Comparisons EBB 11/12/02 Snell M2000, DOT, BSI 6658-85 Type A and EN 22/05

The tables compare four standards:, DOT, BSI 6658-85 Type A and Regulation 22 Rev. 5, also known as EN 22/05. and the current DOT Standard (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 218) apply largely to helmets

### Characteristics of High Injury Severity Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia

Characteristics of High Injury Crashes on 80 110 km/h Rural Roads in South Australia, J. R. R. Centre for Automotive Safety Research, University of Adelaide, SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 5005 email: jamie@casr.adelaide.edu.au

### Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014)

Fact Sheet Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Summary & Background The World Health Organization estimates that over 1.2 million people die from road

### Motorcycle Safety & Laws. Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington

Motorcycle Safety & Laws Stewart Milner Chief Judge, City of Arlington 1 1. Safety What percentage of Riders involved in fatal Motorcycle crashes are over 40 years old? A. 25% B. 10% C. 33% D. 47% 2 2.

### Bike Helmet Use in Children Issue 6, September 2003

Bike Helmet Use in Children Issue 6, September 2003 Key Points: Overall, 64% of households indicate that their children wear bike helmets all of the time. Rates of use remained steady over the past three

### The total number of traffic collisions in Saskatchewan is up 5% from 51,733 in 2008 to 54,229 in 2009.

2009 Summary The total number of traffic collisions in Saskatchewan is up 5% from 51,733 in 2008 to 54,229 in 2009. The number of fatal collisions decreased 2% over the past year from 132 in 2008 to 129

### THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOUTH GUARDS AND FACE MASKS IN REDUCING FACIAL AND ORAL INJURY IN ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOUTH GUARDS AND FACE MASKS IN REDUCING FACIAL AND ORAL INJURY IN ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS ABSTRACT Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use and the effect of mouth guards

### ! # %&& ( ) + #, # )!.!!, # /0

! # %&& ( ) + #, # )!.!!, # /0 1 Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/ Institute of Transport Studies University of Leeds This is an ITS Working Paper produced and published

### Traffic Collision Statistics Report

Traffic Collision Statistics Report 2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Executive Summary 2012 Traffic Collision Statistics Report Executive Summary Motor vehicle collisions resulting in a fatality, injury or property

### Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs

Using Trauma Center Data to Identify Missed Bicycle Injuries and Their Associated Costs Presented by: Dahianna Lopez, RN, MSN, MPH San Francisco Injury Center Co-Authored by: Dharma Sunjaya, BS Shirley

### The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953.

1 Long-term trends The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. Number of road traffic accidents, fatalities, and injuries Notes: 1. Source:

### Some injury scaling issues in UK crash research

Loughborough University Institutional Repository Some injury scaling issues in UK crash research This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional Repository by the/an author. Citation:

### Bicycle Helmets Areview of their effectiveness: A critical review of the Literature

Bicycle Helmets Areview of their effectiveness: A critical review of the Literature Road Safety Research Report No. 30 2002 Road Safety Research Report No. 30 Bicycle Helmets A review of their effectiveness:

### LOOSE IN THE CAR MISTAKES ADULTS MAKE CARRYING CHILDREN CRASH TESTS AT 19MPH. www.aatrust.com

LOOSE IN THE CAR MISTAKES ADULTS MAKE CARRYING CHILDREN CRASH TESTS AT 19MPH www.aatrust.com The AA Motoring Trust was created by the AA to champion the interests and safety of Britain s road users. At

### The Statistics. Tips for Parents

The Statistics In 2001, the most recent statistics for Texas, 985 children, age 0-14, were injured in crashes with motor vehicles. For that same period of time and age range, 9 children died and 66 percent

Road Transport and Road Traffic Accident Statistics (Island of Mauritius) January June 2014 1. Vehicles registered as at June 2014 At the end of June 2014 there were 454,426 vehicles registered at the

### Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006

Young drivers where and when are they unsafe: analysis of road accidents in Great Britain 2000 2006 Original research by Email: jeanhopkin@compuserve.com August 2008 Copyright the IAM Motoring Trust Extracts

### Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash.

