New Approach to Analysis of the Switching Current Data in Ferroelectric Thin Films


 Carmel Sutton
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Ferroelectrics, 291: 27 35, 2003 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: print / online DOI: / New Approach to Analysis of the Switching Current Data in Ferroelectric Thin Films V. YA. SHUR, I. S. BATURIN, E. I. SHISHKIN, and M. V. BELOUSOVA Inst. Phys. & Appl. Math., Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, Russia (Received September 15, 2002) A new approach to analysis of the switching current allows to extract distribution function of the threshold field from the current data recorded during conventional hysteresis loop measurements. Quasistatic switching (domain kinetics in slowincreasing field) in spatially inhomogeneous ferroelectric was investigated by computer simulation. Domain arising ( nucleation ) and growth was considered under the assumption that the threshold field for appearance of isolated nuclei is essentially higher than for nuclei at the domain wall. The obtained complicated relation between switching current shape and the threshold field distribution function essentially differs from predictions of Preisach approach. The new method has been successively used for analysis of the switching current data measured during cycling in PLZT thin films. Keywords: Switching current; thin films; Preisach approach; internal bias field INTRODUCTION Polarization reversal is widely used in memory devices based on ferroelectric thin films [1]. Therefore the knowledge of the domain kinetics in electric field is very important. It is well known that in situ domain visualization in thin films is very difficult so the recording of the charge and current during polarization reversal ( switching ) is the most popular experimental technique. Two types of field pulses have been used usually for such investigations: (a) rectangular pulses (Merz technique [2]) and (b) triangular ones (observation of hysteresis and current loops) [3]. In turn two approaches have been used for analysis of the experimental data: (a) the kinetic approach [4 7] and (b) the quasistatic one [8 11]. Application of both approaches is restricted. The first approach cannot be applied for real spatially nonuniform films, while the second one completely neglects the domain growth. In this paper we propose the new approach for analysis of switching current data in spatially nonuniform ferroelectrics obtained during quasistatic switching taking into account the domain growth. Finally we demonstrate some [243]/27
2 28/[244] V. YA. SHUR et al. preliminary results of its application for extracting the evolution of the bias field distribution function during fatigue in thin films. KINETIC APPROACH The most popular method for measurements of the switching current has been proposed by Merz [2]. The switching current is recorded under the action of rectangular pulses of electric field (Fig. 1(a)). Kinetic approach is applied for analysis of the current data. It is supposed that the current shape is determined by domain kinetics (nucleation and growth) thus it is possible to use the KolmogorovAvrami formulas suggested for describing the crystallization of metals [4, 5]. Ishibashi and Takagi [6] have applied this approach for ferroelectrics. It can be used for complete switching by single rectangular pulse in uniform infinite ferroelectric. Modification of KA formula for finite size media has been proposed in [7]. For realization of the Merz method the switching field has to be constant during the whole switching process. This condition is never realized during fast switching in thin ferroelectric films due to rise time comparable with switching one (Fig. 1(b)). Moreover the kinetic approach can be used only for absolutely uniform media, which is far from the real situation in thin films. Therefore it is impossible to use kinetic approach for the quantitative analysis of switching current data recorded during rectangular pulse measurements in thin films. Figure 1. Merz technique. (a) Scheme of switching current measurement by rectangular pulses and (b) typical switching current and applied voltage pulse in thin films. Rise time comparable with switching one.
3 NEW APPROACH TO ANALYSIS OF THE SWITCHING CURRENT DATA [245]/29 QUASISTATIC APPROACH: NUCLEATION ONLY MODEL In addition to kinetic approach quasistatic approaches were also suggested and used for slow switching when the voltage rise time is smaller than the local switching time. This condition is typical for conventional hysteresis measurements. Usually in such measurements the increasing field (triangular pulses) of low frequency (from 1 to 1000 Hz) is used. Current loops are essentially more sensitive to switching conditions and therefore more useful for mathematical analysis than polarization ones. The quasistatic approach has been proposed by Preisach for explanation of the hysteresis loop shape in ferromagnets [8] and later has been applied for ferroelectrics by Turik [9]. Recent years some applications of Preisach approach in ferroelectric thin films were made[10, 11]. According to quasistatic approach the uniform ferroelectric should be switched momentary. However all real ferroelectrics are nonuniform and such situation does not realize on practice. There are several types of nonuniformity: nonuniform distribution of the field components Ez in polycrystalline ferroelectrics (ceramics and thin films) due to the random orientation of polar axes in grains spatially nonuniform field in thin films due to variation of the thickness nonuniform threshold field or random field in all real ferroelectrics due to nonuniform distribution of structural defects spatially nonuniform internal bias field formed during cycling, which leads to fatigue effect [12 15]. According to Preisach quasistatic approach each small part of nonuniform ferroelectric is characterized by the local value of threshold field and is switched when the switching field has reached this value. Thus the switching current shape is determined by distribution function of threshold field (Fig. 2). Hence Preisach approach corresponds to nucleation only model. At the same time it is well known that the input of domain growth (domain wall motion) in switching current is very significant. NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODEL We have modified the quasistatic approach taking in consideration both nucleation and growth stages of switching process at each step of applied
4 30/[246] V. YA. SHUR et al. Figure 2. (a) Distribution function of threshold field and (b) corresponding switching current according to Preisach approach (nucleation only model). field. The domain kinetics in ferroelectric with spatially inhomogeneous threshold field under the action of slow increasing field has been studied by computer simulation. In such case the polarization reversal has been considered as a switching in stepbystep increasing external field (Fig. 3). E ex (n) = n δe (1) where n is the step number. It was assumed that switching at each fieldstep occurs through formation of isolated nuclei and subsequent nucleation at the walls (Fig. 4). The isolated nuclei appear in all points, where the external field exceeds the threshold value E th n, while threshold field for nucleation at the existing wall E th gr is essentially lower where E 0. E th n = E th gr + E (2) Figure 3. Step by step increasing of switching field.
