Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting lm


 Kellie Cannon
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Physica C ) 349±356 Quantum detection by current carrying superconducting lm Alex D. Semenov *,1, Gregory N. GolÕtsman, Alexander A. Korneev Department of Physics, State Pedagogical University of Moscow, Moscow, Russian Federation Received 18 July 2000; received in revised form 9 October 2000; accepted 11 October 2000 Abstract We describe a novel quantum detection mechanism in the superconducting lm carrying supercurrent. The mechanism incorporates growing normal domain and breaking of superconductivity by the bias current. A single photon absorbed in the lm creates transient normal spot that causes redistribution of the current and, consequently, increase of the current density in superconducting areas. When the current density exceeds the critical value, the lm switches into resistive state and generates the voltage pulse. Analysis shows that a submicronwide lm of conventional low temperature superconductor operated in liquid helium may detect single farinfrared photon. The amplitude and duration of the voltage pulse are in the millivolt and picosecond range, respectively. The quantitative model is presented that allows simulation of the detector utilizing this detection mechanism. Ó 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: Pb; F Keywords: Quantum detection; Superconducting lm; Quasiparticle di usion; Phase slip centers 1. Introduction The superconducting quantum photodetectors have been developed for Xray spectroscopy as early as in 70s see e.g. Ref. [1]). Modern devices typically represent an absorber from superconducting lm to which one or more tunnel junctions are connected. Photon absorbed in the lm creates a highenergy electron that relaxes to equilibrium producing nonequilibrium quasiparticles. At the * Corresponding author. address: A.D. Semenov). 1 Present address: Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft & Raumfahrt, DLRInstitut fur Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung, Rutherfordstrasse 2, Berlin, Germany. operation temperature of few hundreds millikelvin, losses due to electron±phonon interaction and phonon escape from the lm are su ciently small, so that almost all nonequilibrium quasiparticles are in time to di use to tunnel junctions and contribute to the junction current. The integral of the current pulse through the junction measures the total charge of nonequilibrium quasiparticles, which were produced due to absorption of a single photon. This quantity, the collected charge, is proportional to the photon energy that provides energy resolution of the detector. Because of the low temperature and large lm area, the duty cycle of the detector lasts typically few microseconds that limits the count rate. To realize the intrinsic sensitivity of the detector, FET or SQUID readout of the tunneling current should be used that complicates the technology. Alternatively, the /01/$  see front matter Ó 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S )
2 350 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349±356 transition edge microbolometer in the voltage bias regime has been used [2] as the photon counter. The bolometer was kept in the resistive state in the middle of the transition and served itself as an absorber. Although this approach allows one to get red of the tunnel junctions, it su ers the same limitations as the tunnel junction detectors. In these two types of quantum detector the nonequilibrium area is spread over the whole detector. Another recently proposed regime [3] of the quantum detection by the transition edge bolometer relies on the localized hotspot. If the photon creates a hotspot with the elevated resistivity in the lm, whose size is larger than the diameter of the hotspot, there still appears an overall increase of the lm resistance. The magnitude of the e ect scales as squared ratio of the spot diameter to the lm size. To be sensitive to the appearance of the hotspot, the detector must be maintained in the resistive state. At the transition temperature of conventional superconductors such detector should have a duty cycle of few picoseconds corresponding to the energy relaxation time of nonequilibrium electrons. The disadvantage of the approach steams from the small current density that the lm can stand without been driven into the normal state. The response of the detector is proportional to the bias current; thus, the small operating current requires a complicated readout scheme. In this paper we describe quantum detection regime in the superconducting lm well below the transition temperature that carries the bias current slightly smaller than the critical value at the operation temperature. Appearance of the normal spot at the position where the photon has been absorbed forces the supercurrent to ow around the spot through those parts of the lm, which remain superconducting. With the increase of the diameter of the normal spot the current density in the suprconducting portion of the lm increases and reaches the critical value. At this very moment the resistive ``bridge'' is formed across the width of the lm, giving rise to the voltage pulse with the magnitude proportional to the bias current. The physical di erence of the proposed regime is that the resistivity and, thus, the response appear due to collaborative e ect of the bias current and the growing normal domain. As we will show, this regime is essentially nonlinear. The magnitude of the voltage pulse does not up to certain extent depend on the quantum energy, although, the duration does that provides the basis for spectral sensitivity. 2. Response mechanism We rst describe the formation of the normal spot in the superconducting lm at the position where the photon is absorbed. For the sake of simplicity, we consider twodimensional problem. More detailed threedimensional analysis including the substrate can be found in the review article by Gross and Koelle [4]. Let the lm have the thickness d and the normal state di usivity D such that the thickness is small compared to the thermalization length L th, i.e. d L th ˆ Ds th 1=2 where s th is the electron thermalization time. Then the concentration of nonequilibrium quasiparticles is uniform through the lm thickness. The lm is kept well below the transition temperature T C at the bath temperature T that determines the magnitude of the critical current density j C, the energy gap D and the equilibrium concentration C 0 of unpaired electrons. The ow of nonequilibrium quasiparticles produced by the absorbed photon is described by the twodimensional di usion equation oc ot ˆ D 1 r oc or r o2 C C C 0 or 2 s 1 with C r; t the quasiparticle concentration, r the distance from the point where the photon has been absorbed and 1=s the rate of quasiparticle decay via recombination and phonon escape into the substrate. Inside the normal spot the decay time reduces to the electron cooling time s ep c e =c p s es where s ep is the electron±phonon interaction time, s es is the time of phonon escape to the substrate, c e and c p are the electron and phonon speci c heat, respectively. Assuming that the di usion and thermalization are independent processes and that the photon is absorbed at the time t ˆ 0, we arrive to the solution of Eq. 1) in the form
