Grade 12 Current Topics in First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Studies. A Foundation for Implementation

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1 Grade 12 Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies A Foudatio for Implemetatio

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3 G r a d E 1 2 C u r r E t t o p i C s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i E s a Foudatio for implemetatio 2011 Maitoba Educatio

4 Maitoba Educatio Cataloguig i publicatio data Grade 12 curret topics i First atios, Métis, ad iuit studies [electroic resource] : a foudatio for implemetatio. icludes bibliographical refereces isb-13: ative peoples study ad teachig (secodary) Maitoba. 2. ative peoples study ad teachig (secodary). 3. ative peoples Maitoba Curricula. 4. idias of orth america Maitoba Curricula. 5. iuit Maitoba Curricula. 6. Métis Maitoba Curricula. i. Maitoba. Maitoba Educatio. ii. Curret topics i First atios, Métis, ad iuit studies : a foudatio for implemetatio Copyright 2011, the Govermet of Maitoba, represeted by the Miister of Educatio. Maitoba Educatio school programs divisio Wiipeg, Maitoba, Caada Every effort has bee made to ackowledge origial sources ad to comply with copyright law. if cases are idetified where this has ot bee doe, please otify Maitoba Educatio. Errors or omissios will be corrected i a future editio. sicere thaks to the authors ad publishers who allowed their origial material to be used. all images foud i this documet are copyright protected ad should ot be extracted, accessed, or reproduced for ay purpose other tha for their iteded educatioal use i this documet. ay websites refereced i this documet are subject to chage. Educators are advised to preview ad evaluate websites ad olie resources before recommedig them for studet use.

5 C o t E t s Ackowledgemets vi Itroductio 1 Purpose of the Documet 3 Course Descriptio 9 Cultural Competecy ad Diversity Educatio 18 Dealig with Cotroversial Issues i the Classroom 20 Teachig Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies 21 Termiology 28 Cluster 1: Image ad Idetity 1 Learig Experiece 1.1: The Ghosts of History 5 Learig Experiece 1.2: From Time Immemorial 17 Learig Experiece 1.3: Worlds Collidig (from 1000 BCE) 33 Cluster 2: A Profoud Ambivalece: First Natios, Métis, 1 ad Iuit Relatios with Govermet 1 Learig Experiece 2.1: Settig the Stage: Ecoomics ad Politics 5 Learig Experiece 2.2: As Log as the Rivers Flow: The Numbered Treaties 19 Learig Experiece 2.3: Legislated Discrimiatio: The Idia Act 35 Learig Experiece 2.4: O-Tee-Paym-Soo-Wuk (The Métis): The People Who Ow Themselves 49 Learig Experiece 2.5: Defiig Our Place: Moder Treaties ad Rights 65 C o t e t s iii

6 Cluster 3: Toward a Just Society 1 Learig Experiece 3.1: Educatio 5 Learig Experiece 3.2: Health: Livig i Balace 23 Learig Experiece 3.3: Justice 37 Learig Experiece 3.4: Wîcehtowi: Ecoomic ad Resource Developmet 53 Cluster 4: Idigeous Peoples of the World 1 Learig Experiece 4.1: Oe World 5 Cluster 5: A Festival of Learig 1 Learig Experiece 5.1: Lookig Forward, Lookig Back 5 Appedices 1 Appedix A: Cluster Blacklie Masters Cluster 1 Learig Experiece 1.1 BLM 1.1.1: Historical Treaty Map (1 page) BLM 1.1.2: A Note o Termiology (3 pages) BLM 1.1.3: A Word from Commissioers (3 pages) BLM 1.1.4: Lookig Forward, Lookig Back (4 pages) Learig Experiece 1.2 BLM 1.2.1: Idetity Quotatios (2 pages) BLM 1.2.2: Childhood i a Idia Village (Prit Oly) BLM 1.2.3: First Natios, Metis, ad Iuit Orgaizatios: Overview (2 pages) Learig Experiece 1.3 BLM 1.3.1: Agai, I Was the Oly Idia (2 pages) BLM 1.3.2: Whose World Is It? (1 page) BLM 1.3.3: Moder Racism i Caada (7 pages) BLM 1.3.4: Commo Portrayals of Aborigial People (Prit Oly) BLM 1.3.5: Redski Jersey about Pride, Not Prejudice (Prit Oly) BLM 1.3.6: Seeig The Other : Europea Views of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Peoples (2 pages) BLM 1.3.7: First Natios ad British (Wester) Historical Worldviews (3 pages) iv G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t T o p i c s i F i r s t N a t i o s, M é t i s, a d I u i t S t u d i e s

