1 ANALYTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Partial specific volume and solvent interactions of amphipol A8-35 Yann Gohon a, Georgy Pavlov b, Peter Timmins c, Christophe Tribet d, Jean-Luc Popot a, Christine Ebel e, * a Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Moléculaire des Membranes Biologiques, UMR 7099, CNRS and Université Paris-7, Institut de Biologie Physico-Chimique, CNRS FRC 550, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F Paris, France b Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, BolÕshoi pr. 31, St. Petersburg, Russia c Large Scale Structures Group, Institut Laue-Langevin, Avenue des Martyrs, B.P.156, F Grenoble Cedex 9, France d Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie Macromoléculaire, CNRS UMR 7615, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, F Paris, France e Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Structurale, UMR 5075 CEA-CNRS-UJF, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, F Grenoble Cedex 01, France Received 12 June 2004 Abstract Amphipols are small amphiphilic polymers that can stabilize and keep soluble membrane proteins in aqueous solutions in the absence of detergent. A prerequisite to solution studies of membrane protein/amphipol complexes is the determination of the partial specific volume v 2 and effective charge z of the polymer. The ratio (R) of the buoyant molar masses of particles in D 2 O and H 2 O solutions, obtained from sedimentation velocity (s H /s D method) and sedimentation equilibrium experiments, and their contrast match point (CMP), determined in small-angle neutron scattering experiments, depend on v 2 and z. When z is known, v 2 can be estimated from R with a good accuracy as long as v 2 is close to 1. The effects of labile H/D exchange and of polyelectrolyte counter-ion dissociation in general cannot be neglected. The accuracy, advantages, and limits of the s H /s D method have been studied in details using model macromolecules (DNA, protein, and polysaccharide). The s H /s D method appears particularly advantageous for the study of heterogeneous samples. Measurements of density, s D /s H buoyant molar masses in H 2 O, D 2 O, and D 2 18 O, and CMP of hydrogenated and partially deuterated A8-35, a polyacrylate-based amphipol containing 35 underivatized carboxylates per 100 monomers, led to a consistent description of its buoyancy and charge properties. Ó 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Amphipol; Polyelectrolyte; Counter-ion dissociation; Analytical ultracentrifugation; Density; Small-angle neutron scattering Membrane proteins constitute about one-third of the proteome, but, compared to soluble proteins, few of their structures are known. This is mainly due to their low natural abundance and to the difficulties presented by their extraction from the membrane and their handling in detergent solutions, in which they often have a limited stability [1,2]. This has prompted the search for novel amphiphilic compounds that could be used as * Corresponding author. Fax: address: (C. Ebel). alternatives to detergents . Specially designed amphipathic polymers, called amphipols, have been shown to keep in solution and to stabilize a large variety of membrane proteins (for a review, see ). Amphipols with different chemical structures have been synthesized and tested (reviewed in [4,5]). Tribet et al.  first showed that an anionic derivative of low-molecularweight polyacrylic acid grafted with octylamine and isopropylamine was able to keep soluble in aqueous solution under their native state four integral membrane proteins: bacteriorhodopsin, a bacterial photosynthetic reaction center, cytochrome b 6 f, and matrix porin /$ - see front matter Ó 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi: /j.ab
2 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that amphipols preserved the original dispersity of the b 6 f complex in detergent solution . Amphipols protected the sarcoplasmic calcium ATPase from the rapid and irreversible inactivation that follows detergent or calcium removal . The structure, solubility, and functionality of the integral membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase were maintained by amphipols in the complete absence of extraneous lipids or detergent . The comparison of agonist binding kinetics demonstrated that a channel-forming acetylcholine receptor displayed, after trapping with amphipols, unaltered allosteric transitions as compared to the membrane-bound state . The ability of amphipols to keep soluble membrane proteins while maintaining their structure, association state, and functionality motivates structural studies of amphipols and amphipol/protein complexes in solution. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) 1 and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are based on rigorous thermodynamics and can be used to characterize the homogeneity of solutions of macromolecules, their molar masses, and their interactions. The scattering phenomena and the sedimentation of a macromolecule are related to the osmotic work done against the concentration gradient, which can be expressed as a function of the molar mass of the macromolecule, M 2. The experimental parameters, buoyant molar mass and forward intensity, are related to M 2 through buoyancy or contrast terms, i.e., the increments in mass density or neutron scattering length density. These are functions of the partial specific volume of the macromolecule, v 2, and, in the cases of polyelectrolytes (such as charged amphipols) or of multicomponent solvents, of the redistribution of the solvent close to the macromolecule, which determines the value of the preferential solvent binding parameter n 3 [11 15]. For a polyelectrolyte in dilute salted solvent, n 3 is directly related to the number of dissociated counter-ions (or effective charge z of the polyelectrolyte). The knowledge of v 2 and n 3 (i.e., z) for amphipols is thus a prerequisite for many solution studies of amphipol particles and amphipol/membrane protein complexes. Their determination is the object of the present study. Amphipol A8-35 has been described previously . Its chemical structure is schematized in Fig. 1. The average molecule has a mass of 8 kda and comprises 70 acrylate monomers. On average, 35% (mol mol 1 )of the original carboxylates are underivatized and 25% carry an octylamine chain. Most of the remaining 40% 1 Abbreviations used: AUC, analytical ultracentrifugation; SANS, small-angle neutron scattering; CMP, contrast match point; BSA, bovine serum albumin; PAA, polyacrylic acid; NMP, N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone; THF, tetrahydrofuran; DCI, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; HOBT, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. Fig. 1. Chemical structure of A8-35. For amphipol A8-35, x, y, and z correspond to 35, 25, and 40%, respectively. HAPol is the hydrogenated form. In DAPol, the alkyl chains are -C 8 D 17 and -CD(CD 3 ) 2. are derivatized with isopropylamine, but in some samples a small fraction was found to have been blocked by a side reaction (see Materials and methods). For their characterization in solution, amphipols combine the complexities of both polyelectrolytes and polydisperse polymers. However, despite the wide distribution of the masses of individual molecules (typically over a decade around the average mass), amphipols associate in aqueous solutions into relatively well-defined particles (this work and [16,17]). We examine here the contribution of the polyelectrolyte nature of amphipols to their solution properties by confronting AUC, SANS, and density data collected on two isotopically distinct variants of A8-35, an undeuterated form (HAPol), and a deuterated form (DAPol). Accurate density measurements made at constant solvent composition, i.e., by dissolution of the dry polymer, can be used for the determination of v 2, provided that the absolute concentration of amphipol is precisely known. Values of n 3 can in principle be obtained by complementary density, sedimentation, or scattering experiments made at constant chemical potential of the solvent components [11,18 20]. These methods were not readily practical in the case of amphipols. The samples (for density) have to be prepared using dialysis or gel permeation, with the risk of altering the composition of these heterogeneous mixtures, or the analysis requires prior knowledge of the molar mass of the macromolecule in solution and thus would be difficult to implement in the case of amphipols, which form supramolecular aggregates. As another approach, solvent density variation in sedimentation or SANS experiments with solvents containing H 2 O, D 2 O, and eventually D 2 18 O can be used to obtain v 2 and M 2 in two-component systems [21,22]. (We do not consider the use of cosolvents such as sugars, glycerol, nicodenz, or salts to modulate the density of the solution, because this does not allow a rigorous analysis [23,24]). For a polyelectrolyte, counterion dissociation is a special case of solvent interactions, which have to be considered in the analysis of data obtained in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents [19,21]. The present paper demonstrates the power of sedimentation analysis in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents and applies it to the characterization of amphipols.