5 NEW APPROACH TO ANALYSIS OF THE SWITCHING CURRENT DATA [247]/31 Figure 4. Switching kinetics through isolated nucleation and growth during single field step. Domain configurations (a) before the considered step, (b) after isolated nucleation and (c) after following domain growth.  Previously switched area  area switched by isolated nucleation and  area switched by domain growth. The sum area of the regions A(n) switched at each step (duration δ?t) determines the switching current j(n) = 2Ps A(n)/δt at corresponding external field E(n). Similarly to the Preisach model we suppose that duration of each step is long enough for switching in all regions, where local field E loc exceeds the local threshold one E th. For spatially nonuniform threshold field E th the switching is obtained in all regions, in which E loc (n) = E ex (n) + E rd + E b > E th (3) where E rd residual depolarization field produced by bound charges and partially compensated by external screening, E b internal bias field. Two mechanisms of domain switching at each step are considered. Nucleation (arising of new domains) is obtained in all points over the whole area where E loc > E th n. The domain growth (nucleation at the wall) proceeds at all points neighboring to the domain boundaries, where E loc > E th gr. The Gaussian distribution function of threshold field with dispersion w has been chosen. The simulated currents for different values of E/w (where w is the dispersion of the Gaussian distribution of E th ) are shown at (Fig. 5(a)). The dependence of the current on field/time is proportional to the threshold and/or internal bias field distribution function for E = 0 only, which is corresponding to the Preisach model. Otherwise the relation between current shape and distribution function is more complicated when E 0. The results of simulations obtained within nucleation and growth model differ significantly from the Preisach approximation and correlate with the experimental ones (Fig. 5(a)). It must be pointed out that the input of domain growth in switching current leads to strong dependence of the current shape
6 32/[248] V. YA. SHUR et al. Figure 5. (a) Time dependence of switching current simulated according to proposed approach with different value of E th /w and (b) simulated dependence of current maximum on E th /w value fitted by equation (4). on E. The following dependence of the current maximum on E/w was obtained by simulation (Fig. 5(b)) j max ( E/w) = j max (0) + j[exp(a E/w) 1] (4) where j and a are constants. The current can be divided in two stages. At the first stage the current shape is determined by domain growth, while at the final stage it coincides with the threshold field distribution function. Transition to the final stage is obtained when the whole unswitched area is bordered with the switched one. Such behavior allows us to reveal the parameters of the threshold field distribution function by fitting of the final stage of the current data by Gaussian with integral equal to the switched charge (Fig. 6). Figure 6. Fitting by Gaussian function of the final stage of switching current simulated for different value of E th /w.
7 NEW APPROACH TO ANALYSIS OF THE SWITCHING CURRENT DATA [249]/33 Figure 7. Fitting by Gaussian function of the final stage of experimental switching currents recorded during cycling in PLZT thin films. The proposed approach has been applied for analysis of the experimental current data in solgel PLZT 5/40/60 thin films (Fig. 7). The experimental procedure has been described elsewhere [12, 14]. The shape of experimental currents measured during switching by bipolar triangular pulses is very similar to simulated one (Fig. 7). Recently it was shown that this model is also applicable for describing the fatigue effect [12 15]. The evolution of the parameters of the distribution function extracted by fitting of experimental data measured during fatigue is shown at (Fig. 8). It is seen that slow decrease of the dispersion is obtained Figure 8. Change of the switching current parameters during cycling. P r remnant polarization, J max maximum value of the switching current and w dispersion of the Gaussian distribution function of internal bias field extracted by current fitting.
