Chapter 6 Treatment of Tuberculosis Disease

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1 Chapter 6 Treatment of Tuberculosis Disease Table of Contents Chapter Objectives Introduction Treatment and Monitoring Plan Adherence Strategies TB Disease Treatment Regimens TB Disease Treatment Regimens for Specific Situations Patient Monitoring Evaluating Response to Treatment Chapter Summary References Chapter Objectives After working through this chapter, you should be able to Describe tuberculosis (TB) disease treatment adherence strategies; Identify anti-tb drugs; Describe treatment regimens for TB disease; Describe patient monitoring; and List common adverse drug reactions to TB medications. 139

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3 The major goals of treatment for TB disease are to Cure the individual patient; Minimize risk of death and disability; and Introduction Reduce transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons. To ensure that these goals are met, TB disease must be treated for at least 6 months and in some cases even longer. Most of the bacteria are killed during the first 8 weeks of treatment; however, there are persistent organisms that require longer treatment. If treatment is not continued for a long enough duration, the surviving bacteria may cause the patient to become ill and infectious again, potentially with drug-resistant disease. There are several options for daily and intermittent therapy, but the goal of treatment for TB disease should be to provide the safest and most effective therapy in the shortest period of time. Given adequate treatment, almost all patients will recover and be cured. Regimens for the treatment of TB disease must contain multiple drugs to which the bacteria are susceptible. The standard of care for initiating treatment of TB disease is four-drug therapy. Treatment with a single drug can lead to the development of a bacterial population resistant to that drug. Likewise, the addition of a single drug to a failing anti-tb regimen can lead to additional resistance. When two or more drugs to which in vitro susceptibility has been demonstrated are given together, each helps prevent the emergence of tubercle bacilli resistant to the others. The standard of care for initiating treatment of TB disease is four-drug therapy. Treatment with a single drug can lead to the development of a bacterial population resistant to that drug. Study Questions 6.1 The major goals for treatment of TB disease include which of the following? A. Curing the individual patient B. Minimizing risk of death and disability C. Reducing transmission of M. tuberculosis to other persons D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct. 141

4 Are the following statements about TB treatment true or false? (Choose the one best answer and write the letter for the correct answer on the line next to the question number.) Statements Most of the TB bacteria are killed during the first 8 weeks of treatment. However, some persistent organisms require longer treatment. Regimens for the treatment of TB disease need to only contain one drug to which the bacteria are susceptible. Treatment that is not continued for a long enough time allows the surviving bacteria to cause the patient to become ill and infectious again. Treatment with a single drug cannot lead to the development of a bacterial population resistant to that drug. When two or more drugs to which in vitro susceptibility has been demonstrated are given together, each helps prevent the emergence of tubercle bacilli resistant to the other drugs(s). Given adequate treatment, almost all patients will recover and be cured. True or False A. True B. False 142

5 Treatment and Monitoring Plan For each patient with newly diagnosed TB disease, a specific treatment and monitoring plan should be developed in collaboration with the local TB control program within 1 week of the presumptive diagnosis. This plan should include: Description of the TB treatment regimen; Methods of assessing and ensuring adherence to the TB treatment regimen; Methods to monitor for adverse reactions; and Methods for evaluating treatment response. Study Question 6.8 Which of the following should NOT be included in a treatment and monitoring plan? (choose the one best answer) A. Description of the TB treatment regimen B. Methods of assessing and ensuring adherence to the TB treatment regimen C. Methods to monitor for adverse reactions D. Methods to prevent a patient returning to work when noninfectious E. Methods for evaluating treatment response Adherence Strategies To treat TB disease and prevent acquired drug resistance, clinicians must ensure that their patients with TB disease follow the recommended course of treatment. However, ensuring that patients adhere to treatment can be difficult because patients are often unable or reluctant to take multiple medications for several months. Nonadherence to treatment is a major problem in TB control. Inadequate treatment can lead to Treatment failure; Relapse; Ongoing transmission; and Development of drug resistance. Responsibility for successful treatment is assigned to the health-care provider, not the patient. Health-care professionals should consult their health department s TB control program to ensure their TB patients are able to adhere to a prescribed treatment regimen. The TB control program should assist the health-care professional in evaluating patient barriers to adherence and recommend directly observed therapy (DOT) and the use of incentives and enablers that may assist the patient in completing the recommended therapy. 143

6 Inadequate treatment can lead to treatment failure, relapse, ongoing transmission, and the development of drug resistance. Responsibility for successful treatment is assigned to the health-care provider, not the patient. If these efforts are unsuccessful, the TB control program should take more restrictive action. The TB program should consider court-ordered DOT or, if all other measures fail, the involuntary isolation of a patient who is unwilling or unable to complete treatment. This is necessary to protect the general public from patients who are infectious, at risk of becoming infectious, or at risk for developing drug-resistant TB disease. A patient may be involuntarily isolated, but the patient cannot be forced to swallow anti-tb drugs. Involuntary isolation should only be pursued as a last resort after all less-restrictive measures have failed. Patient Education Educating patients about TB disease helps ensure their successful completion of therapy. Health-care providers must take the time to explain clearly to patients what medication should be taken, how much, how often, and when. Patients should be clearly informed about possible adverse reactions to the medications they are taking and when to seek necessary medical attention. Providing patients with the knowledge they need regarding the consequences of not taking their medicine correctly is very important. In addition, patients should be educated about infection control measures and potential need for isolation (Table 6.1). HIV testing and counseling is recommended for all patients with TB disease in all health-care settings. The patient must first be notified that testing will be performed. The patient has the right to decline HIV testing and counseling (opt-out screening). Table 6.1 Patient Education Topics to Include When Educating Patients What medication should be taken, how much, how often, and when Possible adverse reactions to the medications When to seek necessary medical attention Consequences of not taking their medicine correctly TB infection control measures and potential need for isolation HIV testing and counseling is recommended for all patients with TB disease in all health-care settings. 144