3 320 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Under Theoretical background, we describe how the ratio (R) of the buoyant molar masses obtained in D 2 O and H 2 O solvents from sedimentation velocity or sedimentation equilibrium measurements and the contrast match point (CMP) determined by SANS are related to v 2 and n 3. Under Results and discussion, we first analyze how R can be used to evaluate v 2 and apparent partial specific volumes and show that the effect of polyelectrolyte counter-ion dissociation in general cannot be neglected. Sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents using model compounds are used to validate this approach. We then study the partial specific volume and counter-ion dissociation properties of A8-35 in its hydrogenated and deuterated forms, HAPol and DAPol. HAPol was characterized by density measurements at constant composition of solvent components and by equilibrium sedimentation in H 2 O, D 2 O, and D 2 18 O, solvents. Contrast variation experiments in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents were performed on HAPol and DA- Pol using both sedimentation velocity and SANS measurements. By comparing the results of density measurements at constant molality of the solvent components and sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents, we show that the buoyancy properties of A8-35 are compatible with full dissociation of the counter-ions. Consistent but less accurate estimates were derived from equilibrium sedimentation in H 2 O/D 2 O/ D 2 18 O and from SANS measurements. Under Conclusion we discuss the general applicability and limits of the analysis of sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 OandD 2 O solvents for v 2 and n 3 determination. Finally, we summarize the thermodynamic and operational parameters characterizing A8-35 in solution and discuss how they can be used for the interpretation of AUC and SANS experiments on membrane protein/ amphipol complexes. Theoretical background Partial specific volume and buoyant molar mass in threecomponent systems In the cases of a polyelectrolyte macromolecule or of a multicomponent solvent, solvent redistribution is possible. We therefore consider a three-component system composed of (1) the principal solvent (H 2 OorD 2 O), (2) the macromolecular compound, which consists, in the case of a polyelectrolyte, of the macromolecule itself plus the number of counter-ions needed for electroneutrality (see  for a discussion of the components), and (3) the cosolvent (salt, for example) of molar masses M i (g mol 1 ) and partial specific volumes v i (ml g 1 ), concentration c i (g ml 1 )orm i (mol kg 1 of 1), i = 1, 2 or 3. The change of the total volume V of the solution is related to v i : v i ¼ðoV =om i Þ mj6¼m i : ð1þ The partial specific volume of component i can be measured by density measurements performed at constant molalities of the components j i. Ifq and q 0 are the densities of the solution and the solvent, ðoq=oc i Þ mj6¼mi ¼ 1 q 0 v i : ð2þ The buoyant molar mass M b of the macromolecule in sedimentation experiments is related to the density increment (oq/oc 2 ) l obtained at constant chemical potential of the diffusive species: M b ¼ M 2 ðoq=oc 2 Þ l : ð3þ The index l stands here for l 1, l 3. M b and (oq/oc 2 ) l can be expressed using the preferential binding parameters of the cosolvent with the macromolecule, n 3 = (M 3 /M 2 )(om 3 /om 2 ) l : ðoq=oc 2 Þ l ¼ð1 þ n 3 Þ q 0 ðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 Þ: ð4þ n 3 (in gram of 3 per gram of 2)or(om 3 /om 2 ) l (in mole of 3 per mole of 2) represents the hypothetical amount of cosolute that has to be introduced to or subtracted from the solution when adding component 2, in order to keep the chemical potentials of the solvent components constant. A value of n 3 different from zero corresponds to a redistribution of the solvent related to the presence of the macromolecule. In a structural analysis, (oq/oc 2 ) l and n 3 can be expressed with regard to the water binding (B 1 gram of water per gram of polymer), the cosolute (here: salt) binding (B 3 gram of salt per gram of polymer), and the Donnan term (E 3 gram of salt per gram of polymer), which is related to the counter-ion dissociation of a polyelectrolyte ðoq=oc 2 Þ l ¼ 1 þ B 1 þðb 3 E 3 Þ q 0 ðv 2 þ B 1 v 1 þðb 3 E 3 Þv 3 Þ: ð5þ If w 3 /w 1 is the salt to water ratio in the solvent, in gram of salt per gram of water, n 3 ¼ B 3 E 3 B 1 w 3 =w 1 : ð6þ The Donnan contribution is negative. In a dialysis experiment, it corresponds to a flux of salt toward the outside of the bag or a flux of water toward the inside. If z is the effective number of negative charges on the polyelectrolyte, z + the charge of the solvent salt cation and m the number of ions composing the solvent salt (m = 2 for NaCl, m = 3 for MgCl 2 ), then the Donnan contribution is E 3 =(M 3 /M 2 )z/mz +. For the interested reader, the derivation of this expression was given recently . In the present paper, because the solvent consists of dilute NaCl solutions (w 3 /w ), the polyelectrolyte dissociation (Donnan contribution) is the only contribution to n 3 to be considered and Eq. (6) reduces to
4 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) n 3 ¼ðM 3 =M 2 Þðom 3 =om 2 Þ l ¼ ðm 3 =M 2 Þz=2: ð7þ Salt binding would entail a smaller value of z. Eq. (7) will be used here for the evaluation of n 3,(om 3 /om 2 ) l, and/or z. Its use would be an oversimplification for less diluted solvents (hydration can be detected when the density of the solvent differs from that of water) or for strong cosolute macromolecule interactions, as observed in the case of halophilic proteins, or in the presence of divalent ions , or for membrane proteins in the presence of detergents, for example, where protein cosolute binding cannot be neglected. Use of the operational value / 0 The operational parameter / 0 is extensively used to describe the buoyancy properties of macromolecules in multicomponent systems. It is defined as ðoq=oc 2 Þ l ¼ð1 q 0 / 0 Þ: ð8þ It can be used as an apparent partial specific volume to calculate the molar mass of a macromolecule from the buoyant molar mass measured in analytical ultracentrifugation (under the same experimental conditions of solvent and temperature). There is thus a practical interest to determine / 0. However, / 0 has no thermodynamic meaning and can be used only in one given solvent condition. It is related in a complex way to q 0, v 2, n 3,andv 3 : / 0 ¼ v 2 þ n 3 ðv 3 1=q 0 Þ: ð9þ Sedimentation of a noninteracting ideal macromolecule Equilibrium sedimentation measures buoyant molar masses M b. The Svedberg equation relates the sedimentation coefficient, s, obtained from sedimentation velocity experiments, to M b, to the hydrodynamic radius, R S,to the solvent viscosity, g, and to the Avogadro number, N A : s ¼ M b =N A 6pgR S : ð10þ In the absence of salt ions in the solvent, the sedimentation velocity of a polyelectrolyte is reduced because the macromolecule and the counter-ions interact and the counter-ions are moving more slowly than the macromolecule. If the solvent comprises 0.1 M NaCl, as was the case in the present experiments, this source of nonideality can be neglected. For dilute samples or for extrapolation to infinite dilution, the Svedberg equation (10) can then be used rigorously. Obtaining the partial specific volume of a noninteracting ideal macromolecule from measurement of the sedimentation in H 2 O and D 2 O buffers For experiments performed in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents, the indices H (sometimes omitted) and D, respectively, are added to the above equations. We define R as the ratio of the buoyant molar masses in D 2 O and H 2 O solvents: R ¼ M bd =M bh : ð11þ R can be obtained from sedimentation velocity experiments if R S is assumed to be the same in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents: R ¼ s D g D =s H g H : ð12þ The mass of the particle increases to M 2D in the D 2 O solvent, by the substitution of labile H for D. For the solvent as for the particle, we consider that isotopic substitution changes the masses but not the volume properties of the molecules. In consequence, the partial specific volume in D 2 O can be expressed as a function of v 2 (v 2 standing for v 2H and M 2 for M 2H ): v 2D ¼ v 2 M 2 =M 2D. We will also restrict the analysis to the case in which the value of (om 3 /om 2 ) l reflecting the interaction of the macromolecule with the solvent in mole units is unchanged by the change of the solvent from H 2 Oto D 2 O. M bd can then be written using the cosolvent binding parameter n 3 (n 3 stands for n 3H ; it is expressed in gram of component 3 per gram of component 2 as defined for the hydrogenated solvent, i.e., without the consideration of H/D exchange) as M bd ¼ M 2 ½ðM 2D =M 2 þ n 3 Þ q 0 D ðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 ÞŠ and R can be written as R ¼½ðM 2D =M 2 þ n 3 Þ q 0 D ðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 ÞŠ =½ð1 þ n 3 Þ q 0 H ðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 ÞŠ: ð13þ ð14þ When M 2D /M 2 and v 2 are known, n 3 can be estimated from R: n 3 ¼½ðM 2D =M 2 q 0 D v 2Þ Rð1 q 0 H v 2ÞŠ =½Rð1 q 0 H v 3Þ ð1 q 0 D v 3ÞŠ: ð15þ In a two-component system composed of water and a nonpolyelectrolyte macromolecule, Eq. (14) reduces to R ¼ðM 2D =M 2 q 0 D v 2Þ=ð1 q 0 H v 2Þ and v 2 can be extracted from R using v 2 ¼ðM 2D =M 2 RÞ=ðq 0 D Rq0 H Þ. By analogy, we introduce an apparent partial specific volume / 0 R : R ¼ðM 2D =M 2 q 0 D /0 R Þ=ð1 q0 H /0 R Þ ð16þ and / 0 R ¼ðM 2D=M 2 RÞ=ðq 0 D Rq0 HÞ: ð17þ Match point in small-angle neutron scattering experiments The normalized forward scattered intensity I(0) of an ideal solution of macromolecules can be expressed as a
5 322 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) function of M 2, c 2, N A, and the neutron scattering length density increment of the macromolecule (oq N / oc 2 ) l (in cm g 1 ) as: Ið0Þ ¼ð1=N A Þc 2 M 2 ðoq N =oc 2 Þ 2 l : ð18þ (oq N /oc 2 ) l is expressed using the neutron scattering length per gram of solute b 2 and b 3 (cm g 1 of macromolecule and salt, respectively), the scattering length density of the solvent q 0 N (cm cm 3 of solvent), n 3, v 2, and v 3 : ðoq N =oc 2 Þ l ¼ðb 2 þ n 3 b 3 Þ q 0 N ðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 Þ: ð19þ In a fully or partially deuterated solvent, c 2, M 2, v 2, and n 3 are defined with reference to the fully hydrogenated macromolecule (for example, c 2 is the weight concentration of the macromolecule prior to H/D eventual exchange). But the percentage of D 2 O, in the solvent (% D ) determines b 2 and q 0 N : b 2 ¼ðb 2D % D þð100 % D Þb 2H Þ=100 ð20þ and q 0 N ¼ðq N 0D % 0 D þð100 % D Þq N H Þ=100; ð21þ where b 2D, the neutron scattering length per gram of the macromolecule in the deuterated solvent, is defined in centimeters per gram of the hydrogenated macromolecule and depends on the number of H exchanged for D. If EXCH is the fraction of exchangeable H exchanged for D and b 2D the neutron scattering length per gram of the macromolecule corresponding to full exchange then b 2D ¼ b 2H þ EXCHðb 2D b 2HÞ. The match point in a H/D neutron titration curve corresponds to the absence of scattering. If CMP is the percentage of D 2 O corresponding to the match point, it corresponds to the condition: ðb 2D CMP þð100 CMPÞb 2H Þ=100 þ n 3 b 3 0 ðq N D CMP þð100 CMPÞq 0 N H Þðv 2 þ n 3 v 3 Þ=100 ¼ 0: ð22þ Materials and methods Samples Egg white lysozyme and porcine intestinal mucosa heparin (sodium salt) were purchased from Sigma and serum bovine albumin (BSA) was from Bayer. Polyacrylic acid (PAA), MW 5000, was purchased from Aldrich (50 wt% solution in water). This turbid solution was diluted down to 10 wt% in water and warmed up to 90 C for min, prior to