8 34/[250] V. YA. SHUR et al. up to 10 5 cycles, which corresponds to the rejuvenation ( wakeup ) stage and correlates with increase of the switching charge. While decreasing of the switching charge at the fatigue stage is followed by essential increasing of the Gaussian dispersion. Such behavior onetoone correlates with predictions of our recently proposed model of fatigue effect as a result of kinetic imprint [12]. CONCLUSION We have shown how the information about the distribution function of the threshold fields and the spatial correlation function can be extracted from the switching current data measured in triangular pulses at low frequencies. The proposed approach has been applied for analysis of the experimental currents in PLZT thin films measured during fatigue cycling. Our investigations revealed that the proposed method opens the possibilities for quantitative characterization of the ferroelectric films produced by different technologies and can be used for detail investigation of the fatigue effect kinetics. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are grateful to T. Schneller for providing PLZT thin film and to E. Rumyantsev for helpful discussions. The research was made possible in part by Programs Basic Research in Russian Universities (Grant?? ) and Priority Research in High School. Electronics (Grant No ), by Grant No of the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, by Grant No of RFBRDFG, by Award No. REC005 of CRDF. REFERENCES [1] J. F. Scott, Ferroelectric Memories (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2000). [2] W. J. Merz, J. Appl. Phys. 27, 938 (1956). [3] E. Fatuzzo and W. J. Merz, Ferroelectricity (NorthHolland Publishing Com., Amsterdam, 1967), p [4] A. N. Kolmogorov, Izv. Acad. Nauk USSR., Ser Math. 3, 355 (1937). [5] M. Avrami, J. Chem. Phys. 7, 1103 (1939); 8, 212 (1940); 9, 177 (1941). [6] Y. Ishibashi and Y. Takagi, J. Phys. Soc. Jap. 31, 506 (1971). [7] V. Ya. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, and S. D. Makarov, J. Appl. Phys. 84, 445 (1998).
9 NEW APPROACH TO ANALYSIS OF THE SWITCHING CURRENT DATA [251]/35 [8] F. Preisach, Z. Phys. 94, 277 (1935). [9] A. V. Turik, Sov. Phys. Solid State 5, 885 (1963). [10] G. Robert, D. Damjanovic, and N. Setter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 4413 (2000). [11] A. T. Bartic, D. J. Wouters, H. E. Maes, J. T. Rickes, and R. M. Waser, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3420 (2001). [12] V. Ya. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nikolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, and I. S. Baturin, J. Appl. Phys. 90, 6312 (2001). [13] V. Ya. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nikolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, I. S. Baturin, M. Ozgul, and C. A. Randall, Integrated Ferroelectrics 33, 117 (2001). [14] V. Ya. Shur, E. V. Nikolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, I. S. Baturin, D. Bolten, O. Lohse, and R. Waser, MRS Sym. Proc. 655, CC (2001). [15] V. Ya. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nikolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, and I. S. Baturin, Phys. Solid State 44, 2145 (2002).
10
11
Department of Physics, University of Suwon, Suwon, Gyunggido , Korea
Domain wall motion in epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 capacitors investigated by modified piezoresponse force microscopy S. M. Yang, J. Y. Jo, D. J. Kim, H. Sung, and T. W. Noh ReCOE & FPRD, Department of Physics
More informationNumerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the Ionisation Growth in Gas Discharge Plasma
Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences)) Volume 37.Number 5.A ((2011)) Available online at: www.basrascience journal.org ISSN 1817 2695 Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the
More informationClaudio J. Tessone. Pau Amengual. Maxi San Miguel. Raúl Toral. Horacio Wio. Eur. Phys. J. B 39, 535 (2004) http://www.imedea.uib.