3 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349± C r; t ˆ M t exp r2 4Dt exp t the supercurrent is expelled from the spot and is C 0 ; 2 concentrated in the sidewalks between the spot 4pDd t s and the edges of the lm. The process is shown where M t is the time dependent multiplication schematically in the inset of Fig. 1 together with factor. The maximum value that M t reaches the quasiparticle concentration pro le at di erent during thermalization is commonly called the moments. quantum yield. This is the maximum number of The lm possesses no resistance unless the excess quasiparticles produced per one absorbed current density in sidewalks becomes larger than photon. For model simulations we will use the the critical value. At this point the superconductivity in the sidewalks turns to be destroyed. There exact integral expression that was obtained [5] assuming that the di usion time of quasiparticles appear constrictions similar to phase slip centers in the energy space is proportional to the reciprocal square of the energy E [6,7] and that the PSCs) [8] in the narrow superconducting channel biased with supercritical current in the vicinity of nonequilibrium distribution function has rectangular shape. For the quantum energy hm the mul the transition. Within the supercurrent response time s j 2k B T C h= pd 2 or Maxwell relaxation tiplication factor is given by time s m l 0 rdq, whatever is longer, the bias current redistributes between the central normal portion of the lm and sidewalks according to their 2 M t ˆ q D hm=d 1 2 resistance. Both characteristic times appear to be 1 negligibly small, so that the static description can Z E D hm D E D p be used. Fig. 2 depicts the structure of the arising t E D 2 =s th D 2 1 E D D p 4D t E D 2 =s th D 2 1 E p de: 3 E 2 D 2 Although, rather precise quantitative results can also be obtained with the simple analytical form M t ˆK 1 exp t=s th where K is the experimental value of the quantum yield. In deriving the Eq. 3), the loss of the photon energy due to generation of subgap phonons was not taken into account. Although, subgap phonons are lost for multiplication only if the energy gap does not collapse. In our case the normal state with zero energy gap is achieved. Therefore, low energy phonons, which are idle at the initial stage of thermalization, will contribute at a later stage when the energy gap becomes small enough. These low energy phonons do not disappear from the normal spot since both the di usion time and escape time are much larger than the thermalization time. The radius r n of the normal cylindrical spot is determined by the condition C r n ; t ˆC n where C n ˆ N 0 K B T C is the concentration of equilibrium quasiparticle at the transition temperature and N 0) is the normal metal density of states at the Fermi level. After the normal spot has sprung up, Fig. 1. Concentration of nonequilibrium quasiparticles across the width of the lm at di erent moments after the photon has been absorbed. Time delays are 0.8, 2.0 and 5.0 measured in units of the thermalization time. Distance from the absorption site is shown in units of the thermalization length. Inset illustrates redistribution of supercurrent in the superconducting lm with the normal spot ± the basis of quantum detection. It shows the crosssection of the lm drawn through the point where photon has been absorbed.
4 352 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349±356 Fig. 2. Schematic of the resistive state formed in the lm after the current density in sidewalks has exceeded the critical value. The dark circle represents the normal spot; gray zones correspond to the area of superconductor with penetrating electric eld. Pro les of the electric eld E) and the energy gap D) are shown along lines crossing the normal spot a) and the sidewalk b). resistive state. The resistance of the central part consists of the normal spot resistance plus the resistance, which arises due to penetration of the electric eld into the superconductor at the boundary with the normal spot. The electric eld penetrates the superconductor over the distance L E ˆ Ds Q 1=2 where s Q is the relaxation time of the charge imbalance. Presence of the bias current modi es relaxation of the charge imbalance. For the current close to the critical value, corresponding time is given [9] by s Q ˆ 4k B T C pd 3s e s j 1=2. We identify here the inelastic electron scattering time s e with the electron±phonon interaction time. The portion of the superconducting lm with the nonzero electric eld contributes the resistance ql E F T =S where q is the resistivity of the normal lm and S is the crosssection area. F T < 1 accounts for the portion of the supercurrent that is directly converted into the normal current by means of Andreev re ection and, thus, generates no electric eld. We admit that the resistance of either sidewalk is just the resistance contributed by the PSCs alone. Although, for a bias current close to the critical current at the ambient temperature, the energy deposited in the PSC due to Joule dissipation may cause [10] the growing of the hotspot and consequent switching of the lm into the normal state. If the lifetime of the resistive state is long enough, the normal domain may become slightly larger than the coherence length. This would increase the resistance contributed by sidewalks. We approximate the circular normal spot with the radius r n by the circumscribing square. Further assuming that the photon is absorbed at a distance from the lm edge larger than the maximum diameter of the spot, we obtain the time dependent resistance of the lm and the density of the current owing through the sidewalk R ˆ q d j ˆ 2F T L E 1 F T L E rn ; 4 w 1 F T L E rn 2r n RI 4qF T L E ; where I is the bias current and w is the lm width. This approach is valid until the eld penetration length is larger than the thermal healing length L T ˆ Ds 1=2 and heating of the PSC by the current can be neglected. The resistance disappears and the lm switches back into the superconducting state when either the critical current in sidewalks drops below the critical value or the quasiparticle concentration in the center of the normal spot decreases beneath the critical value N 0 k B T C, whatever occurs rst. The resistance transient results in the voltage pulse U t ˆR t I developing between lm edges. From this simple consideration we see that the ability of the lm to detect single photon is the tradeo between the quantum energy, bias current, and the width of the lm. The value of the bias current is limited by thermal uctuations. The di erence between the critical current and the bias current should be at least few times the root mean square uctuation of the critical current dj C ˆ dj C =dt dt where dt ˆ 4k B T 2 = cv 1=2, c ˆ c e exp D= k B T C, and c e is the electron speci c