7 Cluster 2 Learig Experiece 2.1 BLM 2.1.1: First Peoples Traditioal Worldview: Word Splash (1 page) BLM 2.1.2: Europea Worldview True or False (1 page) BLM 2.1.3: Pre-Europea Cotact Map of North America (1 page) BLM 2.1.4: Rupert s Lad ad North America (1 page) BLM 2.1.5: The Fur Trade Game (2 pages) Learig Experiece 2.2 BLM 2.2.1: Treaty Areas ad Locatios of First Natios i Maitoba (1 page) BLM 2.2.2: Treaty Charades (1 page) BLM 2.2.3: The Crow Iitiated the Treaties: Says Who? (1 page) BLM 2.2.4: Report of the RCAP: Uderstadig Treaties ad the Treaty Relatioship (3 pages) BLM 2.2.5: Symbolism ad Sigificace i the Numbered Treaty Process (1 page) Learig Experiece 2.3 BLM 2.3.1: The Idia Act: Assimilatig First Natios (1 page) BLM 2.3.2: The Idia Act: Symbol of a Chaged Relatioship (1 page) BLM 2.3.3: Layig the Groudwork for the Idia Act: Legislative Precedets (5 pages) BLM 2.3.4: The Paradox of the Idia Act (2 pages) BLM 2.3.5: Trick or Treaty (1 page) Learig Experiece 2.4 BLM 2.4.1: Word Splash The Métis (1 page) BLM 2.4.2: What Do You Kow About the Métis? (1 page) BLM 2.4.3: Historic Métis Coflicts: Research Guide (1 page) BLM 2.4.4: Métis Scrip: Research Guide (1 page) Learig Experiece 2.5 BLM 2.5.1: Word Splash: Self-Determiatio, Moder Treaties, ad Rights (1 page) BLM 2.5.2: River Road by Ted Logbottom ad Greg Prude (1 page) BLM 2.5.3: People ad the Lad, A Reciprocal Relatioship (1 page) BLM 2.5.4: Map of Treaties ad Comprehesive Lad Claims i Caada (1 page) BLM 2.5.5: Lad Claims, A Laguage Not Our Ow (1 page) BLM 2.5.6: Comprehesive Lad Claim: Research Guide (1 page) BLM 2.5.7: Specific Maitoba Lad Claims: Research Guide (1 page) BLM 2.5.8: Alberta Métis Settlemets: Research Guide (1 page) BLM 2.5.9: Rights, Lad Claims, ad the Courts: Research Guide (1 page) BLM : Stadig Their Groud Protest ad Resistace: Research Framework (2 pages) C o t e t s v