freeze-drying. The lyophilized PAA contained about 10 wt% water as determined from the total carbon content of the powder. Gel permeation chromatography analysis of the PAA in its sodium form was performed in 0.5 M LiNO 3 water solution, at 40 C in Shodex OH pak columns (Waters, MA). A number average molar mass equal to 7500 g mol 1 and a polydispersion of 1.6 were obtained (differential viscometry and refractive index double-detection with universal calibration). Octylamine was purchased from Fluka. Deuterated octylamine-d17 (>99% D) was supplied by Isotech (Miamisburg, OH). Isopropanol-D8 (99% D) was purchased from Eurisotop (St. Aubain, France). N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and other solvents were from Solvants, Documentation, Synthèses, Peypin, France. Other chemicals including isopropylamine, dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCI), and 1-hydroxybenzotriazol (HOBT) were from Aldrich. Synthesis of isopropylamine-d7 Deuterated isopropylamine was obtained from the corresponding alcohol using the two-stage route reported by Mitsunobu et al. , with intermediate formation of N-isopropylphthalimide followed by hydrazinolysis. The alcohol (1.2 g, 20 mmol) was allowed to react at room temperature with one equivalent of triphenylphosphine (5.2 g) and phthalimide (3.0 g) in THF (40 ml). Slow addition of an equimolar amount of diethyl azodicarboxylate (3.4 g, dissolved in 10 ml THF) gave the isopropylphthalimide. THF was evaporated and the reaction mixture redissolved in 98% ethanol (20 ml) with no purification. A 50% solution of hydrazine in water was added to bring the ph above 9.0. The resulting precipitate was washed with ethanol and redissolved in minimum water. Upon addition of concentrated HCl solution to reach ph < 4.0, the isopropylammonium chloride precipitated and was filtered and washed several times with dry diethyl ether. It was characterized by ph titration, chloride titration (AgNO 3 and silver electrode), and 13 C NMR. Polymer modification Amphipols were obtained by the successive reactions of octylamine and isopropylamine on the PAA precursor dissolved in NMP, in the presence of DCI as activating agent . This procedure affords random grafting of the carboxylic acid groups . A typical synthesis of A8-35 is described, with minor adaptations used for deuterated polymers (see below): the PAA (5 g, 63 mmol acid) was allowed to dissolve in 70 ml NMP for 15 h at 50 C. Octylamine (2.12 g, 16.4 mmol) solution in 20 ml NMP was added prior to drop-wise supplementation with 3.62 g (17.4 mmol) DCI solution in NMP. The mixture was allowed to react for 2 h at 50 C and then cooled to 0 C and filtrated to remove the dicyclohexylurea formed. Successive additions in the reaction bath of NMP solutions containing 1.52 g isopropylamine, 4.0 g
6 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) HOBT, and finally 6.0 g DCI yielded, after a 2-h reaction at 50 C, the amphipol solution under acid form. Two equivalents of sodium methanoate were added to the mixture, which was subsequently diluted in a large excess of water (1.5 L). After filtration of residual dicyclohexylurea, the polymer was precipitated by acidification of the aqueous solution with aliquots of 10% HCl. Purification of the amphipol was achieved by three cycles of redissolution in water NaOH, filtration, and precipitation by acidification. Finally, the precipitate was redissolved with the minimum amount of NaOH, adjustment of the ph of the solution to ph and freeze-drying, yielding 6.5 g of product. The synthesis of deuterated compounds differed in the use of isopropylamine under its chlorhydrate form. Isopropylammonium was dissolved in NMP and one equivalent of NaOH (10 M aqueous solution) added. The solution was dried on molecular sieve and NaCl removed by filtration prior to addition in the reaction bath. HOBT and DCI were added and the reaction was allowed to proceed for 30 min at 50 C. The bath was kept overnight at room temperature before carrying out the purification procedure as described above. Chemical analysis of amphipols Fig H NMR spectra of HAPol and DAPol. (A) HAPol in D 2 O/ MeOD 20:80 v/v. The spectrum comprises three main regions: that from 0.6 to 1.4 ppm is representative of methyl and methylene protons of alkyl side groups, that from 1.4 to 2.4 ppm is representative of the backbone protons, and that from 3.0 to 4.0 ppm is representative of side group methylene protons in the a position of the amide function. Octyl groups yield three peaks, labeled O 1,O 2, and O 3, accounting, respectively, for 3, 12, and 2 protons per side chain; isopropyl groups yield peaks I 1 and I 2, accounting, respectively, for 6 and 1 protons per side chain; peaks B 1 and B 2 account, respectively, for 2 and 1 protons per acrylic unit. The overall degree of derivatization of the polyacrylate can be determined from the integrals of I 1,O 1, and B 2, the relative proportion of octyl and isopropyl groups can be determined from those of O 1 and I 1 or of I 2 and O 3. The inset is a zoom of the spectrum obtained in D 2 O (featuring no methanol signal at 3.3 ppm). It shows the near-absence of a-methylene protons from contaminant side chains (*) in the ppm region (cf. spectrum B). (B) DAPol in D 2 O. The sharp peaks are due to molecular impurities that are not bound to the polymer. The absence of peaks from the a-methylenes of either octyl or isopropyl groups confirms their complete deuteration. The peaks labeled with asterisks correspond to a-methylene (*) and other (**) protons belonging to a small fraction of bound contaminant (see Materials and methods). Amphipols were characterized by 1 H and 13 C NMR, ph titration with HCl, and elemental analysis. Fig. 2 shows 1 H NMR spectra of HAPol and DAPol, and Fig. 3 shows the 13 C NMR spectrum of DAPol. Table 1 summarizes the results and shows that differences between the chemical composition of HAPol and DAPol are close to the limit of uncertainty on the analyses. The similarity between HAPol and DAPol with regard to octyl, isopropyl, and charge densities appears even more clearly by the comparison of data obtained using the same technique, e.g., 13 CNMRinTable 1. It was therefore considered for the calculation of contrast match points (see Contrast match points of HAPol and DAPol in SANS experiments) that HAPol and DA- Pol are negligibly different in their composition. Somewhat arbitrarily, though based on the measurements of isopropyl/octyl ratio and charge density having the highest accuracy, a representative composition was fixed at 35% sodium acrylate, 25% octylacrylamide, and 40% isopropylacrylamide units. However, the existence of a small amount of hydrogenated contaminant covalently bound to DAPol was revealed by the presence of a minor peak centered at 3.5 ppm in the 1 H NMR spectrum (Fig. 2B). Such a peak was essentially absent in the spectrum of the batch of HAPol used for the present study (Fig. 2A). The high degree of modification of PAA required to achieve the A8-35 structure and the corresponding high amount of coupling agents (DCI, HOBT) used during the synthesis increase the risk of side reactions. Several contaminants therefore may become grafted as side groups, including traces of amines or alcohols that may be present in NMP and the side group generated by the translocation of the activated function formed between DCI and carboxylic acid (Nacyl-dicyclohexylurea) . It is worth noting that the spectrum of dicyclohexylurea, a compound comparable to the side-product of reaction with DCI, shows similarly one peak at 3.5 ppm (two protons) and several peaks in the range ppm (methylenes of the cyclohexyl rings). In DAPol 1 H NMR spectra, the integral of the peak at 3.5 ppm yields an estimate of the degree of contamination, namely a molar fraction of 3.3% of the monomer, if ascribed to two protons. The sum of the integrals of the peaks due to the contaminant (labels *
7 324 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Density measurements Fig C NMR spectra of DAPol in D 2 O. The ppm region shows two peaks attributed to the carbon atoms of the carboxylate (1) and amide (2) functions. The ratio of their integrals provides that of the two functions and thus the degree of derivatization of the polyacrylate. The ratio of the peaks centered at 18 ppm (3: methyls of the isopropyl groups) and 10 ppm (4: methyls of the octyl groups) yields the isopropyl/octyl ratio. and ** in Fig. 2B) corresponds to a 0.2:1 ratio to the integral of the methine protons along the backbone, yielding an average of additional hydrogen atom per monomer unit. While relatively minor compared to the average number of 7.05 deuterium atoms per monomer unit expected from the formula of the nominal perdeuterated form of DAPol, this low level of contamination nevertheless detectably affects (by 6% D 2 O) the calculated contrast match point of DAPol in SANS experiments (see below). Measurement of the total carbon content of the samples The measurements were performed using a Dorhmann DC50 Total Organic Carbon Analyzer (Cincinnati, OH). The samples, at a concentration of ca. 20 g L 1 HAPol, were diluted in pure water before injection in the reactor for oxidation in a nitric acid potassium persulfate aqueous solution in the presence of oxygen and UV light. Oxydation of HAPol yields carbon dioxide which is quantified by infrared absorbance at cm 1 to obtain the total amount of carbon in the sample. Calibration was achieved with potassium phthalate standards. Two sets of density measurements were performed on HAPol. One set used HAPol solubilized at a concentration of 18.8 g L 1 (determined by measurement of the total carbon in the sample) and precisely diluted samples in 100 mm NaCl, 20 mm sodium phosphate buffer, ph 6.8. After a short centrifugation, measurements of the density of the solvent and samples (precision: ml g 1 ) were made using a DMA 58 densitometer (Anton Paar, Graz, Austria). A second set of measurements was done in either pure water or 0.1 M NaCl, 20 mm Tris/HCl buffer, ph 8, using polymer powder desiccated on P 2 O 5, the concentrations being determined by weighing. Density measurements were performed at C on a DMA 5000 density meter (Anton Paar, Graz, Austria). The densities of the solvents used in the analytical ultracentrifugation were also measured. The density increment ðoq=oc i Þ mj6¼m i, related to v 2 (Eq. (2)), depends on the difference between the density of the solvent, q 0, and that of the solution of HAPol at concentration c 2 (g ml 1 ), q: ðoq=oc 2 Þ mj6¼m i ¼ðq q 0 Þ=c 2 : ð23þ Viscosity measurements Viscosity measurements of the solvents were made at 20.0 C using an AMV 200 rolling ball viscometer with a manually filled capillary of internal diameter 0.9 mm recommended for the range mpa s (ref ) (Anton Paar, Graz, Austria). The viscosities of 300 ll solutions were obtained from the rolling times of the steel ball for the solution measured at three inclination angles (from 40 to 60 ) of the capillary. For heparin, BSA and lysozyme, density and viscosity measurements were done on the samples investigated in sedimentation. Sedimentation velocity experiments Heparin, lysozyme, and BSA samples were prepared by dissolution of the macromolecules at 1 6 g L 1 and Table 1 Composition of HAPol and DAPol obtained from NMR, elemental analysis, and titrations Free carboxylate (%) Octylamide (%) Isopropylamide (%) Octylamide/isopropylamide HAPol 34 ± 1 c 28 ± 2 b 46 ± 3 b 0.61 ± 0.05 b 28 ± 2 a 31 ± 2 a 41 ± 2 a 0.74 ± 0.02 a DAPol e 29 ± 1 a 27 ± 3 a,e 44 ± 3 a,e 0.62 ± 0.02 a 23 ± 4 d a 13 CNMR. b 1 HNMR. Microanalysis. ph titration. e NMR analysis revealed that DAPol additionally contains 3% of contaminant side chains, which were essentially absent in HAPol (see Materials and methods). Errors indicated for NMR analysis are fitting errors for a single spectrum.