5 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349± heat at the transition temperature. The relevant volume V ˆ wdn is the portion of the lm with the length equal to the coherence length n. Decrease of the critical current density in this volume below the density of the bias current would lead to the loss of phase coherence between adjacent superconducting parts and, consequently, to the appearance of the PSC. From the exterior, the voltage pulse generated by this event cannot be distinguished from the voltage pulse produced by the absorbed photon. For the xed density of the bias current, the smallest energy of the photon that still can be detected decreases with the decrease of the lm width. There is, although, the physical limit for the single photon detection regime that does not depend on the lm width. Appearance of the normal spot is only possible if the rate of quasiparticle multiplication exceeds the rate of out di usion. Equating C 0; t from Eq. 2) to N 0 k B T C, using analytical expression for the multiplication factor M t ˆK 1 exp t=s th, and neglecting C 0 we get for times t=s th < 1 the minimal value of the quantum yield K that is su cient to get momentarily the quasiparticle concentration at r ˆ 0 equal to their equilibrium concentration at the transition temperature. Usually, experimental value of the quantum yield for the speci c material at speci c frequency is somewhat smaller than the upper theoretical limit hm=d, i.e. K ˆ 1=n hm=d. The factor n accounts, for example, for the energy lost due to generation of subgap phonons, which are unable to create quasiparticles unless the gap disappears. For given n, the smallest photon energy that is su cient for single photon detection regime can be estimated as e ndn 0 k B T C Dds th. It is instructive to see how multiphoton processes may manifest themselves. If for either reason the lm does not react to single photon, there is certain probability that two, three, or even more photons are simultaneously absorbed in the lm and give rise to the voltage pulse. In order to produce cumulative e ect in the lm, these N photons should be con ned in the volume restricted by the lm width, thermalization length, and the optical path corresponding to the thermalization time. Let us consider the weak photon ux in which the mean number of photons u in this volume is less that unity. Fluctuations in such lowdensity photon gas can be treated classically. The probability of large uctuations is given by Poisson distribution u N exp u = N!. Since u is proportional to the intensity of radiation, the experimental dependence of the count rate on radiation intensity makes it possible to determine the number of photons responsible for one count event. Thus, until u 1 and, consequently, exp u 1, for single photon detection regime N ˆ 1 the count rate should be proportional to the radiation intensity. Two photon events N ˆ 2 would result in the count rate proportional to squared radiation intensity and so on. 3. Simulation results Finally, we provide a quantitative check of the model based on real material. We chose niobium nitride, although that can be any of type II dirty superconductor like niobium, lead, or one of the A 3 B 5 compounds. The reason is that among others this material has known parameters and established thin lm technology. Let the lm be 6 nm thick that is the smallest thickness at which lms have material constants close to those of bulk material. Parameters of NbN, which we used for simulations, are listed in Table 1. Temperature dependent parameters were calculated in the framework of the Bardeen± Cooper±Schrie er BCS) theory for the dirty superconductor. Experimental value of the energy gap [15] was used instead of the standard BCS value. We also used experimental temperature dependence [16] of the electron±phonon interaction time. Temperature dependence of relevant parameters is given by n T ˆn 0 1 T =T C 1=2 ; h D T ˆ2:15k B T C 1 T =T C 2i ; s e / T 1:6 ; c e / T ; c p / T 3 ; 1=2 j C ˆ 8p3 c p 7f 3 3 k B T C D en 0 D 0 3 h h 1 T =T C 2i h 1 T =T C 4i 1=2 ; r pdt C 0 ˆ 2N 0 e D=T : 2 5
6 354 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349±356 Table 1 Material constants of NbN q lx m) n 0) nm) T C K) D cm 2 s ±1 ) N 0) m ±3 K ±1 ) s th ps) c e mj cm ±3 K ±1 ) c p mj cm ±3 K ±1 ) a a b 7 c 2.4 b 9.8 d 17 d 78 e a Coherence length at zero temperature and di usion constant for electrons are both extracted from measurements [11] of the second critical magnetic eld. b Density of states at the Fermi level and electron speci c heat at 10 K are calculated from q and D. c Experimental data [12]. d Experimental data [13] scaled to 10 K. e Experimental data [14] scaled to the thickness 6 nm. s e ps) s es ps) We chose operation temperature T ˆ 0:5 T C in order to have reasonably large critical current density. For the strip with a width of 150 nm, which is readily achievable by common technology, the theoretical value of the critical current is 118 la. Temperature uctuations in the relevant volume wdn) see discussion in Section 2) have a magnitude of approximately 0.5 K that should result in uctuations of the critical current with a relative magnitude of 8%. To noticeably decrease the dark count rate one should operate the detector at a current which is more than 8% smaller that the critical current. For low temperature Josephson junctions with approximately same volume, the rule of thumb is that for reliable operation the bias current should be approximately 20% smaller than the critical current. Therefore, we simulate the response to ultraviolet photons of the 150 nm wide NbN lm operated at the temperature 5 K and biased with the current 100 la. The result is shown in Fig. 3 for photon energies 19, 12, and 5.8 ev. The remarkable feature is the dependence of the pulse height and duration on the photon energy that provides the spectral resolution of the detection mechanism. As it is typical for quantum detectors, the best resolution can be achieved by measuring the time integral of the pulse. Fourier transform of the voltage transients in Fig. 3 gives the frequency bandwidth varying from 20 to 10 GHz, which the registration electronics should have in order to record the signal. According to material parameters and the analytical expression for the multiplication factor with n ˆ 1, the smallest photon energy su cient for single quantum detection is as low as 130 mev. This is the energy of a photon that still creates a normal spot in the supercondutcing lm. Using numerical simulations and more accurate expression 3) for the multiplication factor, we estimate the smallest energy 85 mev corresponding wavelength 15 lm). Since the Eq. 3) gives the value of the quantum yield for NbN coinciding with the experimental value [12], the latter estimate seems to be more reliable. However, since the rollo energy of the single photon detection regime increases with the increase of the lm width, practical realization of the quantum detector for this photon energy may require unrealistic lm dimensions. Fig. 4 shows the simulated rollo wavelength of the single photon detection regime in a 150nm width lm for two bias currents. For a Fig. 3. Simulated voltage transients for photon energies a) 5.8 ev, b) 12 ev, and c) 19 ev. Time is shown in units of the thermalization time. The bias current equals 100 la.