8 Cluster 3 Learig Experiece 3.1 BLM 3.1.1: Eulogy for a Truat by Joae Bealy (1 page) BLM 3.1.2: Prime Miister Harper s Residetial Schools Apology (3 pages) BLM 3.1.3: Respose to Apology to Residetial School Survivors by Premier Doer (4 pages) BLM 3.1.4: Residetial Schools: Research Questios (1 page) BLM 3.1.5: Visitig a Residetial School Site (1 page) BLM 3.1.6: Residetial School Sites i Maitoba (1 page) BLM 3.1.7: Researchig a School: Guidelies (1 page) Learig Experiece 3.2 BLM 3.2.1: Stuck-o Cocept Maps (1 page) BLM 3.2.2: Dis-ease: Word Splash (1 page) BLM 3.2.3: Health: Word Splash (1 page) Learig Experiece 3.3 BLM 3.3.1: Judge Murray Siclair Speech ad Questios (15 pages) Learig Experiece 3.4 BLM 3.4.1: Creatig a Successful Commuity (2 pages) Cluster 4 Learig Experiece 4.1 BLM 4.1.1: Uited Natios Declaratio o the Rights of Idigeous Peoples (12 pages) Cluster 5 Learig Experiece 5.1 BLM 5.1.1: Suggested Fial Project Optios: Celebratios of Learig (3 pages) Appedix B: Geeral Blacklie Masters BLM G.1: Media Scrapbook Aalytical Outlie (2 pages) BLM G.2: Issue-Based Article Aalysis (1 page) BLM G.3: Choosig a Service Learig Project (1 page) BLM G.4: Service Learig: Makig it Happe (1 page) BLM G.5: Reflectig o Our Service Learig (1 page) BLM G.6: Aalyzig Quotatios (1 page) BLM G.7: B-D-A Viewig Worksheet (1 page) BLM G.8: Aalyzig Visual Images (1 page) BLM G.9: Coductig a Iterview (1 page) BLM G.10: Coductig a Survey (1 page) BLM G.11: Reflectio Joural: Sample Questios (1 page) BLM G.12: Reflectio Joural Blak Page (1 page) vi G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t T o p i c s i F i r s t N a t i o s, M é t i s, a d I u i t S t u d i e s

9 Appedix C: Teacher Notes TN 1: Creatig a Poster (1 page) TN 2: Service Learig (5 pages) TN 3: Causes of Racism (3 pages) TN 4: Coductig a Debate (3 pages) TN 5: Ik Blots (2 pages) TN 6: Elders i the Classroom (2 pages) TN 7: Coloialism Game (4 pages) TN 8: Role-Plays ad Simulatios (2 pages) TN 9: What Do You Kow about the Métis? Aswer Key (2 pages) TN 10: Legislatio ad Govermet Iitiatives Affectig Lad Claims (3 pages) TN 11: Rotatioal Graffiti (1 page) TN 12: Aborigial Cultural Cetres i Maitoba (2 pages) Appedix D: Iquiry Template Appedix E: Glossary Appedix F: Recommeded Learig Resources Bibliography 1 C o t e t s vii

10 viii G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

11 a C k o W l E d G E M E t s Maitoba Educatio gratefully ackowledges the cotributios of the followig idividuals i the developmet of Grade 12 Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies: A Foudatio for Implemetatio. Pricipal Writer Artist Susa Foesca Ted Logbottom Developmet Team Leigh Brow Childre of the Earth High School Maitoba Educatio Staff Rebecca Chartrad Holly Fotaie Louella Friese Sherry Pede Charles Scribe Louise Boissoeault Coordiator (after March 2010) Lee-Ila Bothe Coordiator (before March 2010) Al Friese Cosultat (before May 2010) Reée Gillis Cosultat Ly Harriso Desktop Publisher Lida Mlodziski Cosultat Grat Moore Publicatios Editor Cheryl Prokopako Project Maager Greg Prude Project Leader Wiipeg School Divisio Maitoba First Natios Educatio Resource Cetre Miles MacDoell Collegiate Brado Uiversity Elder Kiosao Sipi (Norway House) First Natio Documet Productio Services Uit Educatioal Resources Brach Documet Productio Services Uit Educatioal Resources Brach Developmet Uit Istructio, Curriculum ad Assessmet Uit Bureau de l éducatio fraçaise Divisio Documet Productio Services Uit Educatioal Resources Brach Developmet Uit Istructio, Curriculum ad Assessmet Uit Documet Productio Services Uit Educatioal Resources Brach Learig Support ad Techology Uit Istructio, Curriculum ad Assessmet Uit Learig Support ad Techology Uit Istructio, Curriculum ad Assessmet Uit a c k o w l e d g e m e t s ix