7 Case Management Case management is a strategy used to ensure that patients complete treatment for TB disease. There are three elements of case management: 1. Assigning responsibility; 2. Conducting a regular systematic review; and 3. Developing a plan to address barriers to adherence. Case managers are health department employees, usually nurses or public health professionals, who are assigned primary responsibility for the management of specific patients. Case managers are held accountable for ensuring that each patient is educated about TB and treatment, ensuring that therapy is continuous and complete, and confirming that all contacts are evaluated according to CDC/National Tuberculosis Controllers Association guidelines. Some specific responsibilities may be assigned to other persons such as clinic supervisors, outreach workers, health educators, social workers, and human service workers. Case management is a patient-centered strategy. Whenever possible, a worker who has the same cultural and linguistic background as the patient should be assigned as case manager, to be able to help develop an individualized treatment adherence plan with the patient. Case managers are held accountable for ensuring that each patient is educated about TB and treatment, ensuring that therapy is continuous and complete, and confirming that all contacts are evaluated according to CDC/ National Tuberculosis Controllers Association guidelines. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) DOT is a component of case management that helps ensure patients adhere to therapy. It is the method whereby a trained health-care worker or another trained designated person watches a patient swallow each dose of anti-tb drugs and documents it. DOT is the preferred core management strategy recommended by CDC for treatment of TB disease and, if resources allow, for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment. DOT can reduce the development of drug resistance, treatment failure, or relapse after the end of treatment. Good case management, which includes establishing a relationship with the patient and addressing barriers to adherence, facilitates successful DOT. DOT is the preferred core management strategy recommended by CDC for treatment of TB disease and, if resources allow, for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment. Nearly all the treatment regimens for drug-susceptible TB disease can be given intermittently if they are directly observed. Using intermittent regimens reduces the total number of doses a patient must take, as well as the total number of encounters with the health-care provider or outreach worker, making these regimens more cost-effective. Drug-resistant TB disease should always be treated with 145

8 a daily regimen and under direct observation. There are no intermittent regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. If anti-tb drugs for the treatment of MDR TB need to be given twice daily, then DOT should be provided twice daily as well. Nearly all the treatment regimens for drug-susceptible TB disease can be given intermittently if they are directly observed. Drug-resistant TB disease should always be treated with a daily regimen and under direct observation. There are no intermittent regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. It is important that DOT be carried out at times and in locations that are as convenient as possible for the individual patient (Figures 6.1 and 6.2). Therapy may be directly observed in a medical office or clinic setting, but can also be observed by an outreach worker in the field (e.g., patient s home, place of employment, school, or other mutually agreed-upon place). In some situations, staff of correctional facilities or drug treatment programs, home health-care workers, maternal and child health staff, or designated community members may provide DOT. In general, family members should not be the providers of DOT. Figure 6.1 Conducting DOT in a Clinic Setting Figure 6.2 Conducting DOT in a Location Convenient for the Patient DOT should be used for all children and adolescents with TB disease. Even when drugs are given by DOT, adherence to and tolerability of the regimen must be monitored closely. Parents should not be relied on to supervise DOT. 146

9 Incentives and Enablers Incentives and enablers should be used to ensure adherence to therapy (Figure 6.3). Incentives are small rewards given to patients to encourage them to take their medicines and to keep DOT or clinic appointments. Enablers are things that help the patient receive treatment, such as bus fare to get to the clinic. Incentives and enablers should be chosen according to the patient s needs, and they are frequently offered along with DOT. Figure 6.3 Incentives and Enablers Fixed-Dose Combination Drugs Although there is no evidence indicating that fixed-dose combination medications are superior to individual drugs, expert opinion suggests that these formulations should be used when DOT is given daily or when DOT is not possible. The use of fixed-dose combination capsules or tablets facilitates DOT administration by minimizing the chance for error through the use of fewer tablets and may reduce the risk of acquired drug resistance since one medication cannot be selectively taken. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved fixed-dose combinations of isoniazid and rifampin (Rifamate ) and of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide (Rifater ). Clinicians should become familiar with the management of TB disease using these fixed-dose combination drugs. The use of fixed-dose combination capsules or tablets facilitates DOT administration by minimizing the chance for error through the use of fewer tablets and may reduce the risk of acquired drug resistance since one medication cannot be selectively taken. 147