7 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349± large lm the rollo occurs when the density of supercurrent in the sidewalks fails to reach the critical value. One can see that in a practical device this happens at almost an order of magnitude smaller wavelength that the wavelength allowing for hotspot formation. The direction that could provide detection of less energetic photons is the use of low temperature superconducting materials with low electron di usivity and small energy gap. The detector can be optimized for detection of photons with speci c energy. In particular, the decrease of the absorptivity of the lm for photons with large energy can be partly compensated by the increase of the lm thickness that would also increase the rollo frequency. However, the lm thickness should not be larger than the thermal healing length. This puts the upper frequency limit for our device that is better suitable for photon counting in the spectral range from UV to infrared. Patterning the detector upon a meander line that covers the area of about squared wavelength can increase optical coupling for infrared photons. Thus far we have ignored selfheating due to Joule power dissipated in the normal spot by the bias current. It is known from the dynamic analysis of the heat di usion in a current biased superconducting strip [10] that if the large enough thermal energy is released within the short time dt s in the short portion of the strip with the length d L T, the normal electrothermal domain appears and expands in nitely even without any further external perturbation. Smaller energy deposition also creates a normal domain but it disappears soon after the perturbation is over. For conditions speci ed above, the critical energy Q that demarcates these two regimes does not depend on the details of the deposition process and is given by fc T j T g 3=2 Q ˆ dwl T fqj 2 s 4c T j T g ; 6 1=2 where T j is the temperature at which the critical current of the lm equals the actual bias current. An estimate for our device gives the critical energy 10 ±20 J while the Joule energy, that should be dissipated by the bias current during the voltage transient Fig. 3), is an order of magnitude larger. The observation suggests that the selfheating should play a signi cant role in the detector operation. Although, rigorous analysis is required in order to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of this e ect. In a real device, the Joule energy is dissipated within the length not less than L E that is larger that the thermal healing length. Since spread energy deposition relaxes the requirement to the critical energy, the e ect may be much weaker than Eq. 6) predicts. However, selfheating brings out at least one consequence. To operate the detector without an external reset, one should provide voltage bias regime at least for a.c. current. The selfheating e ect will then smear the falling part of the voltage transient. Preliminary analysis shows that this may increase the response time by approximately 0.2s and hamper the energy resolution of the detector. 4. Summary Fig. 4. Simulated rollo wavelength of the single photon regime for two bias currents as function of the lm width. The critical current equals 120 la. In conclusion, we have introduced a novel mechanism of quantum detection by a superconducting lm carrying the current close to the critical value. The mechanism suggests an increase of
8 356 A.D. Semenov et al. / Physica C ) 349±356 the supercurrent density and formation of PSCs caused by the normal spot that grows around the point in the lm where photon has been absorbed. Materials, which are expected to be highly e ective, should be dirty low temperature superconductors with small electron di usivity. Simulations based on material parameters of NbN suggest that the realistic device can provide detection of single farinfrared photons. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research WTZ RUS ) and the NATO Science Programme PST.CLG ). References [1] A. Barone, Superconducting Particle Detectors, World Scienti c, Singapore, 1988, ISBN [2] B. Cabrera, R.M. Klarke, P. Colling, A.J. Miller, S. Nam, R.W. Romani, APL ) 735. [3] A.M. Kadin, M.W. Johnson, APL ) [4] R. Gross, D. Koelle, Rep. Prog. Phys ) 651. [5] A.D. Semenov, G.N. GolÕtsman, J. Appl. Phys ) 502. [6] R.H.M. Groeneveld, R. Sprik, A. Lagendijk, Phys. Rev. B ) [7] V.E. Gousev, O.B. Wright, Phys Rev. B ) [8] M. Stuivinga, C.L.G. Ham, T.M. Klapwijk, J.E. Mooij, J. Low, Temp. Phys ) 633. [9] M. Stuivinga, J.E. Mooij, T.M. Klapwijk, J. Low, Temp. Phys ) 555. [10] A.Vl. Gurevich, R.G. Mints, Review of modern physics, Phys ) 941. [11] S. Cherednichenko, Ph.D. Thesis, State Pedagogical University of Moscow, unpublished. [12] K.S. IlÕin, I.I. Milostnaya, A.A. Verevkin, G.N. GolÕtsman, E.M. Gershenzon, R. Sobolewski, Appl. Phys. Lett ) [13] A.D. Semenov, R.S. Nebosis, Yu.P. Gousev, M.A. Heusinger, K.F. Renk, Phys. Rev. B ) 581. [14] S. Cherednichenko, P. Yagoubov, K. IlÕin, G. GolÕtsman, E. Gershenzon, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA, March 1997, p [15] C.P. Poole, H.A. Farach, R.J. Creswick, Superconductivity, Academic Press, 1995, ISBN [16] Yu.P. Gousev, G.N. GolÕtsman, A.D. Semenov, E.M. Gershenzon, R.S. Nebosis, M.A. Heusinger, K.F. Renk, J. Appl. Phys ) 3695.