8 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) subsequent dilution in the appropriate solvent. Heparin was extensively dried on P 2 O 5 and dissolved in 0.2 M NaCl, H 2 O or D 2 O at a concentration of 5.3 g L 1. Subsequent dilutions of heparin were made by weighing. The minimum time between dissolution and sedimentation measurement was 5 h. For HAPol and DAPol, samples were investigated after days of incubation and after SANS measurements. Analytical ultracentrifugation was performed either on a XLA or a XLI centrifuge (Beckman Coulter, Palo Alto, USA) with rotor speeds of 42,000, 57,000, and 60,000 rpm for BSA and lysozyme, heparin, and HAPol and DAPol, respectively, in a double-sector cell of optical path 12 mm, using absorbance or interference optics. For heparin, sedimentation coefficients, s, were evaluated from the displacement of the maxima of the derivatives of the integral distribution and extrapolated to infinite dilution, with linear extrapolation of s or 1/s to zero concentration . The resulting values differed by 0.03 S, and the mean values were used. We used the Sedfit program (available at for two different types of analysis [30,33], which consider globally a set of sedimentation profiles obtained at different times and take advantage of a radial and time-independent noise subtraction procedure . The c(s) analysis determines a continuous distribution of experimental sedimentation coefficients for the proteins and the polymer samples. Finite element solutions of the Lamm equation for a large number of discrete independent species are combined with a maximum entropy regularization to represent a continuous size distribution . Well-resolved distributions are obtained for noninteracting systems . In the c (s) analysis, reasonable hypotheses on the values of the partial specific volume, the frictional ratio f/f 0, the density q, and the viscosity g of the solvent allow fixation of a plausible relationship between mass, sedimentation, and diffusion coefficients s and D. The second type of analysis considers the model of one noninteracting species : in that case, s and D are fitted. For the homogeneous lysozyme, it led to sedimentation and diffusion coefficient values that were verified to be independent of the protein concentration (in the investigated range, i.e., up to 0.4 g L 1 ), yielding a buoyant molar mass that differed by less than 3% from the theoretical mass. Equilibrium sedimentation of HAPol in solvents containing H 2 O, D 2 OorD 2 18 O HAPol was dissolved at 20 g L 1 in 0.1 M NaCl, 0.2 M sodium phosphate buffer, ph 7.2. The stock solution was then diluted to 10 and 5 g L 1 in the same buffer, and each of these was diluted 20 in 1 or 0.1 M NaCl in H 2 O, D 2 O, or D 2 18 O. The optical quality of D 2 18 O, obtained from Interchim (Montluçon, France) (two samples at 99% D, 95% 18 O or at 99% D, 75% 18 O), was quite poor (A 227 = 0.9, decreasing to A 280 = 0.25, with a maximum of 0.5 at A 310 = 0.5), which seriously complicated our measurements. The density of the solvents was measured experimentally. 100-ll samples of HAPol at concentrations of 1, 0.5, and 0.25 g L 1 were centrifuged in six-channel centerpieces at 20 C, at 22,000, 31,000, and 38,000 rpm (in 1 M NaCl) or at 18,000, 22,000, and 42,000 rpm (in 0.1 M NaCl). Sedimentation profiles were obtained using absorbance optics (at 231 nm in H 2 OorD 2 O and at 315 nm in D 18 2 O). The mean buoyant molar masses were estimated in 0.1 M NaCl, from estimates of the absorbance A 0, A m, and A b, i.e., respectively, before sedimentation, and, following equilibration, at the meniscus (r m ) and at the bottom (r b ), M b ¼ 2RT ða b A m Þ=x 2 A 0 ðr 2 b r2 aþ, (we considered the mean value from the different concentrations and the two lowest rotor speeds), and in 1 M NaCl, from the fit of the equilibrium profiles A(r) obtained at the different concentrations and rotor speeds, r being the radial distance, assuming one sedimenting species, AðrÞ ¼ Aðr 0 Þ exp½x 2 M b ðr 2 r 2 0Þ=2RT Šþd, considering the experimentally obtained baseline d at 42,000 rpm in H 2 O and D 18 2 O and d = 0 in D 2 O. In these equations, x is the angular velocity (s 1 )andrt the product of the gas constant by the absolute temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering Small-angle neutron scattering experiments were carried out on the D22 beam line at the Institut Laue Langevin (Grenoble, France) at 20 C. The collimation and sample detector distances were 5 m. The deuterated buffer was made by diluting in D 2 O a lyophilized hydrogenated buffer containing 0.1 M NaCl, 20 mm sodium phosphate buffer, ph 7. Lyophilized polymers were resuspended in H 2 O or D 2 O at a concentration of 100 g L 1 before being lyophilized once again. Powders were then resuspended in either H 2 OorD 2 O buffer at a final concentration of 10 g L 1. The polymer concentration was checked by measuring the total carbon concentration of the samples. SANS measurements were performed at different percentages of D 2 O obtained by mixing the two samples in various proportions. The exact percentage of D 2 O in each sample was determined by comparing neutron transmission by the samples and buffers to that of pure H 2 OandD 2 O. After subtraction of the signal of the solvent and normalization of the data for the geometrical factors of the experiments using the signal of 1.0 mm water , the Guinier approximation was used to extrapolate the forward intensity I(0): ln IðqÞ=c 2 ¼ ln Ið0Þ=c 2 q 2 R 2 g =3: ð24þ The CMP was derived from the linear regression of p (I(0)/c2 ) plotted against the percentage of D 2 O in the solvent (see Eqs. (18) (21)). Because of the presence
9 326 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) of a small amount of large aggregates, detected at low angle, two sets of Guinier plots were constructed, one below and one above q 2 = Å 2. A full presentation and analysis of the SANS data will be given elsewhere . Results and discussion In the following, we first analyze how R, the ratio of the buoyant molar masses of a macromolecule in D 2 O and H 2 O solutions, can be used to determine its v 2 and its apparent partial specific volumes, / 0 R and /0, and we evaluate the effects of hydrogen/deuterium exchange and polyelectrolyte dissociation. The use of sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 OvsD 2 O solutions is then validated using model compounds. Finally, we determine the partial specific volume and CMP of A8-35 in its hydrogenated and deuterated forms and show that its buoyancy properties are compatible with full dissociation of the counter-ions. Factors affecting the value of R R, which can be obtained from sedimentation equilibrium or velocity measurements, is related to three macromolecular characteristics: v 2, M 2D /M 2, and n 3 (Eq. (14)). We evaluate here the effects on R of each of these three parameters. How is R related to v 2? How does R change with proton exchangeability (via M 2D /M 2 ) and with polyelectrolyte counter-ion dissociation (via n 3 )? For a polyelectrolyte, how does the apparent partial specific volume deduced from H 2 O/D 2 O experiments, / 0 R, compare with the usual operational one, / 0, obtained in H 2 O solvents and related only to v 2 and n 3? General dependency of R on v 2 in the case of a twocomponent system. Fig. 4A illustrates how R depends on v 2 when the macromolecule does not exchange any of its H for D and shows ideal behavior with respect to the solvent. When v 2 increases from 0.4 to 1.25 ml g 1, R first decreases very slowly (from the limiting value of 1, at v 2 ¼ 0, i.e., an infinitely dense particle) and then more and more abruptly. R is zero for v 2 ¼ 1=q D ¼ 0:9 mlg 1 (where the sedimentation coefficient s D is zero), and decreases rapidly from this value as v 2 approaches 1/q H = 1 ml g 1 (where s H is zero and R infinitely negative). For 1=q D < v 2 < 1=q H, R is negative as the macromolecule floats in D 2 O and sediments in H 2 O. When v 2 increases above 1/q H, corresponding to flotation in both solvents, R decreases from infinitely positive to tend again toward its limiting value of 1. Fig. 4A clearly shows that the farther from 1 is the value of R (particularly for v 2 values, say, between 0.8 and 1.2 ml g 1 ), the more accurate is the estimate of v 2. We calculate that a constant experimental uncertainty of ±0.005 on R entails errors on v 2 of ±0.012, Fig. 4. Theoretical relations between R, v 2, / 0, and / 0 R. Theoretical curves were drawn using q 0 D ¼ 1:111 g ml 1 ; q 0 H ¼ 0:998 g ml 1, M 3 = g mol 1, and v 3 ¼ 0:3mlg 1 (values for 0.15 M NaCl solutions in either H 2 OorD 2 O). (A) General dependency of R, the ratio of the buoyant masses in D 2 O and H 2 O, on the partial specific volume of the macromolecule, v 2. Calculations assume the absence of solvent interactions and of isotopic exchange of labile protons of the macromolecule, i.e., (om 3 /om 2 ) l = 0 and M 2D /M 2 = 1. In this case, R ¼ð1 q 0 D v 2Þ=ð1 q 0 H v 2Þ (see the text). (B) Influence of proton exchange and solvent interactions on R, assuming (i) M 2D /M 2 values of (no exchange, dots), (solid line) or (short dashes), in the absence of solvent interactions ((om 3 /om 2 ) l = 0), or (ii) M 2D /M 2 values of (long dashes) or (dash-dot) for a fully dissociated polyelectrolyte (z/m 2 = 0.003). The horizontal lines labeled (1), (2), and (3) mark R values of 0.9, 0.75, and 0.3, as found for heparin, proteins, and HAPol, respectively. (C) / 0 R (dashes), /0 (dots), and v 2 (solid line) plotted as a function of v 2. The calculations assume full dissociation of a polyelectrolyte with z/m 2 = and no proton exchange (M 2D /M 2 = 1). See the text for the definition of the apparent partial specific volumes / 0 and / 0 R and other notations. ±0.004, and ±0.001 ml g 1 for R values of 0.9, 0.75, and 0.3, respectively. These three R values are, respectively, representative of those obtained for heparin or nucleic acids, for proteins, and for HAPol (see below, Tables 4 and 5). Influence of M 2D /M 2. Table 2 lists the maximum numbers of exchangeable protons, calculated from the composition of the macromolecules, for BSA, lysozyme,