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13 G r a d E 1 2 C u r r E t t o p i C s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i E s itroductio

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15 p u r p o s E o F t h E d o C u M E t Guidig priciples Educatio for ad about First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples builds bridges of uderstadig ad respect betwee Idigeous ad o- Idigeous Caadias promotes persoal ad social resposibility coects the learer to family ad to local, atioal, ad global commuities purpose Grade 12 Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies: A Foudatio for Implemetatio supports the empowermet of studets through the exploratio of the histories, traditios, cultures, worldviews, ad cotemporary issues of Idigeous peoples i Caada ad worldwide. Studets gai kowledge ad develop the values, as well as the critical thikig, commuicatio, aalytical, ad iquiry skills, that will eable them to better uderstad past ad preset realities of Idigeous peoples. Additioally, exploratio of topics such as self-determiatio, self-govermet, ad laguage ad cultural reclamatio allows studets to uderstad ad work towards the post-coloial future evisioed by Idigeous peoples. persoal Growth Learig experieces i Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies facilitate persoal growth through a balaced ad holistic approach to learig. All aspects of self are addressed through the physical, emotioal, spiritual, ad itellectual dimesios of the learer. Through the use of learig logs, reflectio jourals, talkig circles, graphic expressios such as witer couts, ad other strategies, learers are ecouraged to examie, record, ad share their covictios, thoughts, uderstadigs, ad behaviours. i t r o d u c t i o 3

16 Medicie Wheel illustratig the Four aspects of a idividual This diagram is based o the Aishiaabe medicie wheel. It represets a holistic model of the four itercoected aspects of a idividual. Learig strategies i Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies support a balaced approach to learig by addressig all four aspects. The followig passage, take from the Maitoba Educatio documet Itegratig Aborigial Perspectives ito Curricula, explais some of the history ad sigificace of the medicie wheel i Idigeous cultures. Medicie Wheel Traditioally, Aborigial peoples have see the coected ad iterdepedet ature of the may aspects of the world aroud them. The medicie wheel is a aciet symbol that reflects values, world views, ad practices, ad is used by may Aborigial peoples today (Bopp et al). I Cree, the medicie wheel is referred to by the word pimatisiwi, which meas life. The medicie wheel is based upo a circle ad the umber four, both of which are of special sigificace to may Aborigial peoples. The medicie wheel is used to represet the itercoected relatioships amog aspects of life ad to provide directio ad meaig to a idividual. The medicie wheel that is preseted here is a example. While there are commoalities to all medicie wheels, each perso s is uique to the teachigs he or she has received, his or her persoal experieces, ad his or her uderstadigs of the itercoectedess of the aspects of life he or she represets with the medicie wheel. 4 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

17 The medicie wheel is divided ito four parts or quadrats, each represetig oe of the four directios. Oe of the lessos that ca be leared from the medicie wheel is balace. For example, o the medicie wheel the four aspects of a idividual (spiritual, emotioal, physical, metal) are represeted. I order for a idividual to be healthy, he or she must have a balace of the four aspects withi him or herself. If oe of these aspects or areas is sufferig, the the other three will also suffer some ill effects. For example, if a perso is sufferig from a illess such as a bad cold (physical), he or she may be more short-tempered tha usual (emotioal), be less able to thik clearly (metal), ad may also feel less well spiritually. (Maitoba Educatio ad Youth. 2003, 9-10) Buildig relatioships Relatioality, a key cocept i Idigeous worldviews, is a recurrig theme i Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies. Idigeous teachigs stress the iterrelatioship ad iterdepedece of all life o earth, icludig humakid. Learig strategies i Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies ecourage studets to explore ad to urture relatioships ot oly betwee themselves ad others, but also betwee themselves ad the atural world. Studets examie the dyamics of the relatioship betwee Idigeous ad other Caadias, how that relatioship has affected ad cotiues to affect all Caadias, ad the ecessity to restore the relatioship o the basis of mutual respect ad uderstadig. Laws of Relatioships Aborigial cultures share a belief that people must live i respectful, harmoious relatioships with ature, with oe aother, ad with oe s self. The relatioships are govered by what are uderstood as laws, which are gifts from the Creator. The laws are fudametally spiritual, imbuig all aspects of life. As fudametal as this perspective may be, each Aborigial culture expresses itself i uique ways, with its ow practices, products, ad kowledge. As real life circumstaces shift over time, a challege for Aborigial people has bee to iterpret the laws to eable their cotiuig survival, ot just physically but as spiritually strog people. This challege exteds to Aborigial educatio as well. (Wester Caadia Protocol for Collaboratio i Basic Educatio 5) i t r o d u c t i o 5