Horacio Wio Raúl Toral Eur. Phys. J. B 39, 535 (2004) Claudio J. Tessone Pau Amengual Maxi San Miguel http://www.imedea.uib.es/physdept Models of Consensus vs. Polarization, or Segregation: Voter model,
More informationScalefree usernetwork approach to telephone network traffic analysis
Scalefree usernetwork approach to telephone network traffic analysis Yongxiang Xia,* Chi K. Tse, WaiM.Tam, Francis C. M. Lau, and Michael Small Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong
More informationKinetics of Phase Transformations: Nucleation & Growth
Kinetics of Phase Transformations: Nucleation & Growth Radhika Barua Department of Chemical Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA USA Thermodynamics of Phase Transformation Northeastern University
More informationModule 7. Transformer. Version 2 EE IIT, Kharagpur
Module 7 Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Lesson 4 Practical Transformer Version EE IIT, Kharagpur Contents 4 Practical Transformer 4 4. Goals of the lesson. 4 4. Practical transformer. 4 4.. Core
More informationThe Piezoelectric Effect, Ferroelectricity, the Photoelectric Effect, and why Metals Are Shiny
Physics 5K Lecture Friday Apr 27, 2012 The Piezoelectric Effect, Ferroelectricity, the Photoelectric Effect, and why Metals Are Shiny Joel Primack Physics Department UCSC Piezoelectric Effect Sqeezing
More informationIncorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation
The OpenAccess Journal for the Basic Principles of Diffusion Theory, Experiment and Application Incorporating Internal Gradient and Restricted Diffusion Effects in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Log Interpretation
More informationFerroelectric Field Effect Transistors
Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistors Reza M. Rad UMBC Based on pages 387403 of Nanoelectronics and Information Technology,, Rainer Waser Introduction Ferroelectrics: : dielectric crystals which show
More informationMOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THINFILM METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES UNDER HEATING
NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2011, 2 (2), P. 76 83 UDC 538.97 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THINFILM METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES UNDER HEATING I. S. Konovalenko
More informationMaximum Likelihood Estimation of ADC Parameters from Sine Wave Test Data. László Balogh, Balázs Fodor, Attila Sárhegyi, and István Kollár
Maximum Lielihood Estimation of ADC Parameters from Sine Wave Test Data László Balogh, Balázs Fodor, Attila Sárhegyi, and István Kollár Dept. of Measurement and Information Systems Budapest University
More informationDesigning Applications with Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud
Designing Applications with Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Evgeniy Pluzhnik 1, Oleg Lukyanchikov 2, Evgeny Nikulchev 1 & Simon Payain 1 1 Moscow Technological Institute, Moscow, 119334, Russia,
More informationRock Bolt Condition Monitoring Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves
Rock Bolt Condition Monitoring Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves Bennie Buys Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of Pretoria Introduction Rock Bolts and their associated problems
More informationPIEZO CERAMICS. Noliac Group develops and manufactures piezoelectric. zirconate titanate (PZT) of high quality and tailored for custom
Noliac Group develops and manufactures piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) of high quality and tailored for custom Piezoelectric components may be used as e.g.: Actuators Sensors Generators Transducers
More informationLecture: 33. Solidification of Weld Metal
Lecture: 33 Solidification of Weld Metal This chapter presents common solidification mechanisms observed in weld metal and different modes of solidification. Influence of welding speed and heat input on
More informationElectroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Materials Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.
Electroceramics Prof. Ashish Garg Department of Materials Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Lecture  30 Again, we start a new lecture. We will just go through the last lecture
More informationME6130 An introduction to CFD 11
ME6130 An introduction to CFD 11 What is CFD? Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena by solving numerically
More informationEnhancement of Breakdown Strength and Energy Density in
Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information Enhancement of Breakdown Strength and Energy Density in
More informationObservation of Long Transients in the Electrical Characterization of Thin Film BST Capacitors
Integrated Ferroelectrics, 53: 503 511, 2003 Copyright C Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 10584587 print/ 16078489 online DOI: 10.1080/10584580390258651 Observation of Long Transients in the Electrical Characterization
More informationChapter 7: Polarization
Chapter 7: Polarization Joaquín Bernal Méndez Group 4 1 Index Introduction Polarization Vector The Electric Displacement Vector Constitutive Laws: Linear Dielectrics Energy in Dielectric Systems Forces
More information3211 Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetic material having strong permanent magnetism Diamagnetic or paramagnetic material having weak
3211 Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetic material having strong permanent magnetism Diamagnetic or paramagnetic material having weak temporary magnetism. Iron, cobalt, nickel, gadolinium, dysprosium exhibit
More informationEffect of coupling strength on magnetic properties of exchange spring magnets
OURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 94, NUMBER 10 15 NOVEMBER 2003 Effect of coupling strength on magnetic properties of exchange spring magnets Vamsi M. Chakka, Z. S. Shan a), and. P. Liu b) Department of
More informationSome Features of the Transport of Charge Carriers in the Grain Boundaries of Polycrystalline Silicon
International Journal of Advanced Research in Physical Science (IJARPS) Volume 1, Issue 6, October 2014, PP 1217 ISSN 23497874 (Print) & ISSN 23497882 (Online) www.arcjournals.org Some Features of the
More informationAnomalous Hall Effect Magnetometry A Method for Studying Magnetic Processes of Thin Magnetic Films
Anomalous Hall Effect Magnetometry A Method for Studying Magnetic Processes of Thin Magnetic Films J. R. Lindemuth a, B. C. Dodrill a and N. C. Oldham b a Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc. 575 McCorkle Blvd,
More informationThe output signal may be of the same form as the input signal, i.e. V in produces V out
What is an amplifier? Operational Amplifiers A device that takes an input (current, voltage, etc.) and produces a correlated output Input Signal Output Signal Usually the output is a multiple of the input
More informationBlasius solution. Chapter 19. 19.1 Boundary layer over a semiinfinite flat plate
Chapter 19 Blasius solution 191 Boundary layer over a semiinfinite flat plate Let us consider a uniform and stationary flow impinging tangentially upon a vertical flat plate of semiinfinite length Fig
More informationSimple Algorithm for the Magnetic Field Computation in Bobbin Coil Arrangement
Simple Algorithm for the Magnetic Field Computation in Bobbin Coil Arrangement V.Suresh 1, V.K.Gopperundevi 2, Dr.A.Abudhahir 3, R.Antonysamy 4, K.Muthukkutti 5 Associate Professor, E&I Department, National
More informationPARTICLE SIMULATION ON MULTIPLE DUST LAYERS OF COULOMB CLOUD IN CATHODE SHEATH EDGE
PARTICLE SIMULATION ON MULTIPLE DUST LAYERS OF COULOMB CLOUD IN CATHODE SHEATH EDGE K. ASANO, S. NUNOMURA, T. MISAWA, N. OHNO and S. TAKAMURA Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School
More informationEXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL ZONE MODEL FOR COMPOSITE THIN FILMS IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA APPLICATION
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL ZONE MODEL FOR COMPOSITE THIN FILMS IN MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA APPLICATION Hua Yuan and David E. Laughlin Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon
More informationApplication of Stop and Play Models to the Representation of Magnetic Characteristics of Silicon Steel Sheet
Title Application of stop and play models magnetic characteristics of silicon Author(s) Matsuo, T; Shimode, D; Terada, Y; S Citation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS (200 13611364 Issue Date 200305 URL
More informationPhysical vapour deposition of thin lms for use in superconducting RF cavities
Loughborough University Institutional Repository Physical vapour deposition of thin lms for use in superconducting RF cavities This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional Repository
More informationPreliminary Evaluation of Data Retention Characteristics for Ferroelectric Random Access Memories (FRAMs).
1 Preliminary Evaluation of Data Retention Characteristics for Ferroelectric Random Access Memories (FRAMs). 1.0 Introduction 1.1 FRAM Technology Background Ashok K. Sharma/NASA Ashok.k.Sharma.1@gsfc.nasa.gov
More informationPublikationsliste. 1 Referierte Zeitschriftenartikel
Publikationsliste 1 Referierte Zeitschriftenartikel [1 ] An estimate for the maximum of solutions of parabolic equations with the Venttsel condition, Vestnik Leningrad. Univ. (Ser. Mat. Mekh. Astronom.,
More informationDIRECT torque control (DTC) of induction motors has
76 IEEE POWER ELECTRONICS LETTERS, VOL. 3, NO. 2, JUNE 2005 Constant and High Switching Frequency Torque Controller DTC Drives C. L. Toh, N. R. N. Idris, Senior Member, IEEE, and A. H. M. Yatim, Senior
More informationFluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment
Fluid Structure Interaction VI 3 Fluid structure interaction of a vibrating circular plate in a bounded fluid volume: simulation and experiment J. Hengstler & J. Dual Department of Mechanical and Process
More informationEnhanced Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Doped with Ferroelectric Dipoles. Supporting Information
Enhanced Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Doped with Ferroelectric Dipoles Kanwar S. Nalwa, a John A. Carr, a Rakesh C. Mahadevapuram, b Hari K. Kodali, c Sayantan Bose, d Yuqing Chen, a
More informationSome remarks on PhragménLindelöf theorems for weak solutions of the stationary Schrödinger operator
Wan Boundary Value Problems (2015) 2015:239 DOI 10.1186/s1366101505080 R E S E A R C H Open Access Some remarks on PhragménLindelöf theorems for weak solutions of the stationary Schrödinger operator
More informationThe Influence of Aerodynamics on the Design of HighPerformance Road Vehicles
The Influence of Aerodynamics on the Design of HighPerformance Road Vehicles Guido Buresti Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Pisa (Italy) 1 CONTENTS ELEMENTS OF AERODYNAMICS AERODYNAMICS
More informationEighth Annual Student Research Forum
Eighth Annual Student Research Forum February 18, 2011 COMPUTER SCIENCE AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE PRESENTATION SCHEDULE Session Chair: Dr. George Miminis Head, Computer Science: Dr. Edward Brown Director,
More informationChapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms
Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip
More informationLECTURE #7: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS. Basic question: Why are some solids magnetic while others are not?