10 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Table 2 Charge and molar mass in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents of some macromolecules Macromolecule M 2 M 2D M 2 M 2D /M 2 z z/m 2 BSA 66, Lysozyme 14, Heparin, Na + salt (per disaccharide) HAPol, Na + salt (per 100 monomers) 12, DAPol, Na + salt (per 100 monomers) 13, DNA, Na + salt (per base pair) Note. M 2, M 2D, molar masses in H 2 O and D 2 O, assuming all exchangeable hydrogens to have exchanged; z charge of the macromolecule at neutral ph, calculated from the chemical formula. The molar masses for HAPol and DAPol per 100 monomers are derived from the theoretical composition presented in Fig. 1. A8-35 molecules actually are polydisperse and comprise on average 70 monomers. heparin, and sodium salts of HAPol, DAPol, and DNA and the corresponding maximum values of M 2D /M 2. Fig. 4B shows the dependency of R on v 2 for different values of M 2D /M 2. When R is close to 1, v 2 values derived from it strongly depend on the M 2D /M 2 ratio. Conversely, uncertainties in M 2D /M 2 entail smaller errors in v 2 when R values move farther away from 1. For example, the values of v 2 calculated from R values of 0.9, 0.75, and 0.3 with M 2D /M 2 values of or differ by 0.023, 0.013, and ml g 1, respectively. It is therefore most important to use good estimates of M 2D /M 2 when measuring low partial specific volumes. Influence of polyelectrolyte dissociation on the value of R. The nominal numbers of charges carried by the polyelectrolytes of our study are listed in Table 2. They correspond to z/m 2 ratios of , , and for heparin, HAPol, and DAPol, respectively. The z/m 2 value for DNA is The effect of counter-ion dissociation on R was evaluated in the case of z/m 2 = 0.003, assuming complete dissociation of Na + -polyelectrolyte in the presence of dilute NaCl (Eqs. (7) and (14)). Fig. 4B illustrates the huge influence of polyelectrolyte dissociation on R, particularly for large values of v 2 (low R values). It is clear that in the case of a macromolecule interacting with the solvent such as the polyelectrolyte studied here this parameter must be taken into account when deriving the value of v 2 from that of R. How are R and v 2 related to the apparent partial specific volume / 0 R obtained by AUC? We have introduced the apparent partial specific volume / 0 R, derived from measurements of R, to differentiate it from the usual apparent partial specific volume / 0 derived from (oq/ oc 2 ) l measurements. Both are related to v 2 and n 3, while R depends additionally on M 2D /M 2. The difference between / 0 R and /0 is a complicated function: / 0 R /0 ¼ n 3 ðq 0 D q0 H Þ½ð1 þ n 3Þ q 0 H ðv 2 n 3 v 3 ÞŠ = q 0 H ½ð1 þ n 3Þq 0 D ðm 2D=M 2 þ n 3 Þq 0 H Š : ð25þ It becomes zero for n 3 = 0, which expresses the fact that, in the absence of preferential binding, / 0 R and /0 are equal (in this case, / 0 R ¼ /0 ¼ v 2 ). Fig. 4C illustrates the respective evolutions of / 0 R, /0 and v 2 as functions of v 2 in the case of a fully dissociated polyelectrolyte with z/m H = in dilute NaCl solution. The difference n 3 ðv 3 1=q 0 H Þ between /0 and v 2 does not depend on v 2 : / 0 v 2 ¼ 0:06 ml g 1. The difference ð/ 0 R /0 Þ,on the other hand, varies continuously. It is zero for / 0 ¼ / 0 R ¼ 1=q0 H, less than 0.01 ml g 1 for 0:88 < / 0 R < 1:12 (i.e., 0:83 < v 2 < 1:04 ml g 1 ) and less than 0.02 ml g 1 for / 0 R in the range of (v 2 in the range of ml g 1 ). The difference remains below 0.05 ml g 1 for / 0 R and v 2 values of about 0.45 ml g 1. We can calculate that / 0 R varies negligibly with M 2D/ M 2. This is because / 0 R is calculated from R and from the value of M 2D /M 2. However, the uncertainty in M 2D /M 2 affects the precision in / 0 R calculated from R and that from v 2 (see above Influence of M 2D /M 2 ). Summary. The experimental determination of the ratio R of its buoyant masses in H 2 O and D 2 O buffers can be used to determine the partial specific volume v 2 of an uncharged macromolecule in water or, in the cases of a polyelectrolyte or a multicomponent solvent, its operational apparent partial specific volume / 0 R. Experimental errors in R and uncertainties in the extent of hydrogen/ deuterium exchange do not strongly affect the determination of v 2 and / 0 R as long as their values are close to 1mlg 1 (i.e., 1/q H ). In the case of a polyelectrolyte, the difference between / 0 R and /0 is roughly proportional to the value of the preferential binding parameter n 3 and is smaller for / 0 R and /0 close to 1. Experimental determination of R from the comparison of sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents and its interpretation with regard to v 2 or / 0 R for heparin and model proteins Sedimentation equilibrium in H 2 OandD 2 O is often used for the determination of v 2 [35 37]. The analysis of the data, however, becomes rapidly ambiguous when the particles under study are not monodisperse. We explore here the use of sedimentation velocity, which constitutes potentially a much more powerful technique for the study of heterogeneous samples. BSA preparations, which are known to contain a small amount of oligomers, were chosen as a model system. Multimers indeed
11 328 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Fig. 5. Distribution of sedimentation coefficients of the BSA samples. The program Sedfit was used to calculate the distribution c(s) of BSA at 1.1 g L 1, using 25 profiles obtained in 5 h at 57,000 rpm and considering 400 species of v 2 ¼ 0:73 ml g 1 and f/f 0 = 1.25, with sedimentation coefficients distributed either between 2 and 10 S (in H 2 O: A) or between 1 and 6 S (in D 2 O: B). The solid and dotted curves correspond to data obtained from the absorbance at 278 nm and with interference optics, respectively. No procedure of regularization was used. The first and last points of each distribution were nonzero and were suppressed for clarity. The distributions were normalized to a maximum value of 1. Table 3 Sedimentation coefficients of BSA from the continuous distribution analysis, for monomers and small multimers Monomer Dimer Trimer s H (S) Abs Interf s D (S) Abs Interf s H /s D Abs Interf Note. s H, s D, sedimentation coefficients in H 2 O and D 2 O buffers, respectively; Abs, measurements at 278 nm; Interf., measurements by interference. The c(s) profiles are presented in Fig. 5. were easily observed upon analysis of the sedimentation profiles, both in H 2 O and in D 2 O buffers and whether using absorbance or interference optics (Fig. 5). The proportions of the different species found in the two solvents and with the two optical systems are similar, as is the ratio s D /s H for all three peaks, whatever the optical system, as shown in Table 3, which demonstrates the reliability of the analysis. The values of s and R for lysozyme, BSA (monomer peak), and heparin used for the calculation of v 2 (proteins) or / 0 R (heparin) are reported in Table 4, along with estimates of the errors and values from the literature. For the three macromolecules, the values determined for v 2 or / 0 R are close to those expected, considering the reasonable value of % H/D exchange (consistent with the typical value of M 2D /M reported for proteins ). Experimental errors are larger when R is close to 1 (low values of v 2 or / 0 R ). The errors for heparin therefore are large, and the results compatible with any extent of counterion dissociation (a limited dissociation of the counterions was suggested in a previous study ). For lysozyme and BSA, the agreement between v 2 values deduced from R and published data is very good, less than 0.02 ml g 1, i.e., within the experimental uncertainty of ml g 1. Characterization of amphipol A8-35 The characterization of A8-35 was done by density measurements at constant molality and by sedimentation velocity experiments in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents. The results were compared to those obtained from sedimentation equilibrium and small-angle neutron scattering. Table 4 Determination of the partial specific volume from s H and s D (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) q 0 H q 0 (g ml 1 D g D /g H s H s D R v 2 or / 0 ) (g ml 1 R / 0 v 2 Error on v 2 or / 0 ) (S) (S) (ml g 1 ) (ml g 1 ) (ml g 1 R ) H D EXCH (%) From M 2D /M 2 (ml g 1 ) From R (ml g 1 ) Sum (ml g 1 ) v 2 (Litt) (ml g 1 ) Heparin Lyzosyme BSA Note. Columns (1) to (3): q 0 H and q0 D, g H and g D, are the measured densities and viscosities of the H 2 O and D 2 O solvents. Columns (4) to (6): the sedimentation coefficients of the macromolecule, s H and s D, are measured in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents, respectively, as described in the text. R is s D g D / s H g H. H D EXCH (column (7)) is the percentage of H D exchange 100% meaning that all the exchangeable hydrogen (see Table 2) is deuterated which was considered for the calculation from R of the partial specific volumes of column (8), v 2 (proteins) or / 0 R (heparin), according to Eq. (17), in the case of a polyelectrolyte as heparin. For heparin, / 0 (column (9)) is estimated from / 0 R, assuming full dissociation of the counter-ions, from Fig. 4C (built using Eqs. (7) and (25)), and v 2 (column (10)) is calculated from / 0 (Eq. (9)). For the errors in v 2 or / 0 R from M 2D/M 2 (column (11)), uncertainties in M 2D /M 2 of and for heparin and proteins, respectively, were considered. The uncertainty in R, used in the calculation of column (12), was of the order of 0.03 in all conditions, based on uncertainties in g D /g H and s H /s D of 0.03 and 0.01, respectively. The total error in v 2 or / 0 R in column (13) is the sum of the errors from M 2D/M 2 and R given in columns (11) and (12) and from q 0 H and q0 D. The latter two, of and less than ml g 1, respectively, considering uncertainties of on the densities, are negligible. The last column (14) reports the v 2 values measured for heparin  or calculated from the aminoacid composition.