18 * adapted from the work of Garry robso, da thomas, ad Juliette sabot, ative Educatio directorate, Maitoba Educatio ad traiig, ad from dee kede Educatio: a dee perspective. Yellowkife: t. idigeous perspectives Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies promotes a diversity of perspectives ad ecourages teachers ad learers to further their uderstadig of Idigeous ways of seeig ad relatig to the world. It is importat for us, as Aborigial peoples, to advocate the value of lookig at thigs from a variety of perspectives, rather tha just through the eyes of the majority. Differet types of kowledge ca come together to iform society ad to promote the healig of our commuities. (Kowledge Traslatio: A Quest for Uderstadig, 41) 6 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

19 Citizeship Democratic Citizeship Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies supports the elemets of the core cocept of citizeship: 1. Iformed egagemet i civic discourse ad the democratic process 2. Commitmet to the priciples ad ideals of democracy ad huma rights 3. Acquisitio of a iformed sese of Caadia idetity withi a global cotext 4. Commitmet to the future of Caada (Adapted from Maitoba Educatio. Grade 11 History of Caada: A Foudatio for Implemetatio (upublished), 2011.) Citizeship ad idigeous Caadias For Idigeous studets, the cocept of atioal citizeship may be cotetious due to the log history of coloialism that has repressed ad margialized Idigeous peoples i Caada ad the world. Util 1985, the Idia Act required First Natios to reliquish their status ad treaty rights i order to ejoy full participatio as citizes i Caadia society. Status wome who married a o-status parter automatically had their status revoked. The Métis have resisted the impositio of ecoomic, social, ad political chage by the Caadia govermet, twice takig up arms to defed their rights: i i Red River ad agai i 1885 i the territory that would become the provice of Saskatchewa. I commo with First Natios ad Métis, the Iuit have experieced coloialist assaults o their cultures ad commuities, icludig eforced relocatio of commuities, ecoomic exploitatio of resources by souther iterests with little beefit to themselves, ad residetial schools. The followig excerpt details other challeges to Idigeous citizeship i Caada. Citizeship issues are complex for Aborigial peoples. For example, the origial Idia Act defied ad legislated the term persos as ayoe other tha a Idia. Although this laguage has uofficially bee dropped from usage, the legislatio has ever bee repealed. I additio, First Natios peoples were ot efrachised to vote i federal electios util [I fact First Natios were grated the right to vote i federal electios i 1960.] This right to vote was coditioal o beig efrachised by the provice or territory of residece. The Aborigial group kow as the Métis combied their First Natios ad Europea cultures to form their ow uique cultures. They do ot have First Natios or Iuit status with the federal govermet. The cultures of the Métis people today are varied, with idividuals who are highly acculturated, those who are very traditioal, ad others who are ibetwee. I the recet past, certai evets such as isolatig Aborigial childre from their commuities led to their loss of traditioal skills, values, laguage, ad culture. This created a people who could o loger idetify their place i Caadia society. What had bee importat to Aborigial peoples i the past o loger had validity or importace, either withi their commuities or withi Caada. Educatio has cotributed to this erosio. (Wester Caadia Protocol, February 2000) i t r o d u c t i o 7