10 Self-Administered Therapy Patients on self-administered therapy should be asked routinely about adherence at follow-up visits. Pill counts should be performed consistently, and urine or blood tests can be used periodically to check for the presence of urine drug metabolites or appropriate blood serum level of the drugs. In addition, the response to treatment should be monitored closely for all patients. If culture results have not become negative after 2 months of treatment, the patient should be reevaluated and DOT should be considered for the remainder of treatment. Study Questions 6.9 Inadequate treatment can lead to which of the following? (choose the one best answer) A. Treatment failure B. Relapse C. Ongoing transmission D. Development of drug resistance E. A, B, C, and D are all correct The responsibility for successful treatment is assigned to which of the following? (choose the one best answer) A. The patient B. The health-care provider C. The family of the patient D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct What should be included when educating a patient about TB treatment? (choose the one best answer) A. How to take the medication B. Adverse reactions to the medications C. Consequences of not taking the medication correctly D. TB infection control measures E. A, B, C, and D are all correct. 148

11 6.12 What is case management? (choose the one best answer) A. Includes assigning responsibilities, conducting a regular systematic review of the case, and developing a plan to address barriers to adherence. B. Can be used to ensure that patients complete treatment for TB disease. C. Can be used to identify all cases of TB from a source case. D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct What is DOT? (choose the one best answer) A. A supervisor watches a health-care worker give a patient a bottle of prescribed pills. B. A physician sees the patient once a month and counts the remaining pills in the medication bottles. C. A health-care worker or another designated person watches the patient swallow each dose of the prescribed drugs. D. The nurse uses special urine tests to detect the presence of medicine in the patient s urine Which of the following statements about DOT is true? (choose the one best answer) A. Is the preferred core management strategy for treatment of TB disease. B. Can reduce the development of drug resistance, treatment failure, or relapse after the end of treatment. C. Parents can always be relied upon to give DOT to their children. D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct. 149

12 6.15 Which of the following statements about intermittent treatment regimens and DOT is true? (choose the one best answer) A. Reduces the total number of doses the patient must take. B. Reduces the total number of encounters with the health-care provider. C. Are always used for drug-resistant TB disease. D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct DOT should always be used for all children and adolescents with TB disease. (circle the one best answer) A. True B. False 150

13 Current Anti-TB Drugs TB Disease Treatment Regimens Currently, there are 10 drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of TB disease (Table 6.2). In addition, the fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and gatifloxacin), although not approved by the FDA for TB disease, are commonly used to treat TB disease caused by drug-resistant organisms or for patients who are intolerant of some first-line drugs. Rifabutin, approved for use in preventing Mycobacterium avium complex disease in patients with HIV infection but not approved for TB disease, is useful for treating TB disease in patients concurrently taking drugs that interact with rifampin (e.g., certain antiretroviral drugs). Amikacin and kanamycin, nearly identical aminoglycoside drugs used in treating patients with TB disease caused by drug-resistant organisms, are not approved by the FDA for treatment of TB. Of the approved drugs, isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) are considered first-line anti-tb drugs and form the core of standard treatment regimens (Figure 6.4) (Table 6.2). Rifabutin (RBT) and rifapentine (RPT) may also be considered firstline drugs under certain circumstances. RBT is used as a substitute for RIF in the treatment of all forms of TB caused by organisms that are known or presumed to be susceptible to this agent. RBT is generally reserved for patients for whom drug-drug interactions preclude the use of rifampin. Streptomycin (SM) was formerly considered to be a first-line drug and, in some instances, is still used in the initial treatment regimen. However, an increasing prevalence of resistance to SM in many parts of the world has decreased its overall usefulness. The remaining drugs are reserved for special situations such as drug intolerance or resistance. INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB are considered first-line anti-tb drugs and form the core of standard treatment regimens. Figure 6.4 First-line Anti-TB Agents From left to right: INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB form the core of initial treatment regimens. 151

14 Table 6.2 Anti-TB Drugs Currently Used in the United States Drug Classes First-line drugs Secondline drugs Anti-TB Drugs Isoniazid (INH) Rifampin (RIF) Pyrazinamide (PZA) Ethambutol (EMB) Rifabutin* (RBT) Rifapentine (RPT) Streptomycin (SM) Cycloserine Capreomycin ρ-aminosalicylic acid Levofloxacin* Moxifloxacin* Gatifloxacin* Amikacin/Kanamycin* Ethionamide Comments INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB form the core of initial treatment regimen. May be used as a substitute for RIF in the treatment of all forms of TB caused by organisms that are known or presumed to be susceptible to this agent. May be used once weekly with INH in the continuation phase of treatment for HIV-negative patients with noncavitary, drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who have negative sputum smears at completion of the initial phase of treatment. SM was formerly considered to be a first-line drug and in some instances, is still used in initial treatment. Increasing prevalence of resistance to SM in many parts of the world has decreased its overall usefulness. These drugs are reserved for special situations such as drug intolerance or resistance. * Not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of tuberculosis. Rating System for TB Disease Treatment Recommendations The recommended treatment regimens are based, in large part, on evidence from clinical trials and are rated on the basis of a system developed by the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) (Table 6.3). 152