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY. PH 318 Introduction to superconductors 1
SUPERCONDUCTIVITY property of complete disappearance of electrical resistance in solids when they are cooled below a characteristic temperature. This temperature is called transition temperature or critical
More informationBroadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 2005, Hangzhou, China, August 2226 331 Broadband THz Generation from Photoconductive Antenna Qing Chang 1, Dongxiao Yang 1,2, and Liang Wang 1 1 Zhejiang
More informationSolid State Detectors = SemiConductor based Detectors
Solid State Detectors = SemiConductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the pn junction Charge collection
More informationA wave lab inside a coaxial cable
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Eur. J. Phys. 25 (2004) 581 591 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS PII: S01430807(04)76273X A wave lab inside a coaxial cable JoãoMSerra,MiguelCBrito,JMaiaAlves and A M Vallera
More informationNumerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the Ionisation Growth in Gas Discharge Plasma
Journal of Basrah Researches ((Sciences)) Volume 37.Number 5.A ((2011)) Available online at: www.basrascience journal.org ISSN 1817 2695 Numerical Model for the Study of the Velocity Dependence Of the
More informationThermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606
Report on the Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat, and Thermal Conductivity of Aluminum Oxide and Pyroceram 9606 This report presents the results of phenol diffusivity, specific heat and calculated thermal
More informationThermal diffusivity and conductivity  an introduction to theory and practice
Thermal diffusivity and conductivity  an introduction to theory and practice Utrecht, 02 October 2014 Dr. HansW. Marx Linseis Messgeräte GmbH Vielitzer Str. 43 D95100 Selb / GERMANY www.linseis.com
More informationElectromagnetic Spectrum
Introduction 1 Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is the distribution of electromagnetic radiation according to energy, frequency, or wavelength. The electromagnetic radiation can be
More informationExperimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION ( )
a. Using Faraday s law: Experimental Question 1: Levitation of Conductors in an Oscillating Magnetic Field SOLUTION The overall sign will not be graded. For the current, we use the extensive hints in the
More informationPumpprobe experiments with ultrashort temporal resolution
Pumpprobe experiments with ultrashort temporal resolution PhD candidate: Ferrante Carino Advisor:Tullio Scopigno Università di Roma ƒla Sapienza 22 February 2012 1 Pumpprobe experiments: generalities
More informationElectrical Conductivity
Advanced Materials Science  Lab Intermediate Physics University of Ulm Solid State Physics Department Electrical Conductivity Translated by MichaelStefan Rill January 20, 2003 CONTENTS 1 Contents 1 Introduction
More informationExploring the deposition of oxides on silicon for photovoltaic cells by pulsed laser deposition
Applied Surface Science 186 2002) 453±457 Exploring the deposition of oxides on silicon for photovoltaic cells by pulsed laser deposition Lianne M. Doeswijk a,*, Hugo H.C. de Moor b, Horst Rogalla a, Dave
More informationTobias Märkl. November 16, 2009
,, Tobias Märkl to 1/f November 16, 2009 1 / 33 Content 1 duction to of Statistical Comparison to Other Types of Noise of of 2 Random duction to Random General of, to 1/f 3 4 2 / 33 , to 1/f 3 / 33 What
More informationWhat is Laser Ablation? Mass removal by coupling laser energy to a target material
Laser Ablation Fundamentals & Applications Samuel S. Mao Department of Mechanical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Advanced Energy Technology Department March 1, 25 Laser Ablation What
More informationLaserinduced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures
CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laserinduced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and
More informationConductive and Radiative Heat Transfer in Insulators
Conductive and Radiative Heat Transfer in Insulators Akhan Tleoubaev, Ph.D. LaserComp, Inc., December 1998 Heat transfer for most thermal insulation materials occurs via both conduction and radiation.
More informationE190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation
E190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation Instructor: Chris Clark Semester: Spring 2014 1 Figures courtesy of Siegwart & Nourbakhsh Control Structures Planning Based Control Prior Knowledge Operator
More informationStatus of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser
Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser E. Allaria on behalf of the FERMI team Work partially supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research under grants FIRBRBAP045JF2 and FIRBRBAP06AWK3
More informationIntroduction to Superconducting RF (srf)
Introduction to Superconducting RF (srf) Training Course on Particle Accelerator Technology May 10.11. 2007 Mol, Belgium Holger J. Podlech Institut für Angewandte Physik J.W.GoetheUniversität, Frankfurt
More informationAssessment Plan for Learning Outcomes for BA/BS in Physics
Department of Physics and Astronomy Goals and Learning Outcomes 1. Students know basic physics principles [BS, BA, MS] 1.1 Students can demonstrate an understanding of Newton s laws 1.2 Students can demonstrate
More informationSpatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D
Spatially separated excitons in 2D and 1D David Abergel March 10th, 2015 D.S.L. Abergel 3/10/15 1 / 24 Outline 1 Introduction 2 Spatially separated excitons in 2D The role of disorder 3 Spatially separated
More informationUnderstanding Infrared Camera Thermal Image Quality
Electrophysics Resource Center White Paper Noise{ Clean Signal Understanding Infared Camera Electrophysics Resource Center: Abstract You ve no doubt purchased a digital camera sometime over the past few
More informationEnergy. Mechanical Energy
Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance
More informationRaman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu)
Introduction Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu) The scattering of light may be thought of as the redirection
More informationVARIANCE REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR IMPLICIT MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS
VARIANCE REDUCTION TECHNIQUES FOR IMPLICIT MONTE CARLO SIMULATIONS An Undergraduate Research Scholars Thesis by JACOB TAYLOR LANDMAN Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University
More informationAMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE
AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE Thank you for purchasing your Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetector. This user s guide will help answer any questions you may have regarding the
More informationCarbon Cable. Sergio Rubio Carles Paul Albert Monte