20 Goals Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies offers all Grade 12 studets, both Idigeous ad o-idigeous, a opportuity to ehace their uderstadig ad appreciatio of the cultures ad traditios, as well as the cotemporary realities ad aspiratios of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit cultures i Maitoba, Caada, ad the world develop a kowledge of the history of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples i Caada i order to better uderstad the preset develop a sese of comfort ad cofidece i iteractios with First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit people develop a uderstadig that First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples ad cultures are a itegral part of Caadia society recogize the ogoig role of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples i shapig Caadia history ad idetity Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies offers First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit studets a opportuity to explore fudametal questios (e.g., Who am I? Where have I come from? Why am I here? Where am I goig?). By doig so, they are better able to further their uderstadig of the issues facig their commuities ad cultures build upo ad exted kowledge of their cultures ad traditios develop pride i the cotributios of their cultures to Caadia society ad the world build upo ad ehace positive self-idetity fuctio effectively as members of their local, atioal, ad global commuities evisio their place i the future of their commuity ad coutry 8 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

21 C o u r s E d E s C r i p t i o objectives Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies: A Foudatio for Implemetatio is a full-credit course iteded for Grade 12 studets, which examies Idigeous realties withi cotemporary ad historic Caadia ad global settigs. The course is iclusive of the traditioal values ad worldviews of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples. The objective of Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies is to provide both Idigeous ad o-idigeous studets with kowledge of Idigeous cultures ad traditios, ad to ecourage Idigeous studets to take pride i the accomplishmets of their peoples. This kowledge will eable Idigeous studets to participate meaigfully as citizes of their cultural commuity, of cotemporary Caadia society, ad as active ad egaged global citizes. No-Idigeous studets will become kowledgeable of the worldviews, histories, cultures, ad accomplishmets of Idigeous peoples, ad thus be able to egage i a iformed ad empathetic maer i debates cocerig Idigeous issues at local, atioal, ad global levels. ratioale Accordig to the Aborigial Peoples Survey by Statistics Caada, i Maitoba the majority of Idigeous people live i a urba settig, icludig 44 percet of the more tha 90,000 First Natios ihabitats, 70 percet of the almost 60,000 Métis, ad the majority of the small (300 plus) Maitoba Iuit populatio. The clear implicatio of these statistics is the icreasig egagemet of Idigeous people withi the larger Caadia society. The combied kowledge of both maistream ad Idigeous cultures will eable Idigeous ad o-idigeous Caadias alike to live ad work together harmoiously to create a equitable society for the bettermet of all Caadias. educatio is fudametally about how we trasmit our values to the ext geeratio with regard to what it meas to live as huma beigs. Because may cultures have distict perspectives about what it meas to live as a huma beig, educators have a opportuity ad resposibility to expose studets ad commuities to these differet perspectives. (Villegas) i t r o d u c t i o 9

22 decoloizig Educatio. decoloized educatio is ot just for Idigeous studets, ot just about Idigeous studets, but for all studets. Educatio ca either maitai domiatio or it ca liberate. It ca sustai coloizatio i eocoloial ways or it ca decoloize. Every school is either a site of reproductio or a site of chage. (Battiste) This documet supports decoloizatio i educatio. Decoloized educatio beefits all studets, ot just First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit studets. Historically, public educatio i Caada has played a sigificat role i the coloizatio of Idigeous people by its failure to meaigfully iclude Idigeous kowledge, history, ad worldviews i curricula. Maitoba Educatio, i partership with parets, commuities, educators, Aborigial orgaizatios, ad govermet departmets, has made sigificat progress i redressig this omissio through the developmet of policies ad strategic iitiatives, curricula, ad resources to support teachig ad learig. Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies cotributes to the decoloizatio process by makig available to all studets the worldviews, histories, traditios, cultures, cotributios, ad ways of kowig of Idigeous Caadias. This documet was produced by Maitoba Educatio i collaboratio with Maitoba educators. It icludes the core cocept of citizeship, ad idetifies Edurig Uderstadigs, which may be uderstood as broadly stated learig outcomes. It provides ideas ad strategies to support the implemetatio of the curriculum. Curriculum desig Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies employs Edurig Uderstadigs ad Essetial Questios from Uderstadig by Desig, a approach to curriculum developmet by Grat Wiggis ad Jay McTighe. Edurig Uderstadigs represet big ideas havig edurig value beyod the classroom reside at the heart of the disciplie (ivolve doig the subject) require u-coverage (of abstract or ofte misuderstood ideas) offer potetial for egagig studets 10 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