LECTURE #7: MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Basic question: Why are some solids magnetic while others are not? The answers are linked to: Origin of magnetism Types of magnetic materials considered Effects
More informationISTITUTO NAZIONALE DI FISICA NUCLEARE
ISTITUTO NAZIONALE DI FISICA NUCLEARE Sezione di Trieste INFN/TC2/7 1 aprile 22 A novel scheme for the integrated voltage divider of Silicon Drift Detectors P. Burger 1, C. Piemonte 2, A. Rashevsky 3,
More informationk u (t) = k b + k s t
Chapter 2 Stripe domains in thin films 2.1 Films with perpendicular anisotropy In the first part of this chapter, we discuss the magnetization of films with perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy. The easy
More informationSputtering by Particle Bombardment I
Sputtering by Particle Bombardment I Physical Sputtering of SingleElement Solids Edited by R. Behrisch With Contributions by H. H. Andersen H. L. Bay R. Behrisch M. T. Robinson H. E. Roosendaal P. Sigmund
More informationNew trend in Russian informatics curricula: integration of math and informatics
New trend in Russian informatics curricula: integration of math and informatics Svetlana Gaisina Academy of postdegree pedagogical education, Saint Petersburg, g.selania@gmail.com Sergei Pozdniakov Saint
More informationMicrocontrollerbased experiments for a control systems course in electrical engineering technology
Microcontrollerbased experiments for a control systems course in electrical engineering technology Albert LozanoNieto Penn State University, WilkesBarre Campus, Lehman, PA, USA Email: AXL17@psu.edu
More informationIntroduction to time series analysis
Introduction to time series analysis Margherita Gerolimetto November 3, 2010 1 What is a time series? A time series is a collection of observations ordered following a parameter that for us is time. Examples
More informationA Stronger Form of the Van den BergKesten Inequality
A Stronger Form of the Van den BergKesten Inequality Peter Winkler March 4, 2010 Abstract Let Q n := {0,1} n be the discrete hypercube with uniform probability distribution, and let A and B be two upevents
More informationCHAPTER 5 PREDICTIVE MODELING STUDIES TO DETERMINE THE CONVEYING VELOCITY OF PARTS ON VIBRATORY FEEDER
93 CHAPTER 5 PREDICTIVE MODELING STUDIES TO DETERMINE THE CONVEYING VELOCITY OF PARTS ON VIBRATORY FEEDER 5.1 INTRODUCTION The development of an active trap based feeder for handling brakeliners was discussed
More informationAdaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications*
Adaptation of General Purpose CFD Code for Fusion MHD Applications* Andrei Khodak Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ, 08540 USA akhodak@pppl.gov Abstract Analysis of many fusion
More informationSelfEvaluation Configuration for Remote Data Logging Systems
IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications 68 September 2007, Dortmund, Germany SelfEvaluation Configuration for Remote Data
More informationSimulation in design of high performance machine tools
P. Wagner, Gebr. HELLER Maschinenfabrik GmbH 1. Introduktion Machine tools have been constructed and used for industrial applications for more than 100 years. Today, almost 100 largesized companies and
More informationNumerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301
Numerical Summarization of Data OPRE 6301 Motivation... In the previous session, we used graphical techniques to describe data. For example: While this histogram provides useful insight, other interesting
More informationPlate waves in phononic crystals slabs
Acoustics 8 Paris Plate waves in phononic crystals slabs J.J. Chen and B. Bonello CNRS and Paris VI University, INSP  14 rue de Lourmel, 7515 Paris, France chen99nju@gmail.com 41 Acoustics 8 Paris We
More informationPreisach Models and FORC Diagrams: A Critical Appraisal from a Physicist's Perspective
Preisach Models and FORC Diagrams: A Critical Appraisal from a Physicist's Perspective R M. Roshko Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada First Order Reversal
More informationThermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606
Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal
More informationSTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MULTIFERROIC THIN FILMS
STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF MULTIFERROIC THIN FILMS Lisa Krayer (UCSD) Mentor: Daniel Pajerowski (NIST) Collaborating with: (University of Florida) Professor Amlan Biswas Daniel Grant NCNR
More information15.3. Calculating centres of mass. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style
Calculating centres of mass 15.3 Introduction In this block we show how the idea of integration as the limit of a sum can be used to find the centre of mass of an object such as a thin plate, like a sheet
More informationON SOME ANALOGUE OF THE GENERALIZED ALLOCATION SCHEME
ON SOME ANALOGUE OF THE GENERALIZED ALLOCATION SCHEME Alexey Chuprunov Kazan State University, Russia István Fazekas University of Debrecen, Hungary 2012 Kolchin s generalized allocation scheme A law of
More informationModeling and Simulation of OilWater Flows with Viscous Fingering in Heterogeneous Porous Media.