Carbon Cable Sergio Rubio Carles Paul Albert Monte Carbon, Copper and Manganine PhYsical PropERTieS CARBON PROPERTIES Carbon physical Properties Temperature Coefficient α 0,0005 ºC1 Density D 2260 kg/m3
More informationThermal Management in SurfaceMounted Resistor Applications
VISHAY BEYSCHLAG Resistive Products 1. INTRODUCTION Thermal management is becoming more important as the density of electronic components in modern printed circuit boards (PCBs), as well as the applied
More informationProduction of Xrays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical XRay Devices Module 9
Module 9 This module presents information on what Xrays are and how they are produced. Introduction Module 9, Page 2 Xrays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. Other types of electromagnetic radiation
More informationMeasuring Laser Power and Energy Output
Measuring Laser Power and Energy Output Introduction The most fundamental method of checking the performance of a laser is to measure its power or energy output. Laser output directly affects a laser s
More information3.003 Lab 4 Simulation of Solar Cells
Mar. 9, 2010 Due Mar. 29, 2010 3.003 Lab 4 Simulation of Solar Cells Objective: To design a silicon solar cell by simulation. The design parameters to be varied in this lab are doping levels of the substrate
More informationThe accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data
Chapter 4 Calibration The accurate calibration of all detectors is crucial for the subsequent data analysis. The stability of the gain and offset for energy and time calibration of all detectors involved
More informationOverview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing
LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What
More informationApplication Note AN1
TAKING INVENTIVE STEPS IN INFRARED. MINIATURE INFRARED GAS SENSORS GOLD SERIES UK Patent App. No. 799A USA Patent App. No. 9/78,7 World Patents Pending SENSOR OVERVIEW Application Note AN The Dynament
More informationBoltzmann Distribution Law
Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce
More informationPhoton Counting and Spectroscopy in the Gamma Ray Energy Range
Chapter 7 Photon Counting and Spectroscopy in the Gamma Ray Energy Range 7.1 Objective Determine whether a radioactive source or set of sources obey Poisson statistics, and whether the radiation is isotropic.
More informationProject 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance
April. 15, 2010 Due April. 29, 2010 Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance Objective: In this project we are going to experimentally measure the IV characteristics, energy conversion
More informationHigh Open Circuit Voltage of MQW Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Structures
High Open Circuit Voltage of MQW Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Structures ARGYRIOS C. VARONIDES Physics and EE Department University of Scranton 800 Linden Street, Scranton PA, 18510 United States Abstract:
More informationAcoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons
Acoustic Velocity, Impedance, Reflection, Transmission, Attenuation, and Acoustic Etalons Acoustic Velocity The equation of motion in a solid is (1) T = ρ 2 u t 2 (1) where T is the stress tensor, ρ is
More informationD.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K.
PHYSICAL BASIS OF REMOTE SENSING D.S. Boyd School of Earth Sciences and Geography, Kingston University, U.K. Keywords: Remote sensing, electromagnetic radiation, wavelengths, target, atmosphere, sensor,
More informationCHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY. 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging
Physics of Medical XRay Imaging (1) Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging Unlike conventional radiography that generates images on film through
More informationAn analysis of price impact function in orderdriven markets
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Physica A 324 (2003) 146 151 www.elsevier.com/locate/physa An analysis of price impact function in orderdriven markets G. Iori a;, M.G. Daniels b, J.D. Farmer
More informationFundamentals of modern UVvisible spectroscopy. Presentation Materials
Fundamentals of modern UVvisible spectroscopy Presentation Materials The Electromagnetic Spectrum E = hν ν = c / λ 1 Electronic Transitions in Formaldehyde 2 Electronic Transitions and Spectra of Atoms
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS
APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers The purpose of this application note is to aid the user in the selection and application of the Ultrasonic
More informationVIII.4. Field Effect Transistors
Field Effect Transistors (FETs) utilize a conductive channel whose resistance is controlled by an applied potential. 1. Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) In JFETs a conducting channel is formed of
More informationProblem 1 (25 points)
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2012 Exam Three Solutions Problem 1 (25 points) Question 1 (5 points) Consider two circular rings of radius R, each perpendicular
More informationSolar Cell Parameters and Equivalent Circuit
9 Solar Cell Parameters and Equivalent Circuit 9.1 External solar cell parameters The main parameters that are used to characterise the performance of solar cells are the peak power P max, the shortcircuit
More informationPTC Thermistors [From Philips Data Handbook PA ]
PTC Thermistors [From Philips Data Handbook PA02 1989] 1. GENERAL Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) thermistors exhibit a high positive temperature coefficient of resistance. They differ from Negative
More informationINFRARED MONITORING OF 110 GHz GYROTRON WINDOWS AT DIII D
GA A23981 INFRARED MONITORING OF 110 GHz GYROTRON WINDOWS AT DIII D by Y. GORELOV, J. LOHR, R.W. CALLIS, and D. PONCE MAY 2002 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an
More informationE20 Reverse engineering on a CMOS image sensor
MEMS AND MICROSENSORS  2015/2016 E20 Reverse engineering on a CMOS image sensor Paolo Minotti 20/01/2016 In this class we will learn how to infer some parameters of a CMOS sensor for digital imaging,
More informationAS COMPETITION PAPER 2008
AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question
More information8.2 Elastic Strain Energy
Section 8. 8. Elastic Strain Energy The strain energy stored in an elastic material upon deformation is calculated below for a number of different geometries and loading conditions. These expressions for
More informationSpectral Measurement Solutions for Industry and Research
Spectral Measurement Solutions for Industry and Research Hamamatsu Photonics oﬀers a comprehensive range of products for spectroscopic applications, covering the, Visible and Infrared regions for Industrial,
More informationEfficiency of a Light Emitting Diode
PHYSICS THROUGH TEACHING LABORATORY VII Efficiency of a Light Emitting Diode RAJESH B. KHAPARDE AND SMITHA PUTHIYADAN Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education Tata Institute of Fundamental Research V.