12 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Table 5 Sedimentation of HAPol and DAPol in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents Polymer Analysis s H s D s D /s H R / 0 R v 2 (from s D /s H ) v 2 (density) z / 0 (S) (S) (ml g 1 ) (ml g 1 ) (ml g 1 ) (ml g 1 ) HAPol 1 species ± ± ± ± ± Mean s:95% of c(s) DAPol 1 species ± ± ± ± ± Mean s:95% of c(s) Note. The analysis of the sedimentation profiles was done in two different ways using Sedfit: 1 species corresponds to the model of one noninteracting species; mean s: 95% of c(s) corresponds to the analysis of continuous distribution presented in Fig. 7 (only the larger aggregates above 9.3/4.9 and 9.1/2.3 S in H 2 O/D 2 O solvents for HAPol in Fig. 7C and DAPol in Fig. 7F were discounted). s H and s D represent the sedimentation coefficients obtained in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents, respectively. R = s D g D /s H g H was calculated with g D /g H = 1.212, the measured ratio of the viscosities in D 2 O and H 2 O solvents. The apparent partial specific volume / 0 R was calculated from R (Eq. (17)) using M 2D/M 2 = 1.005, corresponding to the maximal H/D exchange for the macromolecule, and solvent densities q H = and q D = g ml 1. The uncertainty was evaluated considering uncertainties of on M 2D /M 2, q H and q D and 0.03 on g D /g H and s D /s H, the latter uncertainty accounting for about 70% of that on / 0 R. The partial specific volumes v 2 from s D /s H are calculated considering a total dissociation of 35 counter-ions (Eqs. (7 and 14)); that given for DAPol from density measurements is derived from that measured for HAPol, assuming HAPol and DAPol to have the same partial molal volume. The values of z, namely the effective charge per 100 monomers, are calculated from s D /s H and the v 2 values obtained from density measurements (Eqs. (7 and 15)). The values of / 0 are from density measurements, assuming full dissociation of 35 carboxylates per 100 monomers (Eq. (7)). Determination of the partial specific volume of HAPol from density measurements at constant solvent composition. Fig. 6 shows the density increments, at constant molality of the solvent components, for HAPol in H 2 O and in 0.1 M NaCl buffered at ph 8 or 6.8 either with 20 mm Tris or with sodium phosphate. Despite the fact that the solvents, the densitometers used for the measurements, the range of HAPol concentrations, and the way that they were evaluated differed from one set of experiments to the other, the results are highly consistent. They yield a partial specific volume v 2 ¼ ðov =om 2 Þ m6¼m2 ¼ 0:809 0:003 ml g 1. Assuming that HAPol and its deuterated variant DAPol have the same partial molal volume, we expect that for DAPol v 2 ¼ 0:765 0:003 ml g 1. Sedimentation velocity analysis of HAPol and DAPol. Sedimentation velocity experiments were performed on HAPol and DAPol at 1 g L 1 in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions comprising 0.1 M NaCl and 20 mm sodium phosphate, ph 7.1. Initial inspection of the general shape of the Fig. 6. Density increments of HAPol solutions at constant molality of solvent components. Measurements were performed at 20 C inh 2 O (diamonds), in 0.1 M NaCl buffered with 20 mm Tris/HCl, ph 8 (squares), or in 20 mm sodium phosphate, ph 6.8 (circles). The linear fit uses the points obtained under the latter two conditions. HAPol concentrations (c 2 ) were evaluated either by weighing (diamonds and squares) or by determining the total carbon content of the samples (circles). boundaries suggests that the particles formed by the two polymers in aqueous solution are rather homogeneous, in keeping with the results of size-exclusion chromatography and SANS experiments [16,17]. Thus, in a first approach, sedimentation profiles were analyzed as reflecting the migration of homogeneous, noninteracting particles (Fig. 7A, B, D, and E). Taking into account the systematic noise in the sedimentation profiles, the fits were rather good, with RMSD values between 0.01 and The s values thus obtained yielded a first estimate of the partial specific volumes ð/ 0 RÞ, reported in Table 5. An analysis of the sedimentation profiles in terms of a continuous distribution of particles was then performed, using starting values of the frictional ratio f/f 0 ranging from 1 to 1.6 by steps of 0.2. While the details of the final c(s) distribution (the precise position and relative weight of the peaks and thus the apparent homogeneity of the sample with regard to particle size) depended on the choice of f/f 0, the mean sedimentation coefficient did not (not shown). The best fits (minimum RMSD) were obtained for f/f 0 values of 1.2 and 1.4 for HAPol in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions and of 1.0 and 1.2 for DAPol in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions, respectively (for example, for HAPol in H 2 O, RMSD values are , , , and for f/f 0 values of 1, 1.2, 1.4, and 1.6). The resulting c(s) distributions are presented in Figs. 7C and F. The analysis suggests the presence of a main population of small particles and of small amounts of larger species. In keeping with SANS observations [16,17], very large aggregates (with s values above 10 and 5 S in H 2 O and D 2 O solvents, respectively) may be present but, if so, only in very small amounts. The general features of the distribution are similar for HAPol and DAPol and do not appear to change when moving from light water to heavy water. (We consider that the fact that the main peak appears larger and more asymmetrical for DAPol than for HAPol is unlikely to be significant). No concentration dependency of the size
13 330 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) Fig. 7. Sedimentation of HAPol and DAPol at 20 C in 0.1 M NaCl, 20 mm sodium phosphate, ph 7.1. (A,B,D,E) Sedimentation velocity profiles obtained at 230 min at 60,000 rpm for HAPol and DAPol in either H 2 OorD 2 O solutions; (A,D) 6 profiles recorded at 30-min intervals for a total of 3 h of sedimentation; (B,D) 12 profiles recorded at 30-min intervals for a total of 6 h. The modeling of the sedimentation profiles with regard to one noninteracting species is superimposed. (C,F) c(s) Distributions calculated for HAPol (C) and DAPol (F), in H 2 O (solid lines) or D 2 O (dotted lines). The c(s) analysis of the data obtained in H 2 O (resp. D 2 O) solvents included a set of 26 (resp. 20) sedimentation profiles obtained over 220 min (resp. 490 min) and considered 200 types of particles with sedimentation coefficients distributed between 0.5 and 10 S (resp and 5 S) for HAPol or between 0.5 and 10 S (resp. 0.3 and 6 S) for DAPol. Partial specific volumes of 0.86 and 0.81 ml g 1 were used for HAPol and DAPol, respectively. The frictional ratio (identical for all particles in a given run) was left free to vary. Its final value (between 1 and 1.4, depending on the sample) was that yielding a minimum value for the RMSD (see the text). Smoothed c(s) distributions were obtained using a regularization procedure by the maximum entropy method, with a value of 0.68 for the confidence level. The two types of analyses were done using the program Sedfit, with the evaluation of the systematic time and radial-independent noises. distribution of either HAPol or DAPol particles was evidenced in preliminary sedimentation experiments performed at 5 C at 0.5 and 1 g L 1 (not shown) nor in SANS experiments performed at 20 C at DAPol concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 g L 1 . The s values characterizing the distributions, estimated in various ways, are reported in Table 5. The values of R obtained either in the one-species analysis or from the integrals of the c(s) distribution are very close (Table 5). On the other hand, they appear less robust when obtained from the details of the c(s) distribution: considering only the main species of the c(s) distributions, for instance, leads to R values of 0.20 for HAPol and 0.69 for DAPol, compared to 0.31 and , respectively, obtained from either the one-species analysis or the integrals of the c(s) distribution. We have little confidence in the details of the c(s) distribution, which were found to depend on the choice of the fitting parameters. This is in relation to the limited quality of our experimental data (low signal-to-noise ratio, incomplete sedimentation, incomplete filling of the cells). As a consequence and because of the heterogeneity of the samples and their low s values, the deconvolution of the systematic time-independent noise and the c(s) distribution is probably not very robust. Fig. 7 and Table 5 show that the sedimentation coefficient is more than 4 smaller in D 2 O than in H 2 O for HAPol and 2 smaller for DAPol. The behavior of HAPol is markedly different from that of DA- Pol. The resulting R values are therefore very different from 1. As discussed under General dependency of R on v 2 in the case of a two-component system, this leads to relatively accurate values of / 0 R, namely ± ml g 1 for HAPol and ± ml g 1 for DAPol, despite the rather large uncertainty in R. Effects of the charge of A8-35 on its buoyancy properties. For both HAPol and DAPol, the values of / 0 R and v 2 differ significantly (Table 5), which is obviously related to the polyelectrolyte nature of the polymer. We combined the value of v 2 from density measurements with that of R (Table 5), using for the partial specific volume of NaCl v 3 ¼ 0:3 mlg 1 from tabulated density tables, to evaluate n 3 values (Eq. (15)), from which were derived values for the effective charges z (Eq. (7)) of 44 ± 8 for HAPol and 38 ± 16 for DAPol. These values are slightly larger than but quite close to those expected from the nominal chemical composition of the polymer (35 carboxylates per 100 monomers). Considering 35 dissociated carboxylates in the sedimentation experiments in H 2 O and D 2 O yields a value of ± ml g 1 for the v 2 of HAPol (Eqs. (7) and (14)), which is close to that obtained by density measurements (0.809 ± ml g 1, Table 5). The corresponding values for DAPol (0.769 ± ml g 1 vs
