# DIGITAL LOGIC CURRENT FLOW

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1 Slide #1 DIGITAL LOGIC CURRENT FLOW By Henry W. Ott Henry Ott Consultants

2 Slide #2 INTRODUCTION Many Engineers and Designers Are Confused About How And Where Digital Logic Signal Return Currents Flow, and What is the of the Digital Logic Currents. Is it Better to Have a Digital Logic Trace Adjacent to a Ground Plane or a? What About a Trace Between a Power and a? Would it be Better to Have the Trace Between Two Ground Planes, or Possibly Two s? To Answer All These Questions, One Must Know Two Things: (1) What is the of the Current, and (2) What is the Path Taken by the Current When Returning to the?

3 Slide #3 DIGITAL LOGIC RETURN CURRENT PATH First, Let Me State, That the Logic Gate is Not the of the Current The Logic Gate Only Acts as a Switch The of the Current is: The, or The Trace and Only the Transient (Switching) Current is Important The Transient Current Flow Does Not Depend Upon the Existence of a at the End of the Line The Output Trace Exists (Mostly) Between the Trace and The Closest Plane What Then is the Return Current Path? The Return Current Path is a Function of (1) the Trace Configuration (Microstrip or Stripline), (2) What is the Adjacent Plane or Planes (Power or Ground), and (3) What is the Logic Transition (Low-to-High or High-to-Low)? There Are Ten Different Cases to Consider.

4 Slide #4 GENERAL CASE CMOS LOGIC GATE DRIVING A LOAD

5 Slide #5 DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Adjacent to a (Microstrip) (Low-to-High Transition) Current : Return Current Path: + -

6 Slide #6 DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Adjacent to a (Microstrip) (High-to-Low Transition) Current : / s Return Current Path:

7 Slide #7 DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Adjacent to a (Microstrip) (Low-to-High Transition) Current : / s Return Current Path:

8 Slide #8 DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Adjacent to a (Microstrip) (High-to-Low Transition) + - Current : Return Current Path:

9 Slide #9 Note: Current Flows In the Same Direction In the Power & Ground Planes DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Between a Power & (Stripline) (Low-to-High Transition) Note: Green Current From Cap. Red Current From Cap. Current : /(power) Cap. Return Current Path: Ground/s

10 Slide #10 Note: Current Flows In the Same Direction In the Power & Ground Planes DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Between a Power & (Stripline) (High-to-Low Transition) Note: Red Current From Cap. Green Current From Cap. Current : /(ground) Cap. Return Current Path: Ground/s

11 Slide #11 SUMMARY DIGITAL CIRCUIT CURRENT PATH Trace Between a Power & (Stripline) Low-to-High Transition High-to-Low Transition Note: Return Currents Flows in the Same Direction in Both the Power and s

12 Slide #12 DRIVER IC CURRENT Low-to-High Transition High-to-Low Transition In all Cases, Current Enters the Driver Through the Power Pin and Exits the Driver Via the Signal Pin In all Cases, Current Enters the Driver Through the Signal Pin and Exits the Driver Via the Ground Pin

13 Slide #13 SUMMARY Configuration Reference Plane Transition Current Return Current Path Microstrip Ground Low-to-High Microstrip Ground High-to-Low / Microstrip Power Low-to-High / Microstrip Power High-to-Low Stripline Power & Ground Low-to-High & (Power) Power & Ground Plane Stripline Power & Ground High-to-Low & (Ground) Power & Ground Plane Note: For Stripline Referenced to Two s, See Microstrip Referenced to a, Except Each Plane Carries Only One-Half the Current. Similarly For Stripline Referenced to Two s, See Microstrip Referenced to a.

14 Slide #14 CONCLUSIONS (1) From the Previous Examples it Can Be Concluded That it Makes No Difference Whatsoever to the Digital Logic Current if the Reference Plane, or Planes, Are Ground or Power. In All Cases the Current Returns Directly to the Through a Small Loop. In None of The Cases Does The Current Have to Go Out of its Way, or Flow Through a Large Loop in Order to Return to the. (2) The Answer to All Questions On Slide 2 is, It Does Not Matter! All Are Equally Acceptable Configurations. (3) Stripline, However, Will Always Be a Better Configuration Than Microstrip, Since Two Current Loops Exist. In One Loop the Current Flows Clockwise, and in The Other it Flows Counterclockwise (see Slide #11). Therefore, Radiation From the Two Loops Will Cancel.

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