More informationRESULTS OF ICARUS 9 EXPERIMENTS RUN AT IMRA EUROPE
Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido,
More informationHomework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering
Homework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of
More informationIntegration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory
Integration of a fin experiment into the undergraduate heat transfer laboratory H. I. AbuMulaweh Mechanical Engineering Department, Purdue University at Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN 46805, USA Email: mulaweh@engr.ipfw.edu
More informationTutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis
Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Slide 1. Gamma Spectrum Analysis In this module, we will apply the concepts that were discussed in Tutorial 4.1, Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Slide 2. Learning
More informationProcess Control Primer
Process Control Primer At the onset of the Industrial Revolution, processes were controlled manually. Men turned valves, pulled levers or changed switches based on the need to turn devices on or off. As
More informationNuclear Physics Lab I: GeigerMüller Counter and Nuclear Counting Statistics
Nuclear Physics Lab I: GeigerMüller Counter and Nuclear Counting Statistics PART I Geiger Tube: Optimal Operating Voltage and Resolving Time Objective: To become acquainted with the operation and characteristics
More informationThermistor Basics. Application Note ANTC11 Rev. A. May, 2013 Page 1 WHAT IS A THERMISTOR?
Thermistor Basics May, 2013 Page 1 WHAT IS A THERMISTOR? A thermistor is a resistance thermometer, or a resistor whose resistance is dependent on erature. The term is a combination of thermal and resistor.
More informationLight as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation
The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered
More informationk u (t) = k b + k s t
Chapter 2 Stripe domains in thin films 2.1 Films with perpendicular anisotropy In the first part of this chapter, we discuss the magnetization of films with perpendicular uniaxial anisotropy. The easy
More informationEncoders for Linear Motors in the Electronics Industry
Technical Information Encoders for Linear Motors in the Electronics Industry The semiconductor industry and automation technology increasingly require more precise and faster machines in order to satisfy
More informationConcept 2. A. Description of lightmatter interaction B. Quantitatities in spectroscopy
Concept 2 A. Description of lightmatter interaction B. Quantitatities in spectroscopy Dipole approximation Rabi oscillations Einstein kinetics in twolevel system B. Absorption: quantitative description
More informationMOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THINFILM METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES UNDER HEATING
NANOSYSTEMS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, MATHEMATICS, 2011, 2 (2), P. 76 83 UDC 538.97 MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF DEFORMATION RESPONSE OF THINFILM METALLIC NANOSTRUCTURES UNDER HEATING I. S. Konovalenko
More informationModern approaches to determination of toxic metals in marine environmental objects. Atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma, advantages and
Modern approaches to determination of toxic metals in marine environmental objects. Atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma, advantages and disadvantages Atomic spectroscopy Atomic spectroscopy
More informationAmpacity simulation of a high voltage cable to connecting off shore wind farms
Ampacity simulation of a high voltage cable to connecting off shore wind farms Eva Pelster 1, Dr. David Wenger 1 1 Wenger Engineering GmbH, Einsteinstr. 55, 89077 Ulm, mail@wengerengineering.com Abstract:
More informationUNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics
UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 15, 2007 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please
More informationMagnetic dynamics driven by spin current
Magnetic dynamics driven by spin current Sergej O. Demokritov University of Muenster, Germany Giant magnetoresistance Spin current Group of NonLinear Magnetic Dynamics Charge current vs spin current Electron:
More informationAnharmonicity and Weak Mode Assignment in La 2 x Sr x CuO 4 with Oxygen Isotopic Substitution
Vol. 111 (2007) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A No. 1 Proceedings of the Symposium K: Complex Oxide Materials for New Technologies of EMRS Fall Meeting 2006, Warsaw, September 4 8, 2006 Anharmonicity and Weak
More informationCompany presentation. Closed Joint Stock Company Superconducting nanotechnology SCONTEL
Company presentation Closed Joint Stock Company Superconducting nanotechnology SCONTEL 1 About us SCONTEL was founded in 2004 as a spinoff of the RadioPhysics Research&Education Center (RPhREC) (group
More informationApril 24, 2015. A Classical Perspective. Exam #3: Solution Key online now! Graded exams by Monday!