14 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) ± ml g 1 ) are within experimental error of each other. Considering an effective charge of 35, the values for / 0 derived from v 2 (Eq. (9)) are very close to those obtained from / 0 R (Eq. (25)): for HAPol, / 0 = ml g 1 using v 2 and ml g 1 using / 0 R, and for DAPol, / 0 = and ml g 1, respectively. The values of / 0 from density measurements are reported in Table 5. Our results are consistent with the expectation that, in this range of v 2 values, / 0 and / 0 R must be within experimental error of each other (see: How are R and v 2 related to the apparent partial specific volume / 0 R obtained by AUC?). Thus, the differences between v 2 and / 0 R or /0 can readily be accounted for by the dissociation of nearly all the counter-ions of the polymer. Equilibrium sedimentation studies of HAPol using contrast density variation. The partial specific volume of HAPol has been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium experiments performed in 0.1 M NaCl solutions made in either H 2 O, D 2 OorD 18 2 O. Because of the heterogeneity of the samples, which, even though it is limited, prevents the use of global analysis procedures, and the limited quality of some of the data, principally due to the poor optical quality of our samples of D 18 2 O, the mean buoyant molar masses are estimated with large and in part systematic errors (up to 50%). Fig. 8 shows the buoyant molar masses as a function of solvent density. A set of experiments was performed in 1 M NaCl to determine more precisely the density match point: the buoyant molar masses are larger than those in 0.1 M NaCl, indicating that the polymer is more aggregated, but the density match points in 0.1 and 1 M NaCl are not significantly different. While the two estimates of the apparent partial specific volume, / 0 R, obtained by sedimentation equilibrium measurements, ± ml g 1 in 1 M NaCl and ± ml g 1 in 0.1 M NaCl, are consistent with those determined by density contrast variation in sedimentation velocity experiments, the accuracy is of the same order of magnitude or even lower, despite the use of the rare and expensive D 18 2 O for expanding the range of solvent density. Contrast match points of HAPol and DAPol in SANS experiments. In SANS experiments, the two polymers appeared as composed of two populations of species, with a major population of small particles and small amounts (a few percent in weight) of very large aggregates (R g > 10 nm) [16,17]. We will focus here on the evaluation of contrast match points. Fig. 9 shows the determination of the CMP for the main species of HAPol and DAPol. Table 6 lists their values, error estimates, and interpretation with regard to v 2 and neutron scattering length density. Since the CMP of the large and the main species were identical within experimental uncertainty, a detailed analysis was carried out only on the more precise results for the main (small) species. The CMP depends on the parameters that define the contrast between the polymer and the solvent, namely the scattering length of the polymer b 2H in H 2 O solutions and that of the solvent, q 0 N the extent of H/D exchange, (om 3 /om 2 ) l, and the v 2 of the polymer. Estimates of v 2 therefore can be derived from CMP values, but they are affected by relatively large errors. On the basis of the composition of the polymer given Fig. 8. Equilibrium sedimentation of HAPol in aqueous solvents of various densities. Mean buoyant molar mass (M b ) of HAPol in the presence of either 0.1 M NaCl in H 2 OorD 18 2 O (circles) or 1 M NaCl in H 2 O, D 2 O, or D 18 2 O (squares). Because the samples are not perfectly homogeneous (Fig. 7C) and the quality of the data is limited, due, in particular, to the poor optical quality of the D 18 2 O, the mean buoyant molar masses are estimated with large, in part systematic errors (500 g mol 1 in NaCl 0.1 M, 1000 g mol 1 in NaCl 1 M). The estimated density match points are ± and ± g ml 1 in 1 and 0.1 M NaCl, respectively, which correspond to apparent partial specific volumes / 0 R of ± and ± ml g 1, respectively. These are close to the more accurate value of ± ml g 1 obtained by the s D /s H method (Table 5). Fig. 9. Determination of the contrast match points of the hydrogenated and deuterated forms of A8-35 by small-angle neutron scattering. Forward intensities were extrapolated from Guinier plots for the major species (see the text) in a Q 2 range from to to Å 2 and normalized by the total concentration of polymer and geometrical parameters. The value of ± p (N A I(0)/c 2 )=(oq N / oc 2 ) l Æ p M 2 was plotted as a function of the percentage (v/v) of D 2 O in the solvent. Crosses: DAPol (from two different sets of data collected using two different batches); circles: HAPol. The sign of p (NA I(0)/c 2 ) was assigned according to that of (oq N /oc 2 ) l. Solid lines are linear regressions, from which contrast match points were determined.
15 332 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) in Table 1, assuming total dissociation of the carboxylates and complete exchange of the exchangeable protons, v 2 values of 0.73 ± 0.10 ml g 1 for HAPol and 0.82 ± 0.11 ml g 1 for DAPol are yielded. Given the large error margins, whose origins are detailed in Table 6, these values are compatible with those derived from the density and ultracentrifugation measurements. Theoretical values of the CMP of each polymer can be calculated from their partial specific volume, determined from sedimentation velocity experiments and their chemical composition (Table 6). For HAPol, the agreement with experiment is quite fair (observed, 23.5 ± 1% D 2 O; expected, 21.9 ± 0.7%). For DAPol, the discrepancy is larger, and it exceeds experimental errors (observed, 85.1 ± 2.5% D 2 O; expected, 91.4 ± 1.6%, assuming no error on the value of b 2H calculated from the composition). This is most likely due to a difference between the expected and the actual chemical composition of the polymer, which affects the value of b 2H. Such a discrepancy indeed was revealed by NMR spectra (see Materials and methods: Chemical Table 6 Contrast match point (CMP) of HAPol and DAPol in small angle neutron scattering experiments HAPol DAPol CMP (% D 2 O), Experimental value, 23.5 ± ± 2.5 main species CMP (% D 2 O), Experimental value, 20.2 ± ± 4.4 large aggregates v 2 from CMP (ml g 1 ), main species * Error on v 2 From CMP: From 20% error in charge dissociation From 20% error on H/D exchange From 10% error on b 2H Sum of the errors on v Calculated CMP (% D 2 O), main species ** Error on expected CMP (% D 2 O) From v 2 (0.003 ml g 1 ) From 20% error on charge dissociation From 20 % error on H/D Exchange From 10% error on b 2H Sum of the errors on expected CMP (% D 2 O) b 2H from the composition (cm g 1 ) b 2D from the composition (cm g 1 ) b 2H fitted (cm g 1 ) *** (oq N /oc 2 ) l (cm g 1 ) 100% H 2 O * % D 2 O * % H 2 O, with b 2H fitted *** % D 2 O, with b 2H fitted *** Note. Calculations were made considering the dissociation of 35 charges per 100 monomers and full H/D exchange. Assumptions are the following: *, using b 2 values from the chemical composition; **, using the partial specific volume from density measurements and b 2 values from the chemical composition; ***, from the fit of the contrast match point of the main species, with the difference (b 2D b 2H ), i.e., the level of the H/D exchange in D 2 O, being unchanged from *. analysis of amphipols), which have shown the presence of about 3% of a hydrogenated impurity. The values of b 2H corresponding to the best fit of the CMP for HAPol and DAPol are reported in Table 6. The values of (oq N /oc 2 ) l, which define the scattering intensity of the polymer, calculated using b 2H determined either from the fit of the experimental SANS data or from the theoretical composition of the polymer are significantly different only for DAPol in D 2 O solvent: for this particular batch of polymer and in this solvent, the determination of the molar mass of amphipol particles from SANS data therefore would be uncertain. Conclusions The determination of partial specific volumes by AUC The theoretical analysis of the sources of uncertainties and errors, along with experimental results obtained with a set of model molecules, was aimed at clarifying the pros and cons of resorting either to sedimentation equilibrium or to sedimentation velocity measurements in H 2 OvsD 2 O solutions for the determination of partial specific volumes. While it is more demanding with regard to the number of parameters to be measured, the s D /s H method presents definite advantages compared to equilibrium sedimentation experiments. Accurate knowledge of the density and viscosity is required for the analysis, but their measurement is nondestructive, requires less than 1 ml of solution, and thus can be performed on the same samples as those used for AUC. The great assets of sedimentation velocity measurements include that they reveal much more clearly whether the system under study is homogeneous, how many different species there are, and whether these species interact. Data reduction yields, for each experiment, a distribution of sedimentation coefficients. Comparison of the distribution profiles can be used to check on the condition of unchanged dispersity in H 2 OandD 2 O solvents. For heterogeneous samples, determination of the mean s values using sedimentation velocity measurements can be much more accurate than that of the mean buoyant masses in equilibrium sedimentation measurements. Indeed, the latter yields accurate values of buoyant molar masses through a global analysis of a series of experiments and in the framework of a priori models of oligomerization or association with cofactors. Definite models are not always available, e.g., in the present case of a synthetic, heterogeneous polymer. For samples containing a finite number of species, on the other hand, the s D /s H method can be used to separately characterize the buoyancy properties of the different components. From this point of view, the fact that the different oligomers of BSA studied here did feature the same R ratio is quite encouraging. The s D /s H approach ought to be particu-