ACMA 2014 Modeling and Simulation of OilWater Flows with Viscous Fingering in Heterogeneous Porous Media. H. DJEBOURI 1, S. ZOUAOUI 1, K. MOHAMMEDI 2, and A. AIT AIDER 1 1 Laboratoire de Mécanique Structure
More informationSLANGTNG  SOFTWARE FOR STOCHASTIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS MADE EASY
Meccanica dei Materiali e delle Strutture Vol. 3 (2012), no.4, pp. 1017 ISSN: 2035679X Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, Dei Materiali DICAM SLANGTNG  SOFTWARE FOR STOCHASTIC
More informationDELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
DELFT UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY REPORT 1206 ADJOINT SENSITIVITY IN ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE TOMOGRAPHY USING COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS W. MULCKHUYSE, D. LAHAYE, A. BELITSKAYA ISSN 13896520 Reports of the Department
More informationForecasting methods applied to engineering management
Forecasting methods applied to engineering management Áron SzászGábor Abstract. This paper presents arguments for the usefulness of a simple forecasting application package for sustaining operational
More informationDYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THICK PLATES SUBJECTED TO EARTQUAKE
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF THICK PLATES SUBJECTED TO EARTQUAKE ÖZDEMİR Y. I, AYVAZ Y. Posta Adresi: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, 68 Trabzon, TURKEY Eposta: yaprakozdemir@hotmail.com
More informationChapter 7 ( ) Second Edition ( 2001 McGrawHill) 7.1 Relative permittivity and polarizability. Solution. α e 4πε o r o
Chapter 7 Second Edition ( 2001 McGrawHill) 7.1 Relative permittivity and polarizability a. Show that the local field is given by E loc = E + 2 3 Local field b. Amorphous selenium (ase) is a high resistivity
More informationComputational Statistics and Data Analysis
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis 53 (2008) 17 26 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Computational Statistics and Data Analysis journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/csda Coverage probability
More informationBroadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 2226 331 Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna Qing Chang 1, Dongxiao Yang 1,2, and Liang Wang 1 1 Zhejiang
More information5162 E. Working in oxygenreduced atmospheres BGI/GUVI 5162 E. Information
5162 E BGI/GUVI 5162 E Information Working in oxygenreduced atmospheres November 2013 Imprint About us Publisher: German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) Mittelstraße 51 10117 Berlin Tel.: 030 288763800
More informationMathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of a Class of Drive Systems with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors
Applied and Computational Mechanics 3 (2009) 331 338 Mathematical Modeling and Dynamic Simulation of a Class of Drive Systems with Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors M. Mikhov a, a Faculty of Automatics,
More informationBARE PCB INSPECTION BY MEAN OF ECT TECHNIQUE WITH SPINVALVE GMR SENSOR
BARE PCB INSPECTION BY MEAN OF ECT TECHNIQUE WITH SPINVALVE GMR SENSOR K. Chomsuwan 1, S. Yamada 1, M. Iwahara 1, H. Wakiwaka 2, T. Taniguchi 3, and S. Shoji 4 1 Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan;
More informationPTC Thermistors [From Philips Data Handbook PA ]
PTC Thermistors [From Philips Data Handbook PA02 1989] 1. GENERAL Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) thermistors exhibit a high positive temperature coefficient of resistance. They differ from Negative
More informationEvaluating the Lead Time Demand Distribution for (r, Q) Policies Under Intermittent Demand
Proceedings of the 2009 Industrial Engineering Research Conference Evaluating the Lead Time Demand Distribution for (r, Q) Policies Under Intermittent Demand Yasin Unlu, Manuel D. Rossetti Department of
More informationMATLAB Implementation of YagiUda Antenna using circuit theory approach
MATLAB Implementation of YagiUda Antenna using circuit theory approach Karthik.K Student, Department of Telecommunication Engineering BMS College of Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India T.Anushalalitha
More information1 Multichannel frequency division multiplex frequency modulation (FDMFM) emissions
Rec. ITUR SM.8531 1 RECOMMENDATION ITUR SM.8531 NECESSARY BANDWIDTH (Question ITUR 77/1) Rec. ITUR SM.8531 (19921997) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that the concept of necessary
More informationStructural Integrity Analysis
Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces
More informationSpatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D
Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D David Abergel March 10th, 2015 D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 1 / 24 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Spatially separated excitons in 2D The role of disorder 3 Spatially separated
More informationTwinCAT NC Configuration
TwinCAT NC Configuration NC Tasks The NCSystem (Numeric Control) has 2 tasks 1 is the SVB task and the SAF task. The SVB task is the setpoint generator and generates the velocity and position control
More informationInterferometric Dispersion Measurements
Application Note 2004022A Interferometric Dispersion Measurements Overview This application note describes how the dbm 2355 Dispersion Measurement Module operates. Summary There are two primary methods
More informationMean Value Coordinates
Mean Value Coordinates Michael S. Floater Abstract: We derive a generalization of barycentric coordinates which allows a vertex in a planar triangulation to be expressed as a convex combination of its
More informationLatent Symmetry and Domain Average Engineered Ferroics
Ferroelectrics, 292: 65 70, 2003 Copyright c Taylor & Francis Inc. ISSN: 00150193 print / 15635112 online DOI: 10.1080/00150190390222844 Latent Symmetry and Domain Average Engineered Ferroics D. B. LITVIN,
More informationCurrent Transducer LAX SERIES I PN
Current Transducer LAX SERIES I PN = 161 A Ref: LAX 1NP For the electronic measurement of currents: DC, AC, pulsed..., with a galvanic isolation between the primary circuit (high power) and the secondary
More informationStochastic Processes and Queueing Theory used in Cloud Computer Performance Simulations
56 Stochastic Processes and Queueing Theory used in Cloud Computer Performance Simulations Stochastic Processes and Queueing Theory used in Cloud Computer Performance Simulations FlorinCătălin ENACHE
More informationVerification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling Channels for Block Laminated Molds
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT ISSN: 2249 8958 Volume4 Issue5 June 2015 Verification Experiment on Cooling and Deformation Effects of Automatically Designed Cooling
More informationLABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER. Bridge Rectifier
LABORATORY 10 TIME AVERAGES, RMS VALUES AND THE BRIDGE RECTIFIER Fullwave Rectification: Bridge Rectifier For many electronic circuits, DC supply voltages are required but only AC voltages are available.