15 TB Disease Treatment Regimens There are four basic treatment regimens recommended for treating adults with TB disease caused by organisms that are known or presumed to be susceptible to INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB. Each treatment regimen consists of an initial 2-month treatment phase followed by a continuation phase of either 4 or 7 months (Table 6.5). The 4-month continuation phase is used for the majority of patients. Although these regimens are broadly applicable, there are modifications that should be made under specified circumstances (Tables 6.3 and 6.4). There are four basic treatment regimens recommended for treating adults with TB disease caused by organisms that are known or presumed to be susceptible to INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB. Each treatment regimen consists of an initial 2-month treatment phase followed by a continuation phase of either 4 or 7 months. Initial Phase The initial phase of treatment is crucial for preventing the emergence of drug resistance and determining the ultimate outcome of the regimen. Four drugs INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB should be included in the initial treatment regimen until the results of drug-susceptibility tests are available. Each of the drugs in the initial regimen plays an important role. INH and RIF allow for short-course regimens with high cure rates. PZA has potent sterilizing activity, which allows further shortening of the regimen from 9 to 6 months. EMB helps to prevent the emergence of RIF resistance when primary INH resistance is present. If drug-susceptibility test results are known and the organisms are fully susceptible, EMB need not be included. For children whose clarity or sharpness of vision cannot be monitored, EMB is usually not recommended except when the risk of drug resistance is high or for children who have adult-type (upper lobe infiltration, cavity formation) TB disease. Continuation Phase The continuation phase of treatment is given for either 4 or 7 months. The 4-month continuation phase should be used in patients with uncomplicated, noncavitary, drug-susceptible TB, if there is documented sputum conversion within the first 2 months. The 7-month continuation phase is recommended only for Patients with cavitary or extensive pulmonary TB disease caused by drug-susceptible organisms and whose sputum culture obtained at the time of completion of 2 months of treatment is positive; Patients whose initial phase of treatment did not include PZA; or Patients being treated with once-weekly INH and RPT and whose sputum culture at the time of completion of the initial phase (i.e., after 2 months) is positive. 153

16 Table 6.3 Drug Regimens for Pulmonary TB in Adults Caused by Drug-Susceptible Organisms* Initial Phase Continuation Phase Regimen Drugs Interval and Doses± Regimen Drugs Interval and Doses± 1 INH RIF PZA EMB 2 INH RIF PZA EMB 3 INH RIF PZA EMB 4 INH RIF EMB 7 days/week for 56 doses (8 weeks) or 5 days /week for 40 doses (8 weeks) 7 days/week for 14 doses (2 weeks), then 2 days/ week for 12 doses (6 weeks) or 5 days/week for 10 doses (2 weeks), then 2 days/week for 12 doses (6 weeks) 3 times weekly for 24 doses (8 weeks) 7 days/week for 56 doses (8 weeks) or 5 days/week for 40 doses (8 weeks) 1a INH RIF 1b# INH RIF 1c** INH RPT 2a# INH RIF 2b** INH RPT 3a 4a INH RIF INH RIF 4b# INH RIF 7 days/week for 126 doses (18 weeks) or 5 days/week for 90 doses (18 weeks) 2 days/week for 36 doses (18 weeks) Range of Total Doses (26 weeks) (26 weeks) 1 day/week for 18 doses (18 weeks) (26 weeks) 2 days/week for doses (18 weeks) (26 weeks) 1 day/week for 18 doses (18 weeks) (26 weeks) 3 times weekly for doses (18 weeks) (26 weeks) 7 days/week for 217 doses (31 weeks) or 5 days/week for 155 doses (31 weeks) (39 weeks) Twice weekly for doses (31 weeks) (39 weeks) INH = isoniazid RIF = rifampin PZA = pyrazinamide EMB = ethambutol RPT = rifapentine * For more information on strength of recommendation and quality of supporting evidence, refer to treatment of tuberculosis guidelines. MMWR 2003; 52 (No.RR-11). ± When DOT is used, drugs may be given 5 days/week and the necessary doses adjusted accordingly. Patients with cavitation on initial chest x-ray and positive cultures at completion of 2 months of therapy should receive a 7-month continuation phase. Patients on regimens given less than 7 days a week should receive DOT. # Regimens given less than 3 times a week are not recommended for HIV-infected patients with CD4+ counts less than 100 ** Used only for HIV-negative patients with negative sputum smears at completion of 2 months of therapy and who do not have cavitation on initial chest x-ray. For patients started on this regimen and found to have positive culture from the 2-month specimen, treatment should be extended an extra 3 months. 154

