Solid Gas Liquid Plasma

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1 CHAPTER 1: MATTER 1. Define CHEMISTRY: 2. Define MATTER: Use one of the states of matter to complete each statement. (Words will be used more than once.) Solid Gas Liquid Plasma 3. A has definite volume and definite shape. 4. is a state of matter found in outer space. 5. have definite volume and no definite shape. 6. has particles smaller than gas. 7. has the most energy of the 3 states of matter found on earth. It has no definite volume, and no definite shape. Use the word bank below to describe each. Evaporation Condensation Freezing Melting Sublimation 8. When a solid changes to a liquid: 9. When a liquid changes to a solid: 10. When a liquid changes a gas: 11. When a gas changes a liquid: 12. When a solid changes to a gas: 13. When a gas changes to a solid: 1 P a g e

2 14. Use an arrow to indicate in which direction the following processes occur. (Ex. A B, or B A) Evaporation = Freezing = Melting = Condensation = 15. What is the boiling point of the substance above? What is the freeing point? 16. At 75 C, in which state of matter would this substance be? At 15 C? At 45 C? 2 P a g e

3 17. Fill in the Matter Flow Diagram below. Use the Word Bank below to fill in the blanks. (Not all the words are used) mixtures homogeneous heterogeneous atoms mass compound elements matter substances compounds element solutions 18. All matter consists of tiny particles called. 19. Matter is divided into 2 categories: and. 20. Substances can be broken down into 2 categories: and. 21. An is made up of only one type of atom. 22. Two or more different atoms combined chemically are called a. 23. A is made up of 2 or more substances physically combined. 3 P a g e

4 24. A mixture that is uniform throughout the sample is said to be. These types of mixtures are known as. 25. A mixture that has uneven distribution of 2 or more substances is called. 26. Fill in the following table. A. Determine if the following examples are Substances or Mixtures. B. If it s a substance, indicate if it s a compound or an element. C. If it s a mixture, indicate if it s homogenous or heterogeneous. Type of Matter Substance or Mixture? (Element or Compound) or (Homogeneous or Heterogeneous?) Ex 1: water Substance Compound Ex 2: sand & water Mixture Heterogenous Iron Sugar water Carbon dioxide Vegetable soup 27. Physical Changes only change the a of a substance, not it s identity! 28. Chemical Changes results in. List the 4 ways to show a chemical reaction takes place: a) b) c) d) 4 P a g e

5 29. Fill in the following chart. Cutting paper Burning paper Freezing water Dissolving salt in water Combining an acid & base to form water and salt Rusting metal Physical or Chemical Change? 5 P a g e

6 CHAPTER 2: SI UNITS & MEASUREMENTS 1. Put the following steps of the scientific Method in the proper order: Observe and record data. Test the hypothesis with an experiment. Identify the problem. Make a hypothesis. Arrive at a conclusion. 2. Fill in the following metric prefixes. Use the Factor-Label Method to convert each of the following measurements. Show work and use appropriate labels. 3) 2.56 kilograms to grams 4) 17 millimeters to centimeters 5) 125 pounds to kilograms (2.2 pounds = 1 kilogram) 6 P a g e

7 DENSITY Write the formula to determine density, volume, and mass below. Density = Mass = Volume = Determine the value of the missing measurement. SHOW YOUR WORK! USE UNITS! 6. mass = 75 g; volume = 10 cm 3 ; density = 7. mass = 400 g; density = 15 g/cm 3 ; Volume = 8. volume = 25 cm 3 ; density = 5 g/cm 3 ; Mass = 9. What is the density of water? (Substances with a higher density will, and a lower density will.) Substance Density (g/cm 3 ) Sink or Float? 10. Mercury Salt Soap P a g e

8 Chapter 3: Atoms and Isotopes 1. Label the nucleus, neutrons, protons, and electrons. 2. Fill in the following chart: Element Barium Chemical Symbol Atomic Number # Protons # Electrons # Neutrons 81 Mass Number Cr 52 Silver Calculate the average atomic mass. Isotope Relative Abundance Atomic Mass Nitrogen-14 Nitrogen % % P a g e

9 Ch 4 Nuclear Chemistry 1. Band of stability. (read a graph, identify elements that are stable and not stable) Use the graph above to identify the following elements as stable or not stable: Cl 20 Ca 2. Identify alpha and beta particles. Alpha Beta 3. Write nuclear equations that show alpha decay: U 4. Write a nuclear equation that shows beta decay: Pb 9 P a g e

10 Ch 5 Electrons and Energy Levels 1. Electrons orbit the nucleus in an. 2. The first energy level holds e The second energy level holds e The third energy level holds e Complete the Table below with the correct information: Element Electron configuration No. of valence electrons Chlorine Potassium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Barium 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 10 P a g e

11 Ch 6 Ions and Ionic Compounds 1. Draw a Bohr Model for the element Sulfur a) How many valence electrons? b) Lose or gain electrons to become stable? c) How many? d) Anion or Cation? d) Charge of ion? 2. The Octet Rule states that atoms want electrons in their valence shell to become stable. 3. What are the 3 types of chemical bonds? a. M b. I c. C 4. What will Nitrogen do to become stable? d. Gain 3 electrons b. Lose 3 electrons c. Gain 3 protons 5. Atoms that gain or lose electrons and become charged particle are called. 11 P a g e

12 6. Atoms that lose electrons have a (positive / negative) charge and are called (cations / anions). (Metals / Nonmetals) tend to lose electrons to become stable. [circle the correct answers of the pairs] 7. Atoms that gain electrons have a (positive / negative) charge and are called (cations / anions). (Metals / Nonmetals) tend to gain electrons to become stable. [circle the correct answers of the pairs] 8. What happened for Ca +2 to have a charge of +2? a) lost 2 electrons b) gained 2 electrons c) gained 2 protons 9. Complete the following table: Element Sodium Oxygen Chlorine Calcium Phosphorus Electron Dot Structure Ion Gained or lost electrons? How many? Cation or Anion? Metal or nonmetal? 10. Ionic bonds form when electrons are t from one atom to another. 11. Ionic compounds are often referred to as. a) lattices b) salts c) polar bonds d) oxidation numbers 12. When an ionic compound is placed in water, the ions separate from each other. This is called. 12 P a g e

13 13. Word bank: Place the following formulas or chemical names in the appropriate spaces. NOT ALL COMPOUNDS ARE USED! a. O 3 F 9 i. Lead(II) sulfate b. CuCl 2 j. Diphosphorus pentoxide c. O 2 F 6 k. Dinitrogen tetroxide d. BaCO 3 l. Potassium oxide e. CCl 4 m. Aluminum phosphate f. MgBr 2 n. Aluminum phosphorus g. Mg 2 Br 3 o. Lead (I) sulfate h. BaCO Dioxygen hexafluoride 14. Barium carbonate 15. Carbon tetrachloride 16. Copper (II) chloride 17. Magnesium bromide 18. PbSO K 2 O 20. N 2 O AlPO P 2 O 5 13 P a g e

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