Norway Source: IRTAD, Public Roads Administration Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 5.0 million 703 145 2.9 1. Road safety data collection

### Accidents with Pedestrians and Cyclists in Germany Findings and Measures

Accidents with Pedestrians and Cyclists in Germany Findings and Measures Siegfried Brockmann Unfallforschung der Versicherer (UDV) May 7th, Geneva 2 Content 2 Accident situation in Germany based on National

### Chapter 1: Background

Chapter 1: Background 1.1 Trends in Bicycle Ridership and Collisions in Toronto Toronto has relatively high levels of bicycle traffic on its downtown streets. On a typical weekday, bicycles make up roughly

### Traffic Collision Statistics Report

Traffic Collision Statistics Report 2014 Executive Summary 2014 Traffic Collision Statistics Report Executive Summary Motor vehicle collisions resulting in a fatality, injury or property damage only

### of traffic accidents from the GIDAS database until 5 seconds before the first collision. This includes parameters to describe the environment data,

STANDARDIZED PRE-CRASH-SCENARIOS SCENARIOS IN DIGITAL FORMAT ON THE BASIS OF THE VUFO SIMULATION Dipl.-Math. A. Schubert*, Dipl.-Ing. (FH), M. Eng. C. Erbsmehl*, Dr.-Ing. L. Hannawald* *Verkehrsunfallforschung

### LESSONS OF AN EXPERIENCED NEW YORK BIKE ACCIDENT LAWYER

April 2009 BIKING IN NYC LESSONS OF AN EXPERIENCED NEW YORK BIKE ACCIDENT LAWYER The Perils Of Bicycle Riding In New York City- Here s What You Need To Know EVER BEEN DOORED? I have. EVER BEEN CUT OFF

### The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period

The characteristics of fatal road accidents during the end of year festive period 1994-2003 March 2004 Traffic Management and Road Safety Unit Ministry of Public Infrastructure, Land Transport and Shipping

### MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM

2010 MISSOURI TRAFFIC SAFETY COMPENDIUM MISSOURI STATE HIGHWAY PATROL STATISTICAL ANALYSIS CENTER 1510 East Elm Jefferson City, Missouri 65101 (573) 751-9000 CONTENTS PAGE EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION...1

### Injury indicators: A validation tool. Road safety indicator specifications

Injury indicators: A validation tool. Road safety indicator specifications Colin Cryer CHSS, University of Kent March 2002. The following gives the specifications of the indicators used in the project:

### Cyclist Injuries Leading to Permanent Medical Impairment in Sweden and the Effect of Bicycle Helmets

Cyclist Injuries Leading to Permanent Medical Impairment in Sweden and the Effect of Bicycle Helmets Matteo Rizzi, Helena Stigson, Maria Krafft Abstract Cyclist injuries leading to long term consequences

### Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers

Downloaded from orbit.dtu.dk on: Dec 15, 2015 Quantifying the Influence of Social Characteristics on Accident and Injuries Risk: A Comparative Study Between Motorcyclists and Car Drivers Lyckegaard, Allan;

### Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape

Bicycle riding is a great way to get into shape and have fun. To remain safe on Illinois roads, it is important to follow the same traffic safety laws that govern vehicle drivers. No amount of bicycle

### Car occupants intoxication and non-use of safety belts

TØI report 499/2000 Authors: Fridulv Sagberg, Terje Assum Oslo 2000, 63 pages Norwegian language Summary: In-depth road accident investigations Aggregated results from 96 fatal accidents in Mälardalen,

### INCIDENT REPORTING INSTRUCTIONS

INSURING AMERICA'S PASTIMES AND FUTURE TIMES INCIDENTREPORTINGINSTRUCTIONS WheneveranAccidentOccurs: AnIncidentReportformmustbecompletedimmediatelyafteranaccidentoccursandmailedor faxedtoamericanspecialtyinsurance&riskservices,inc.asindicatedbelow.thisholdstrue

### PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs This issue brief provides strategies and resources for community organizations to use in developing and implementing bike

### ROAD SAFETY WORK OF THE FINNISH INSURERS. 7th May 2013 UNECE Road Safety Week Kalle Parkkari

ROAD SAFETY WORK OF THE FINNISH INSURERS 7th May 2013 UNECE Road Safety Week Kalle Parkkari Road Safety Vision in Finland Nobody should be killed or seriously injured in road traffic The goal in many countries,