17 Table 6.4 Dosage Recommendations for the Treatment of TB in Adults and Children 1 Dose in mg/kg (maximum dosage in parentheses) Drug Adults/Children 2 Daily 1 time/week 3 2 times/week 3 3 times/week 3 INH RIF RBT RPT PZA EMB 4 Adults Adults Adults Children Adults Children Adults Children Adults Children weight Children weight Children kg kg kg kg kg kg 5 mg/kg (300 mg) mg/kg (300 mg) 10 mg/kg (600 mg) mg/kg (600 mg) 5 mg/kg (300 mg) mg/kg (1000 mg) mg/kg (1500 mg) mg/kg (2000 mg) mg/kg (2000 mg) mg/kg (800 mg) mg/kg (1200 mg) mg/kg (1600 mg) mg/kg (1000 mg) 15 mg/kg (900 mg) 15 mg/kg (900 mg) mg/kg (900 mg) 10 mg/kg (600 mg) mg/kg (600 mg) 5 mg/kg (300 mg) Appropriate dosing for children unknown 10 mg/kg (600 mg) (continuation phase) This drug is not approved for use in children mg/kg (2000 mg) mg/kg (3000 mg) mg/kg (4000 mg) 50 mg/kg (2000 kg) mg/kg (2000 mg) mg/kg (2800 mg) mg/kg (4000 mg) 50 mg/kg (2500 mg) 15 mg/kg (900 mg) 10 mg/kg (600 mg) 5 mg/kg (300 mg) mg/kg (1500 mg) (2500 mg) mg/kg (3000 mg) mg/kg (1200 mg) mg/kg (2000 mg) mg/kg (2400 mg) INH= isoniazid RIF= rifampin RBT= rifabutin RPT= rifapentine PZA= pyrazinamide EMB= ethambutol 1 Although these regimens are broadly applicable, modifications may be needed for certain circumstances (patients on antiretroviral therapy [ART]). For more information, refer to treatment of tuberculosis guidelines. MMWR 2003; 52 (No.RR-11). 2 For purposes of this document, adult dosing begins at age 15 years. Children weighing more than 40 kg should be dosed as adults. Adjust doses as the patient s weight changes. 3 All patients prescribed an intermittent regimen should be given DOT. 4 Ethambutol should be used with caution in young children since it is difficult to monitor their vision. However, if they have TB that is resistant to INH or RIF, a dose of 15 mg/kg per day can be used. 155

18 Treatment Completion Treatment completion is defined primarily as the ingestion of the total number of doses prescribed within the specified time frame. The duration of therapy depends on the drugs used, the drugsusceptibility test results of the isolate, and the patient s response to therapy (see Chapter 4, Drug-Susceptibility Testing). Most patients with previously untreated pulmonary TB disease can be treated with either a 6-month or a 9-month regimen, although the 6-month regimen is used for the majority of patients. All 6-month regimens must contain INH, RIF, and initially, PZA. The goal is to complete all doses within 1 year (Table 6.5). The duration of therapy depends on the drugs used, the drug susceptibility test results of the isolate, and the patient s response to therapy. Most patients with previously untreated pulmonary TB disease can be treated with either a 6-month or a 9-month regimen, although the 6-month regimen is used for the majority of patients. 156

19 Table 6.5 TB Treatment Phases Phase Purpose Treatment Initial phase Continuation phase Kills most of the tubercle bacilli during the first 8 weeks of treatment, but some bacilli can survive longer Prevents the emergence of drug resistance Determines the ultimate outcome of the regimen Kills remaining tubercle bacilli (after initial phase) If treatment is not continued long enough, the surviving bacilli may cause TB disease in the patient at a later time Initial 2-month treatment regimen Includes four drugs in the treatment (usually INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB) Each of the drugs plays an important role for short-course regimens with high cure rates Multiple drugs are needed to prevent the development of drug-resistant TB disease An addition of either 4 or 7 months of treatment 4 months is used for majority of patients 7 months is recommended only for persons»» Who have drug-susceptible cavitary or extensive pulmonary TB disease and whose sputum culture obtained at the time of completion of 2 months of treatment is positive»» Whose initial phase of treatment did not include PZA»» Who are treated with once-weekly INH and RPT and whose sputum culture at the time of completion of the initial phase is positive Treatment completion Defines the number of doses ingested within a specified time frame Duration depends on Drugs used Drug susceptibility test results of the isolate Patient s response to therapy Most patients with previously untreated pulmonary TB disease can be treated with either 6-month regimen (preferred) containing INH, RIF, and initially PZA or 9-month regimen containing INH and RIF 157

20 Follow-Up After Treatment Routine follow-up after treatment is not necessary for patients who have had a satisfactory response to a 6- or 9-month regimen with both INH and RIF (Table 6.6). Patients whose organisms were fully susceptible to the drugs being used should be instructed to promptly report the development of any symptoms, particularly prolonged cough, fever, or weight loss. Patients with resistance to both INH and RIF should be monitored for 2 years post-treatment. For patients with organisms resistant to INH or RIF, follow-up evaluation must be individualized. Table 6.6 Follow-Up After Treatment Patients Have a satisfactory response to 6- or 9- month regimen with both INH and RIF Have organisms that were fully susceptible to drugs being used Have organisms resistant to INH and RIF Have organisms resistant to INH or RIF Type of Follow-Up Routine follow-up after treatment is not necessary Patients should promptly report any of the following symptoms: Prolonged cough Fever Weight loss Patients should be monitored for 2 years posttreatment Follow-up must be individualized Treatment Interruptions Interruptions in the treatment of TB disease are common. Health-care providers are responsible for deciding whether to restart a complete course of treatment or to continue as intended. These decisions should be based on when the interruption occurred and the duration of the interruption. 158