23 Edurig Uderstadigs i Curret Topics i First Natios, Iuit, ad Métis Studies Traditioally, First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples share a worldview of harmoy ad balace with ature, oe aother, ad oeself. First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples represet a diversity of cultures, each expressed i a uique way. Uderstadig of ad respect for First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples begi with kowledge of their pasts. May curret First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit issues are i reality uresolved historical issues. First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples should be recogized for their cotributios to Caadia society ad share i its successes. Essetial Questios are ope-eded ad resist a simple or sigle right aswer are thought-provokig require studets to draw upo cotet kowledge ad persoal experiece ca be revisited throughout the learig experiece to egage studets i evolvig dialogue ad debate lead to other essetial questios posed by studets The Learig Process Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies supports citizeship as a core cocept ad egages studets i iquiry learig. Guided by Essetial Questios, studets explore topics that are sigificat to the study of the histories, cultures, ad traditios of Idigeous peoples. By examiig cotemporary issues ad their historical roots as well as the life ways, cultures, traditios, cotributios, ad worldviews of Idigeous peoples, teachers ad studets are better able to uderstad the evolvig ature of the relatioship betwee Idigeous ad o- Idigeous peoples. Through this process, teachers ad studets acquire kowledge ad uderstadig of the cotemporary ad historic realities, as well as the visio of a post-coloial future based o respect, uderstadig, ad equity. i t r o d u c t i o 11

24 Structure ad Time Allotmets i Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies Curret Topics i First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit Studies is structured aroud the followig five thematic clusters: I. Image ad Idetity (10%) II. Relatios with Govermet (40%) III. Social Justice Issues (30%) IV. Idigeous Peoples ad the World (10%) V. Celebratios of Learig (10%) orgaizatio of the documet overview of Clusters ad learig Experieces This curriculum is orgaized ito five clusters. Each cluster icludes from oe to five learig experieces (LEs), which allow studets ad teachers to explore particular aspects of the cluster theme. LEs iclude the followig: Targeted edurig uderstadigs Essetial questios to guide studet iquiry A backgroud essay featurig iformatio o the theme of the LE Teachig ad learig strategies for activatig, acquirig, ad applyig studet learig, icludig log-term, recurrig Acquirig ad Applyig Strategies Glossary terms relevat to the LE Suggested resources to support teachig ad learig strategies Cluster 1: image ad idetity I Cluster 1, studets begi to explore cotemporary Idigeous issues, their roots i the coloialist history of Caada, ad their sigificace to all Caadias. Cluster 1 cosists of three LEs: LE 1.1: The Ghosts of History This LE focuses o the coloialist history of Caada ad the impact of coloizatio o First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples i Caada. Cotet icludes coloialism, termiology used to describe Idigeous peoples, ad the sigificace of Idigeous issues i cotemporary Caada. LE 1.2: From Time Immemorial This LE allows studets to explore Idigeous idetity from the viewpoit of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples. Cotet icludes worldviews, diversity, ad idetity. 12 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