April 24, 2015 Exam #3: Solution Key online now! Graded exams by Monday! Final Exam Monday, May 4 th, 10:30 a.m. Room: Perkins 107 1 A Classical Perspective A classical view will help us understand the
More information particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L.  classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier
Tunnel Effect:  particle with kinetic energy E strikes a barrier with height U 0 > E and width L  classically the particle cannot overcome the barrier  quantum mechanically the particle can penetrated
More informationApplied Physics of solar energy conversion
Applied Physics of solar energy conversion Conventional solar cells, and how lazy thinking can slow you down Some new ideas *************************************************************** Our work on semiconductor
More informationCoupling Magnetic Signals to a SQUID Amplifier
SQUID Application Note 1050 Coupling Magnetic Signals to a SQUID Amplifier Matching the effective inductances of the Pickup Coil and the Input Coil to detect and couple magnetic flux maximizes the sensitivity
More informationDEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH SPEED RESPONSE LAMINAR FLOW METER FOR AIR CONDITIONING Toshiharu Kagawa 1, Yukako Saisu 2, Riki Nishimura 3 and Chongho Youn 4 ABSTRACT In this paper, we developed a new laminar flow
More informationCoating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering
Satisloh Italy S.r.l. Coating Technology: Evaporation Vs Sputtering Gianni Monaco, PhD R&D project manager, Satisloh Italy 04.04.2016 V1 The aim of this document is to provide basic technical information
More informationModification of PdH 2 and PdD 2 thin films processed by HeNe laser
Modification of PdH 2 and PdD 2 thin films processed by HeNe laser V.Nassisi #, G.Caretto #, A. Lorusso #, D.Manno %, L.Famà %, G.Buccolieri %, A.Buccolieri %, U.Mastromatteo* # Laboratory of Applied
More informationTriple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer Raman system with scanning microscopy attachment: QTY: One
Specifications: Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer Raman system with scanning microscopy attachment: QTY: One A. Triple Stage Raman spectrograph/spectrometer: 1. Spectral range : UV_Vis_NIR :
More informationSimulation of Transient Temperature Field in the Selective Laser Sintering Process of W/Ni Powder Mixture
Simulation of Transient Temperature Field in the Selective Laser Sintering Process of W/Ni Powder Mixture Jiwen Ren,Jianshu Liu,Jinju Yin The School of Electromechanical Engineering, East China Jiaotong
More informationHeating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds
Lecture 8: Cloud Stability Heating & Cooling in Molecular Clouds Balance of heating and cooling processes helps to set the temperature in the gas. This then sets the minimum internal pressure in a core
More informationThe plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures
The plasmoelectric effect: optically induced electrochemical potentials in resonant metallic structures Matthew T. Sheldon and Harry A. Atwater Thomas J. Watson Laboratories of Applied Physics, California
More information1Watt SMD 6mm With Dome Lens
1Watt SMD 6mm With Dome Lens x Robust energyefficient design with long operating life x Low thermal resistance x Exceptional spatial uniformity x Optional optics suit application x Available in yellow,
More informationThe Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics
The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics Sumith Doluweera Department of Physics University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 Abstract Nonlinear optics became a very active field of research
More informationNanoelectronics 09. Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics. Quick Review over the Last Lecture
Nanoelectronics 09 Atsufumi Hirohata Department of Electronics 12:00 Wednesday, 4/February/2015 (P/L 006) Quick Review over the Last Lecture ( Field effect transistor (FET) ): ( Drain ) current increases
More informationThe DWave 2X Quantum Computer Technology Overview
The DWave 2X Quantum Computer Technology Overview DWave Systems Inc. www.dwavesys.com DWave Systems Founded in 1999, DWave Systems is the world s first quantum computing company. Our mission is to
More informationCopyright 2000 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE MTTS International Microwave Symposium 2000
Copyright 2000 IEEE Reprinted from IEEE MTTS International Microwave Symposium 2000 This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE
More informationModule 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems
Module 13 : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Lecture : Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Measurements on Fiber Optic Systems Attenuation (Loss)
More information(Amplifying) Photo Detectors: Avalanche Photodiodes Silicon Photomultiplier
(Amplifying) Photo Detectors: Avalanche Photodiodes Silicon Photomultiplier (no PiN and pinned Diodes) Peter Fischer P. Fischer, ziti, Uni Heidelberg, Seite 1 Overview Reminder: Classical Photomultiplier
More informationCrystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson
Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which
More informationOxide. Metal V G. Silicon. Fig.A6.1 MOS capacitor structure
A.6 The MOS capacitor The MOS capacitor consists of a metaloxidesemiconductor layer structure which forms a voltage dependent capacitor. This particular structure has been studied extensively because
More informationChip Diode Application Note
Chip Diode Application Note Introduction The markets of portable communications, computing and video equipment are challenging the semiconductor industry to develop increasingly smaller electronic components.
More informationMeasurement and Simulation of Electron Thermal Transport in the MST ReversedField Pinch
1 EX/P317 Measurement and Simulation of Electron Thermal Transport in the MST ReversedField Pinch D. J. Den Hartog 1,2, J. A. Reusch 1, J. K. Anderson 1, F. Ebrahimi 1,2,*, C. B. Forest 1,2 D. D. Schnack
More informationTransmissive Optical Sensor with Phototransistor Output
TCST11. up to TCST23. Transmissive Optical Sensor with Phototransistor Output Description This device has a compact construction where the emittinglight sources and the detectors are located facetoface
More informationMETHODS FOR PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF LARGEAREA FILMS USING MORE THAN ONE TARGET
Laser Physics 0 International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series Vol. 5 (0) 70 78 World Scientific Publishing Company DOI: 0.4/S009450078 METHODS FOR PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF LARGEAREA FILMS
More informationEffects of Cell Phone Radiation on the Head. BEE 4530 ComputerAided Engineering: Applications to Biomedical Processes
Effects of Cell Phone Radiation on the Head BEE 4530 ComputerAided Engineering: Applications to Biomedical Processes Group 3 Angela Cai Youjin Cho Mytien Nguyen Praveen Polamraju Table of Contents I.
More informationSteady Heat Conduction
Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. hermodynamics gives no indication of how long
More informationThermal Modeling of NiMH Battery Powering Electric Vehicles
Proceedings of the 5th WSEAS Int. Conf. on System Science and Simulation in Engineering, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, December 1618, 06 5 Thermal ing of NiMH Battery Powering Electric Vehicles H.
More informationAN EFFECT OF GRID QUALITY ON THE RESULTS OF NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE FLUID FLOW FIELD IN AN AGITATED VESSEL
14 th European Conference on Mixing Warszawa, 1013 September 2012 AN EFFECT OF GRID QUALITY ON THE RESULTS OF NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE FLUID FLOW FIELD IN AN AGITATED VESSEL Joanna Karcz, Lukasz Kacperski
More information