21 Treatment Interruption During Initial Phase If the interruption occurred during the initial phase, the following guidelines apply (Figure 6.5) (Table 6.7): Lapse is 14 days restart treatment from the beginning Lapse is <14 days continue treatment to complete planned total number of doses (as long as all doses are completed within 3 months) Figure 6.5 Algorithm for Management of Initial Phase Treatment Interruptions Treatment is interrupted No Is it for <14 days? Yes Start over from the beginning No Start over from the beginning Can the initial phase treatment be completed within 3 months? Yes Continue treatment to complete total doses required Treatment Interruption During Continuation Phase If the interruption occurred during the continuation phase, the following guidelines apply (Figure 6.6) (Table 6.7). If the patient received: 80% of doses, and sputum was acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear negative on initial testing further therapy may not be necessary; 80% of doses, and sputum was AFB smear positive on initial testing continue therapy; <80% of doses, and lapse is less than 3 months in duration continue therapy until all doses are completed (full course); or <80% of doses, and lapse is greater than 3 months in duration restart therapy from the beginning of initial phase. 159

22 Figure 6.6 Algorithm for Management of Continuation Phase Treatment Interruptions If sputum smear was AFB negative at baseline, additional treatment may not be necessary If sputum smear was AFB positive at baseline, continue treatment to complete planned total number of doses warranted No Determine the total percentage of doses completed Is the percentage of doses <80%? No Yes Is the duration of interruption <3 months? Yes Start initial phase 4-drug regimen from the beginning Continue treatment No Start initial phase 4-drug regimen from the beginning Can treatment be completed within required time frame for regimen? Yes Complete treatment 160

23 Table 6.7 Treatment Interruptions When Interruption Occurs During initial phase During continuation phase Situation Lapse is <14 days in duration Lapse is 14 days in duration Received 80% of doses and sputum was AFB smear negative on initial testing Received 80% of doses and sputum was AFB smear positive on initial testing Received <80% of doses and lapse is <3 months in duration Received <80% of doses and lapse is 3 months in duration Guidelines Continue treatment to complete planned total number of doses (as long as all doses are completed within 3 months) Restart treatment from the beginning Further therapy may not be necessary Continue therapy until all doses are completed Continue therapy until all doses are completed (full course) If treatment cannot be completed within recommended timeframe for regimen, restart therapy from the beginning Restart therapy from the beginning, new initial and continuation phase Decision to Treat Culture-Negative TB Disease Alternative diagnoses must be considered carefully with appropriate diagnostic studies undertaken in patients who have what appears to be culture-negative pulmonary TB disease. Patients who, based on careful clinical and radiographic evaluation, are thought to have pulmonary TB disease should have treatment initiated with INH, RIF, PZA, and EMB even when the initial sputum smears are negative. Figure 6.7 provides an algorithm for treatment of culture-negative TB. 161

24 Figure 6.7 Algorithm to Guide Treatment of Culture-Negative TB High clinical suspicion for active TB despite negative smears based on: Abnormal chest x-ray Clinical symptoms No other diagnosis Positive IGRA or tuberculin skin test High risk of acquiring TB infection Patient placed on initial phase regimen: INH, RIF, EMB, and PZA for 2 months No Is initial culture positive? Yes No Discontinue treatment Patient presumed to have LTBI Treatment completed Was there symptomatic or chest x-ray improvement after 2 months of treatment? Yes Continue treatment for culture-positive TB Continue treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 2-4 months 162

25 Study Questions Indicate whether the following statements about the initial phase of treatment are true or false. (Choose the one best answer and write the letter for the correct answer on the line next to the question number.) Statements about Initial Phase of Treatment 6.17 Consists of 2 months of treatment Is crucial for preventing the emergence of drug resistance. True or False A. True B. False 6.19 Treatment regimen usually consists of 6 drugs. Indicate whether the following statements about the continuation phase of treatment are true or false. (Choose the one best answer and write the letter for the correct answer on the line next to the question number.) Statements about Continuation Phase of Treatment 6.20 Consists of either 4 or 7 months of treatment The 4-month continuation phase is used in the majority of patients. True or False A. True B. False 6.22 The 7-month continuation phase is usually only used for patients with extrapulmonary TB Treatment completion is defined primarily as the ingestion of the total number of doses prescribed within the specified time frame. (choose the one best answer) A. True B. False 6.24 The duration of therapy depends on which of the following? (choose the one best answer) A. Drugs used B. Drug-susceptibility test results of the isolate C. Patient s response to therapy D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct. 163