25 LE 1.3: Worlds Collidig Studets examie cotemporary maistream Caadia society s perceptio of Idigeous people as the other. Cotet icludes racism, stereotypes, a compariso of Wester ad Idigeous worldviews, ad the role of media i creatig, perpetuatig, ad combatig stereotypical images of First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit people. Cluster 2: a profoud ambivalece: First atios, Métis, ad iuit relatios with Govermet I Cluster 2, studets examie the historic ad cotemporary relatioship betwee Caadia (ad later provicial ad territorial) govermets ad Idigeous peoples. Studets examie how the relatioship, which bega o a atio-to atio basis, chaged over time to reflect coloialist ideals ad aims, ad how, i the moder era, Idigeous Caadias are attemptig to move from coloialism to a post-coloial future through recogitio of their Aborigial ad treaty rights. LE 2.1: Settig the Stage: Ecoomics ad Politics Studets ivestigate the historic, political, ad ecoomic practices of Idigeous peoples i Caada, before ad after the arrival of Europeas. Studets lear that Idigeous peoples were orgaized i self-goverig societies of varyig degrees of sophisticatio ad complexity that iteracted o a atio-to-atio basis i various ways, icludig political, military, ad trade alliaces. I the early stages of the post- Europea cotact era, the relatioship betwee Europea traders ad settlers ad Idigeous peoples was characterized by similar atio-to-atio iteractio. LE 2.2: As Log as the Rivers Flow: The Numbered Treaties Studets explore treaty-makig betwee wester First Natios ad Caada begiig i Iquiry should yield the followig uderstadigs: There were sigificat differeces betwee First Natios ad the Caadia govermet s uderstadigs of the treaties The treaties were ot hooured by Caada after their sigig The wealth of Caada is derived from the lads ad resources acquired from First Natios through the treaties Treaties are livig documets that must be hooured ad reewed i the cotext of the preset The preferred relatioship betwee First Natios ad Caada is based o the terms ad spirit of the treaties i t r o d u c t i o 13

26 LE 2.3: Legislated Discrimiatio: The Idia Act Studets examie the historic ad cotemporary sigificace of the act, icludig the paradox that it is at oce discrimiatory ad racist while it also preserves the sactity of reserve lads. Iquiry should yield the uderstadig that the Idia Act sigaled a fudametal shift away from the atio-to-atio relatioship that had hitherto existed betwee First Natios ad Caada. It marked the begiig of a pateral relatioship that characterized First Natios as wards of the govermet, ad replaced First Natios traditioal goverace with a imposed system of elected chiefs ad coucils with severely limited powers while reservig real power for Ottawa. LE 2.4: O-Tee-Paym-Soo-Wuk (the Métis): The People Who Ow Themselves Studets explore the history of the Métis from their origis i the fur trade, to the birth of the Métis Natio i Red River ad the coflicts that characterized Métis resistace to threats agaist their ecoomic, cultural, ad political traditios, edig with the defeat of the Métis at Batoche i Studets should uderstad that the Métis were a self-determiig Idigeous atio, culturally distict from their First Natios ad Europea acestors, ad that by 1885 they had become ecoomically, socially, ad politically margialized by the coloialist policies ad practices of the Caadia govermet. LE 2.5: Defiig Our Place: Moder Treaties ad Rights Studets explore the struggle by First Natios, Métis, ad Iuit peoples i Caada to regai the self-determiatio that was stripped from them by coloialist policies ad practices. Studets examie the legislative ad legal processes by which Aborigial ad treaty rights have bee deied or cofirmed, ad explore moder treaties ad lad claims sice the 1970s ad especially sice the recogitio of Aborigial ad treaty rights i the Costitutio Act of Studets explore the various meas, icludig resistace ad protest, by which Idigeous peoples have sought recogitio of their rights, icludig self-govermet. Studets also examie various models of self-govermet ad examples of moder lad claim agreemets. Iquiry focus icludes the followig: the meaig of treaty rights ad Aborigial rights the various types of lad claims ad the mechaisms by which they are egotiated the roles of govermets ad courts, both provicial/territorial ad federal the importace of lad to Idigeous peoples that Aborigial atios are attemptig to forge a equitable relatioship with Caada, wherei their rights, icludig the right of self-determiatio, are recogized ad respected 14 G r a d e 1 2 C u r r e t t o p i c s i F i r s t a t i o s, M é t i s, a d i u i t s t u d i e s

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