### Four modes of transport the same responsibility. Rules Permits Supervision Statistics on accidents Registry

Four modes of transport the same responsibility Rules Permits Supervision Statistics on accidents Registry Different authorities collect the same information for different purposes. Police, Road administration

A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

### Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges

Motorcycle Safety Program Initiatives: Achievement and Challenges Mehdi Nassirpour Illinois Department of Transportation Division of Transportation Safety Objectives 1. General Statistics on Motorcycles

### Estimating Cost Effectiveness of Wearing Motorcycle Helmets

Estimating Cost Effectiveness of Wearing Motorcycle Helmets Presented by Gwendolyn L. Gill PhD Student in Public Policy (Economics) University of North Carolina at Charlotte Contact me at: glgill@uncc.edu

### Originals and Papers

Originals and Papers A comprehensive study of motorcycle fatalities in South Delhi C. Behera*, (Lt. Col.) Ravi Rautji **, Sanjeev Lalwani*** & T. D. Dogra **** Abstract Ninety four of motorcycle fatalities

### THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL

THE NEW ZEALAND MEDICAL JOURNAL Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association Evaluation of New Zealand s bicycle helmet law Colin F Clarke Abstract The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect

### EVALUATION OF THE BICYCLE HELMET WEARING LAW IN VICTORIA DURING ITS FIRST 12 MONTHS

EVALUATION OF THE BICYCLE HELMET WEARING LAW IN VICTORIA DURING ITS FIRST 12 MONTHS by MaxCameron Loma Helman Dlna Nelger July 1992 Report No. 32 Printed by the Australian Road Research Board as part of

### Research Article E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department A Retrospective Study from Switzerland

Emergency Medicine International, Article ID 850236, 5 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/850236 Research Article E-Bike Injuries: Experience from an Urban Emergency Department A Retrospective Study

### 136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

Cycle facts to arm and protect DEATHS AND INJURIES Time: 136 deaths in 2007 (Latest figures available) UK (129 in England) 2,458 serious injuries in 2007 in the UK source- National Office of Statistics

### Cycling Strategies: Be Visible, Be Predictable

The Cyclist - According to the Nova Scotia Motor Vehicle Act cyclists have the same rights and responsibilities as motorists. When cyclists and motorists follow the same set of rules, the chance of a collision

### CYCLIST-CAR ACCIDENTS THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR CYCLISTS AND TYPICAL ACCIDENT SCENARIOS

CYCLIST-CAR ACCIDENTS THEIR CONSEQUENCES FOR CYCLISTS AND TYPICAL ACCIDENT SCENARIOS Matthias Kuehn Thomas Hummel Antje Lang German Insurers Accident Research Germany Paper Number 15-0243 ABSTRACT The

### Cycling and the Law: Know your Rights!

Cycling and the Law: Know your Rights! Patrick Brown Rights of The Injured Cyclist When a cyclist is struck by a car or truck, the injuries to the cyclist can be significant. It can have a dramatic impact

### Comparison of the serious injury pattern of adult bicyclists, between South-West

Comparison of the serious injury pattern of adult bicyclists, between South-West Netherlands and the State of Victoria, Australia 2001-2009 Pınar Yılmaz a,b, MSc, Medical student E-mail: pnrylmz@live.nl

### Statistical matching: Experimental results and future research questions

Statistical matching: Experimental results and future research questions 2015 19 Ton de Waal Content 1. Introduction 4 2. Methods for statistical matching 5 2.1 Introduction to statistical matching 5 2.2

### SAFE CYCLING GUIDE. 6th Edition

SAFE CYCLING GUIDE 6th Edition BEFORE SETTING OUT A WELL-MAINTAINED BICYCLE is key A Check tire pressure B Check that the chain does not slip C Check the brakes D Check lights and reflectors: 3 4 1 5 2

Road Safety Management Workshop Road Safety in CAMBODIA Name: VONG Pisith, PEN Sovicheano, YEE Vantha By Agency: National Road Safety Committee Adelaide Convention Center 9-12 November, 2008 National Data