26 6.25 Which of the following statements about follow-up after treatment is true? (choose the one best answer) A. Follow-up evaluation must be individualized for patients with organisms resistant to INH or RIF or both. B. Routine follow-up after treatment is not necessary for patients who have had a satisfactory response to a 6- or 9-month regimen with both INH and RIF. C. Follow-up evaluation is not needed for patients with continued positive cultures. D. A, B, and C are all correct. E. Only A and B are correct. The following patients have had an interruption in treatment. Match the patient with the treatment decision. (Choose the one best answer and write the letter for the correct answer on the line next to the question number.) Patient 6.26 During the initial phase of treatment, Perry has had a lapse in therapy that was less than 14 days During the initial phase of treatment, Walter has had a lapse in therapy that was greater than 14 days During the continuation phase of treatment, Desiree has had a lapse in therapy after receiving more than 80% of doses. She had a negative smear on initial testing During the continuation phase of treatment, Maurine has had a lapse in therapy for cavitary TB after receiving less than 80% of doses. Her lapse is more than 3 months in duration. Treatment Decision A. Restart treatment from the beginning B. Continue treatment to complete planned total number of doses (as long as all doses are completed within 3 months) C. Further treatment may not be necessary D. Continue therapy until all doses are completed 6.30 During the continuation phase of treatment, Ratcliff had a lapse in therapy after receiving more than 80% of doses. His sputum was AFB smear positive on initial testing During the continuation phase of treatment, Alex has had a lapse in therapy after receiving less than 80% of doses. His lapse is less than 3 months in duration. 164

27 TB Disease Treatment Regimens for Specific Situations TB disease treatment regimens for specific situations require special management and should be administered in consultation with a TB expert. Specific situations include the following people: Pregnant women Breast-feeding women Infants and children HIV-infected persons TB disease treatment regimens for specific situations require special management and should be administered in consultation with a TB expert. Pregnant Women Untreated TB disease represents a greater hazard to a pregnant woman and her fetus than does its treatment. Because of the risk of TB to the fetus, treatment of TB in pregnant women should be initiated whenever the probability of maternal disease is moderate to high. The initial treatment regimen should consist of INH, RIF, and EMB. Although all of these drugs cross the placenta, they do not appear to have teratogenic effects. Streptomycin is the only anti-tb drug documented to have harmful effects on the human fetus (congenital deafness) and should not be used. Although detailed teratogenicity data are not available, PZA can probably be used safely during pregnancy and is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD). If PZA is not included in the initial treatment regimen, the minimum duration of therapy is 9 months. Untreated TB disease represents a greater hazard to a pregnant woman and her fetus than does its treatment. Streptomycin is the only anti-tb drug documented to have harmful effects on the human fetus (congenital deafness) and should not be used. For pregnant women with MDR TB, treatment should only be done in consultation with an MDR TB expert. Many of the medications currently used for treatment of MDR TB may be harmful to the fetus. 165

28 Breast-feeding Breast-feeding should not be discouraged for women being treated with first-line anti-tb drugs, because the small concentrations of these drugs in breast milk do not produce toxicity in the nursing newborn. Conversely, drugs in breast milk should not be considered to serve as effective treatment for TB disease or for LTBI in a nursing infant. Pyridoxine (vitamin B 6 ) supplementation (25 mg/ day) is recommended for all women taking INH who are either pregnant or breast-feeding. The amount of pyridoxine in multivitamins is variable, but generally less than the needed amount. Infants and Children Infants and children with TB disease should be treated with the regimens recommended for adults, with the exception that EMB is not used routinely in children. For children whose clarity or sharpness of vision cannot be monitored, EMB is usually not recommended except when the risk of drug resistance is high or for children who have adult-type (upper lobe infiltration, cavity formation) TB disease. In infants, TB is much more likely to disseminate; therefore, treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. Children commonly develop primary TB disease which generally affects the middle and lower lung. Children should be treated with three (rather than four) drugs in the initial phase (INH, RIF, and PZA). In general, extrapulmonary TB in children can be treated with the same regimens as pulmonary disease. Exceptions are disseminated TB and tuberculous meningitis, for which there are inadequate data to support 6-month therapy; thus 9 to 12 months of treatment is recommended. In infants, TB is much more likely to disseminate; therefore, treatment should be started as soon as the diagnosis is suspected. HIV-Infected Persons Management of HIV and TB coinfection is complex, and the clinical and public health consequences associated with the failure of treatment and other negative outcomes are serious. HIVinfected patients are on numerous medications, some of which interact with anti-tb drugs. It is therefore strongly recommended that experts in the treatment of HIV-related TB be consulted. The treatment regimens listed in Table 6.3 are effective for people living with HIV, with two exceptions due to increased risk of developing acquired drug resistance: Once-weekly administration of INH and RPT in the continuation phase should not be used in any HIV-infected patient; and Patients with advanced HIV (CD4 counts less than 100) should be treated with daily or three times weekly therapy in both the initial and continuation phase. Every effort should be made to use a rifamycin-based regimen for the entire course of therapy in coinfected patients. The key role of the rifamycins in the success of TB disease treatment mandates that the drug-drug interactions between the rifamycins and antiretroviral drugs be managed appropriately, rather than using TB treatment regimens that do not include a rifamycin or by withholding antiretroviral therapy until completion of anti-tb therapy. 166