16 Y. Gohon et al. / Analytical Biochemistry 334 (2004) larly useful for the characterization of complexes comprosed of chemically different species, such as protein amphipol complexes . With both methods, however, the determination of specific volumes by density contrast variation rests on the hypothesis that, in H 2 O and D 2 O solutions, the particle has the same composition and, with the sedimentation velocity (s D /s H ) method, the same shape (same hydrodynamic radius). H/D exchange enters into the analysis and uncertainties in its extent increase the margin of error of partial specific volume determinations. Counter-ion dissociation has also to be considered. As a result of the limited range of density achievable by H 2 O/D 2 O substitution, the accuracy of the determination of partial specific volumes critically depends on the density of the particle. As summarized in Table 4, for heparin, which is very dense, the method is not accurate (error margin of 0.11 ml g 1 ). The accuracy is better for proteins (0.05 ml g 1 ). An excellent accuracy ( ml g 1 ), on the other hand, can be expected for low-density amphiphilic polyelectrolytes such as amphipols. Operational parameters for the analysis of the solution behavior of amphipol and membrane protein/amphipol particles From a practical point of view, the results from this study will be used to derive the molar masses of HAPol and DAPol in solution alone or as a complex with a partner, such as a membrane protein. Using different techniques, we obtain a consistent description of the buoyancy properties of A8-35, in both its hydrogenated (HAPol) and its partially deuterated (DAPol) forms. With the solvent used here (0.1 M NaCl, H 2 O buffered at ph close to 7), the values of v 2 (0.809/0.769 ml g 1 for HAPol/DAPol) and charge (z = 35 per 100 monomers) and the related values of / 0 in sedimentation (Table 5), and of b 2 and (oq N / oc 2 ) l in small-angle neutron scattering (fitted values from Table 6) can be used to derive the molar masses of A8-35 particles . In contrast variation experiments, the match values determined here can be used to mask the contribution of the polymer: in sedimentation experiments, the density q 0 = (for HAPol) and q 0 = g ml 1 (for DAPol) derived from / 0 R (Table 5); in SANS experiments, the CMP values of 23.5 and 85.1% D 2 O(Table 6). These data have been applied to the study of the composition and organization of bacteriorhodopsin/a8-35 complexes [17,39]. These parameters will depend on experimental conditions (ph, ionic strength, temperature, etc.). The amplitude of change in buoyancy or density contrast is worth estimating. Eqs. (4 and 19), which relate (oq/oc 2 ) l and (oq N /oc 2 ) l to v 2 and n 3, are general, as is (Eq. (6)), which relates n 3 to solvent component binding or counter-ion dissociation. The amplitude of change in buoyancy or density contrast can be estimated from the expected variation of parameters v 2 and n 3. It has been found that temperature modifies marginally v 2 (typical shifts for DNA and sodium polyacrylates of ml g 1 K 1 have been reported ). v 2 increases when the solvent salt concentration increases, because ion pairs are formed (with a related decrease of z) and because water electrostriction due to the charges of the polymer is less pronounced at high salt, as described for DNA (compilations of v 2 and / 0 are found in [13,40,41]) and for the very acidic halophilic malate dehydrogenase . The maximum effect of electrostriction is 10 and 15 Å 3 per carboxylate and per Na + ). For Na + :HAPol, it corresponds to a maximum theoretical increase of v 2 by 0.06 ml g 1. For the hydration, which cannot be neglected when the solvent density is significantly different from that of water, one could expect values of the order of or larger than B g g 1, which are typical of proteins. For salt binding, B 3 =0gg 1 is reasonable. For example, in 1 M NaCl (q = g ml 1, v 3 ¼ 0:32 ml g 1, w 3 /w 1 = 0.06), as compared to 0.1 M NaCl conditions, / 0 of HAPol and DAPol would decrease by ml g 1 if we consider B 1 = 1.0 g g 1. The precision with which the molar mass of A8-35 in 1 M NaCl solution can be estimated from M b would be ca. ±50% in the absence of any experimental information about the hydration of the polymer. Obviously, the experimental s D /s H method would be recommended to determine molar masses in a rapid and more accurate manner in solvent conditions that differ from that of the present study. Acknowledgments Particular thanks are due to F. Giusti (UMR 7099) for his precious help in sorting out the origin of the contaminant bound to DAPol and to D. 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Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain
40 Engineering Chemistry and Environmental Studies 2 SOLUTIONS 2. DEFINITION OF SOLUTION, SOLVENT AND SOLUTE When a small amount of sugar (solute) is mixed with water, sugar uniformally dissolves in water
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1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.
EXPERIMENT VI PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEINS I- Protein isolation and dialysis In order to investigate its structure and properties a protein must be obtained in pure form. Since proteins
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Units Units Theory of absorbance Light absorption occurs when atoms or molecules take up the energy of a photon of light, thereby reducing the transmission of light as it is passed through a sample. Light
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Purpose: Colligative Properties: Freezing Point Depression and Molecular Weight The first purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the van't Hoff (i) factor for two different substances, sucrose
Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition
Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00
Chemistry 201 Lecture 4 Quantitative Analysis NC State University Focus on energy The work done in the internal combustion engine is called pressure volume work. For a simple irreversible stroke the work
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TOPIC 10. CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS IV - solution stoichiometry. Calculations involving solutions. Frequently reactions occur between species which are present in solution. One type of chemical analysis called
12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry of Formulas and Equations Chapter 3 Outline: Mole - Mass Relationships in Chemical Systems 3.1 The Mole 3.2 Determining the Formula of an Unknown Compound 3.3 Writing and Balancing
CHAPTER : 1 SOME BASIC CONCEPTS OF CHEMISTRY 1 mark questions 1. What is Chemistry? Ans: It is a Branch of science deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter. 2. What are
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9. Analysis of an Acid-Base Titration Curve: The Gran Plot In this experiment, you will titrate a sample of pure potassium hydrogen phthalate (Table 10-4) with standard NaOH. A Gran plot will be used to
Application of a New Immobilization H/D Exchange Protocol: A Calmodulin Study Jiang Zhao; Mei Zhu; Daryl E. Gilblin; Michael L. Gross Washington University Center for Biomrdical and Bioorganic Mass Spectrometry:
Measuring Protein Concentration through Absorption Spectrophotometry In this lab exercise you will learn how to homogenize a tissue to extract the protein, and then how to use a protein assay reagent to
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).
Stoichiometry 1gram molecular mass 6.022 x 10 23 molecules Avagadro No of particles 6.022 x 10 23 particles MOLE 1 gram atomic mass 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Molar volume 22.4dm 3 at STP Equivalent mass of an
Exploring Creation With Chemistry Table of Contents MODULE #1: Measurement and Units...1 Introduction... 1 Experiment 1.1: Air Has Mass... 1 Experiment 1.2: Air Takes Up Space... 2 Units of Measurement...
2nd Semester Benchmark Review Completion Complete each statement. 1. A mixture that contains more than one type of matter and is the same throughout is a mixture. 2. A mixture in which different samples
HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION - ph VALUES AND BUFFER SOLUTIONS 1. INTRODUCTION Water has a small but definite tendency to ionise. H 2 0 H + + OH - If there is nothing but water (pure water) then the concentration
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Review of Chemical Equilibrium 7.51 September 1999 Equilibrium experiments study how the concentration of reaction products change as a function of reactant concentrations and/or reaction conditions. For
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Acid/Base Extraction Theory: Extraction is one of the most frequently used separation techniques in organic chemistry. An extraction essentially separates water-insoluble organic compounds from water-soluble
The Mole Concept A. Atomic Masses and Avogadro s Hypothesis 1. We have learned that compounds are made up of two or more different elements and that elements are composed of atoms. Therefore, compounds
Lecture 5 Outline 5.1 Stoichiometry,, the mole etc. 5.2 Chemical Equations 5.3 Molarity 5.4 Limiting reagents and yields 5.5 Reaction enthalpies and Gibbs free energy 5.6 Catalyst Lecture 5 Stoichiometry
Nucleic Acid Purity Assessment using A 260 /A 280 Ratios A common practice in molecular biology is to perform a quick assessment of the purity of nucleic acid samples by determining the ratio of spectrophotometric
Determination of Molecular Masses of Proteins in Solution; Implementation of an HPLC Size Exclusion Chromatography and Laser Light Scattering Service in a Core Laboratory Static and Dynamic LS Experimental
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Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.
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Why Clickers? to refresh the students during the lecture to assess student understanding of a topic to increase student participation in class to encourage student interaction in large lectures peer teaching
Problem 1. (12 points total, 4 points each) The molecular weight of an unspecified protein, at physiological conditions, is 70,000 Dalton, as determined by sedimentation equilibrium measurements and by
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's
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INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HARMONISATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS FOR HUMAN USE ICH HARMONISED TRIPARTITE GUIDELINE VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES: TEXT AND METHODOLOGY
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Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics
1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse
Prelab Assignment Before coming to lab: Lab 9. Colligative Properties an Online Lab Activity Chemistry 162 - K. Marr Revised Winter 2014 This lab exercise does not require a report in your lab notebook.
Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2007 69451 Weinheim, Germany Methanol Behavior in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Younkee Paik, Seong-Soo Kim, and Oc Hee Han * Experimental Section Preparation of MEA: Standard
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Experiment 5: Phase diagram for a three-component system (Dated: April 12, 2010) I. INTRODUCTION It is sometimes necessary to know the mutual solubilities of liquids in a two-phase system. For example,
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1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations
/1 e Branch Pharmaceutical Keywords Near-infrared spectroscopy, lyophilized pharmaceuticals, water determination, Karl Fischer titration, loss on drying (LOD) Summary This Application Bulletin describes