More informationN Q.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities.
Performance Assessment Task Swimming Pool Grade 9 The task challenges a student to demonstrate understanding of the concept of quantities. A student must understand the attributes of trapezoids, how to
More informationRecent development in piezoelectric materials used for actuators and sensors applications
Recent development in piezoelectric materials used for actuators and sensors applications Dragan Damjanovic, Ceramics Laboratory, Materials Institute Swiss Federal Institute of Technology  EPFL Lausanne
More informationPHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Setup to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.
More informationChapter 4. Magnetic Materials and Circuits
Chapter 4 Magnetic Materials and Circuits Objectives List six characteristics of magnetic field. Understand the righthand rule for current and magnetic fluxes. Define magnetic flux, flux density, magnetomotive
More informationBSEE Degree Plan Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering: 201516
BSEE Degree Plan Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering: 201516 Freshman Year ENG 1003 Composition I 3 ENG 1013 Composition II 3 ENGR 1402 Concepts of Engineering 2 PHYS 2034 University Physics
More informationSKIN EFFECT LOSSES IN DIFFERENT LOADING CONDITIONS OF A POWER TRANSFORMER
International Colloquium Transformer Research and Asset Management Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 6 8, Franjo Kelemen Končar Power Transformers Ltd. franjo.kelemen@siemens.com Kosjenka Capuder Končar Power Transformers
More informationAjit Kumar Patra (Autor) Crystal structure, anisotropy and spin reorientation transition of highly coercive, epitaxial PrCo films
Ajit Kumar Patra (Autor) Crystal structure, anisotropy and spin reorientation transition of highly coercive, epitaxial PrCo films https://cuvillier.de/de/shop/publications/1306 Copyright: Cuvillier Verlag,
More informationMultiple choice quiz on the internet
Proc. of the 10 th Workshop on Multimedia in Physics Teaching and Learning (EPS  MPTL 10), Berlin 2005 Abstract Multiple choice quiz on the internet Robert Sporken *, Fernande Frising *, Laurence Dumortier
More informationSpectra of pyroelectric Xray generator
Abstract Spectra of pyroelectric Xray generator Nagaychenko V.I., Sanin V.M., Yegorov A.M., Shchagin A.V. Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Kharkov 6118, Ukraine The construction of Xray generator
More informationApproximation of Aggregate Losses Using Simulation
Journal of Mathematics and Statistics 6 (3): 233239, 2010 ISSN 15493644 2010 Science Publications Approimation of Aggregate Losses Using Simulation Mohamed Amraja Mohamed, Ahmad Mahir Razali and Noriszura
More informationStress Evolution During and After Deposition of Polycrystalline Thin Films
Stress Evolution During and After Deposition of Polycrystalline Thin Films Carl V. Thompson, Jeff S. Leib, and Hang Yu Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge,
More informationPolyphase kwh Electricity Meter
Polyphase kwh Electricity Meter Model Type: 5192B USER MANUAL Issue 1.0 E & O E AMPY Automation Ltd. July 2003 doc. ref. CSD 093 Contents 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Purpose 2 2 Definitions 2 2.1 References 2
More informationCORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREERREADY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA
We Can Early Learning Curriculum PreK Grades 8 12 INSIDE ALGEBRA, GRADES 8 12 CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREERREADY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA April 2016 www.voyagersopris.com Mathematical
More informationAsymptotics for ruin probabilities in a discretetime risk model with dependent financial and insurance risks
1 Asymptotics for ruin probabilities in a discretetime risk model with dependent financial and insurance risks Yang Yang School of Mathematics and Statistics, Nanjing Audit University School of Economics
More informationANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit Transmission Line
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume4, Special Issue2, April 2016 EISSN: 23472693 ANN Based Fault Classifier and Fault Locator for Double Circuit
More informationAn exercise on Gauss law for gravitation: The Flat Earth model
An exercise on Gauss law for gravitation: The Flat Earth model A C Tort Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco A C.T. Cidade Universitária, 21941972 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
More information