29 Of particular concern is the interaction of rifamycins with antiretroviral agents and other antiinfective drugs. Rifampin can be used for the treatment of TB with certain combinations of antiretroviral agents. Rifabutin, which has fewer drug-drug interactions due to its decreased induction of the cytochrome P450 system, may also be used in place of rifampin and appears to be equally effective, although the doses of the rifabutin and antiretroviral agents may require adjustments and should be administered with expert consultation. Therefore, patients with HIV-related TB disease should be treated with a regimen including a rifamycin for the full course of TB disease treatment, unless the isolate is resistant to the rifamycins or the patient has a severe side effect that is clearly due to the rifamycins. HIV-infected patients are on numerous medications, some of which interact with anti-tb drugs. It is therefore strongly recommended that experts in the treatment of HIV-related TB be consulted. Treatment Duration Six months should be considered the minimum duration of treatment for HIV-infected adults, even for patients with culture-negative TB disease. If there is evidence of a slow or suboptimal response (e.g., cultures are still positive after 2 months of therapy), the continuation phase should be prolonged to 7 months (a total of 9 months of treatment). DOT and other adherence- promoting strategies should be used in all patients with HIV-related TB disease. Predicting Drug Interactions Involving Rifampin Much is known about the interactions of antiretroviral agents and RIF. In addition, knowledge of the mechanisms of drug interactions can help predict the likelihood of an interaction, even if that specific combination of drugs has not been formally evaluated. A major concern in treating TB disease in HIV-infected persons is the interaction of RIF with certain antiretroviral agents (some protease inhibitors [PIs] and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs]). Rifabutin, another rifamycin that has fewer drug-drug interactions, may be used as an alternative to RIF. As new antiretroviral agents and more pharmacokinetic data become available, these recommendations are likely to be modified. For more information, see Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV-Related Tuberculosis at: Drugs/default.htm Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women A number of issues complicate the treatment of the HIV-infected pregnant woman who has TB disease. Pregnancy alters the distribution and metabolism of a number of drugs, including antiretroviral drugs (there is very little information on whether the metabolism of anti-tb drugs is altered during pregnancy). Notably, the serum concentrations of protease inhibitors are decreased during the latter stages of pregnancy. There are no published data on drug-drug interactions between anti-tb and antiretroviral drugs among pregnant women. However, it is likely that the effects of RIF on protease inhibitors are exacerbated during pregnancy. 167

30 HIV-Infected Children HIV-infected children with TB disease are at greater risk for severe, life-threatening manifestations (e.g., disseminated disease, meningitis). There are very limited data on the absorption, metabolism, and elimination of anti-tb drugs among children, particularly among very young children (< 2 years of age). For more information, please see Managing Drug Interactions in the Treatment of HIV- Related Tuberculosis at: HIV-infected children with TB disease are at greater risk for severe, lifethreatening manifestations (e.g., disseminated disease, meningitis). Persons with Additional Treatment Considerations A number of medical conditions or disease characteristics require additional treatment considerations and TB treatment decisions should be made in consultation with a TB expert. These include: Renal insufficiency/end-stage renal disease Hepatic disease Extrapulmonary TB disease Drug-resistant TB disease Culture-negative TB disease Renal Insufficiency and End-stage Renal Disease Renal insufficiency complicates the management of TB disease because some anti-tb drugs are cleared by the kidneys. Alteration in dosing of anti-tb drugs is commonly necessary in patients with renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis. The dosage of anti- TB drugs should not be decreased because the peak serum concentrations may be low and smaller doses may decrease drug efficacy. Instead, the dosing interval of anti-tb drugs should be increased. Based on creatinine clearance, most anti-tb drugs can be given three times a week immediately after hemodialysis. Consultation with the patient s nephrologist is advised. Renal insufficiency complicates the management of TB disease because some anti-tb drugs are cleared by the kidneys. Alteration in dosing of anti-tb drugs is commonly necessary in patients with renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis. 168

31 Hepatic Disease The treatment of TB disease in patients with unstable or advanced liver disease is problematic for several reasons: The likelihood of drug-induced hepatitis is greater; The implications of drug-induced hepatitis for patients with marginal hepatic reserve are potentially serious, even life-threatening; and Fluctuations in the indicators of liver function related to the pre-existing liver disease can confound monitoring for drug-induced hepatitis. Thus, clinicians may consider regimens with fewer potentially hepatotoxic agents in patients with advanced or unstable liver disease. Expert consultation is advisable in treating such patients. It should be noted that TB disease itself may involve the liver, causing abnormal liver function; thus, not all abnormalities in liver function tests noted at baseline should be attributed to causes other than TB disease. The hepatic abnormalities caused by TB disease will improve with effective treatment. Clinicians may consider regimens with fewer potentially hepatotoxic agents in patients with advanced or unstable liver disease. Expert consultation is advisable in treating such patients. Extrapulmonary TB Disease As a general rule, the principles used for the treatment of pulmonary TB disease also apply to extrapulmonary forms of the disease. A 6-month treatment regimen is recommended for patients with extrapulmonary TB disease, unless the organisms are known or strongly suspected to be resistant to the first-line drugs. If PZA cannot be used in the initial phase, the continuation phase must be increased to 7 months. The exception to these recommendations is central nervous system TB, for which the optimal length of therapy has not been established but some experts recommend 9 to 12 months. Most experts do recommend corticosteroids to be used as additional therapy for patients with TB meningitis and pericarditis. Consultation with a TB expert is recommended. As a general rule, the principles used for the treatment of pulmonary TB disease also apply to extrapulmonary forms of the disease. A 6-month treatment regimen is recommended for patients with extrapulmonary TB disease, unless the organisms are known or strongly suspected to be resistant to the first-line drugs. 169

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