Beam Current Monitors


 Lynne Phoebe Page
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Beam Current Monitors Accelerator Beam Diagnos4cs W. Blokland (ORNL) USPAS and University of New Mexico Albuquerque NM, June 23 26, 2009 USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 1
2 Beam Current Monitors Why use Beam Current Monitors? How to couple to the beam Transformer Resis4ve Wall Current monitor Faraday Cups Limita4ons: Noise, bandwidth Lab USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 2
3 Par4cle Accelerators One measure of performance: Power The amount of particles delivered at a certain energy. SNS Power on target SNS Energy delivered to target USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 3
4 Par4cle Accelerators How well do you accelerate beam? What percent of the particles make it to the end Effectiveness of acceleration process. E.g. stripping losses 35% of beam What percent of time are you operational? Damage to accelerator What is the quality of your beam? Emittance (collider) Density profile (target) Position stability Radioactivation USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 4
5 Charged Beam What is the beam current? I beam = qen t = qen l βc In an accelerator the current is formed by N par4cles of charge state q per unit of 4me t or unit of length l and velocity β = v/c. The beam is nearly an ideal current source with a very high source impedance We can measure the beam through the electric and magnetic fields created by the beam. USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 5
6 Beam Current Structure SNS Beam Structure USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 6
7 Beam Image currents [5] [5] Moving charge Fast moving charge Fast moving par4cles (moving E field) create an H field. The H field moves the E field induced image charges. At high veloci4es the wall current spectrum is an image (opposite sign) of the beam spectrum: at at a speed of 0.5c, approx RMS length is 90ps or 1.8GHz USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 7
8 Beam Image currents If the wall current mirrors the beam current then the magne4c field outside the beam pipe is cancelled: Ampere's Law : H dl = I and with I beam =  I image then H dl = I beam + I image = 0 H = 0 Is it completely cancelled? Skin depth: the length in which the fields are reduced by a factor of e ( 8.7 db). At 10Mhz, a typical 0.794mm stainless pipe aeenuates 53dB. δ = π ρ f with ρ the resistivity and f the frequency From [2] Webber. USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 8
9 Beam Pipe Break No field outside of beam pipe. Either: install detector inside beam pipe or Inside beam pipe means installa4on in vacuum use a ceramic break Ceramic break forces image current to find another path and it will do so! Z gap USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 9
10 You beeer define your gap impedance. Something will always be present, such as a path to ground and capacitance. Z gap is combina4on of the gap capacitance and all external parallel elements Gap voltage Gap Impedance Courtesy of Jim Crisp & Mike can be generated up to beam voltage Z gap USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 10
11 Current transformer Measure the beam current through the magne4c field of the beam. Assume the beam is long enough to be regarded as a line current. E.g. SNS Ring: 250 meters for 1usec Line current field : B = µ I beam 2πr a ϕ [1] Β Torus to guide the magnetic field I beam R v out USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 11
12 V p I p Primary winding N p turns H N turns Current transformer toroid material permeability = µ 0 µ r cross section = A Mean radius = r I s I p R s R s Secondary winding N s turns Integration path dl v s V s Ampere s Law: H dl = N p I p + N s I s = I p + N s I s with N p =1 H = (I p + N s I s ) /2πr (1) Φ = Flux: (thin toroid approxima4on) ds= µha = µa(i p + N s I s ) /2πr with A as area (2) B S Faraday s Law: V s = N s dφ dt = I s R s (3) Combine (2) and (3): I s R s = N s µa 2πr d(i + N I ) p s s dt Differen4al equa4on: di s dt + R s I s = 1 di p L s N s dt Laplace rewrite: I s (iω) I p (iω) = 1 N s iω (iω + R s /L s ) with L s = N 2 sµa 2πr USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 12 (4)
13 Current transformer Great, we got our transfer function and now we can figure out what the behavior is of our current transformer: I s (iω) I p (iω) = 1 N s iω (iω + R s /L s ) When Power: iω >> R s /L s P s = I 2 s R s = I 2 p N R 2 s s I s = I p N s (transferred from beam) USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 13
14 Current transformer The inductance plays an important role in the design of transformer. Note that in the calculation for inductance, the geometry of the setup plays and important role as well as the µ and windings. Inductance of a torus with a square cross section: Φ = B ds= S µhds = S µi 2πr ldr = µi 2π lln r out r out with L = NΦ then I L = µn 2 l 2π ln r out and µ = µ 0 µ r r in r in r in µ r can be > ι ds r in µ r r out L s = N s 2 L p USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 14
15 Current transformer Too bad there is also a capacitance: we get an LCR circuit: [1] 1 Z = 1 R + 1 iωl + iωc iωl Z = 1+ iωl /R (ωl /R) (ωrc) USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 15
16 LRC Proper4es What are proper4es of an LRC circuit? iωl Z = 1+ iωl /R (ωl /R) (ωrc) For low frequency : ω << R /L Z = iωl For high frequency : ω >>1/RC Z =1/iωC For mid frequency : R /L << ω <<1/RC Z R It s a band pass with a: droop 4me t droop rise 4me t rise log [5] R/L 1/RC ω USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 16
17 Bandpass effects on pulse shape USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 17
18 Rise 4me and droop 4me Rise 4me t rise : defined as the 4me it takes the amplitude to go from 10% to 90%. Rise 4me constant τ rise : and τ A (1 e t /τ rise ) rise corresponds to the 4me for an increase by e 1 = 37 %. t rise = ln0.9 ln0.1 ω high = ω high = πf high ω high =1/RC t rise 2RC 1 3 f high or t rise 2τ rise with τ rise = RC Droop 4me t droop = ω low = R /L ln0.9 ln0.1 ω low = ω low = πf low 1 3 f low t low 2L /R or t low 2τ low with τ low = L /R USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 18
19 Current Transformer Add (long) cable to current transformer: add cable resistance, capacitance and inductance: τ rise = L s C s τ droop = L /(R +R L ) [1] Ac4ve Transformer: use a trans impedance circuit to lower the load impedance. τ droop = L /(R f / A +R L ) = L /R L [1] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 19
20 Design of Current Transformer How to design a current transformer: High sensi4vity > low number of turns, low N s High droop 4me > high L > high µ, high N s τ droop = L s /R s V s = I s R s = I b N s R s L s = l 2π ln r out 2 µ N s Fast rise 4me > low stray capacitance r in τ rise = L s C s with cable τ rise = RC without cable USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 20
21 Design of Current Transformer Passive transformer Ac4ve transformer USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 21
22 DC Current Transformer How to measure the DC current? The current transformer discussed sees only changes in the flux. The DC Current Transformer (DCCT): look at the magne4c satura4on of the torus. Modula4on of the primary windings forces the torus into satura4on twice per cycle. Secondary windings sense modula4on signal and cancel each other. But with the I beam, the satura4on is shiued and I sense is not zero Adjust compensa4on current un4l I sense is zero once again. DC Transformer Opera4on, see [1] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 22
23 DC Current Transformer Example bandwidth: DC to 20kHz, resolu4on 2µA [1] Modula4on of the primary windings forces the torus into satura4on twice per cycle. Secondary windings sense modula4on signal and cancel each other. But with the I beam, the satura4on is shiued and I sense is not zero Adjust compensa4on current un4l I sense is zero once again. USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 23
24 Current Monitor Limita4ons Limita4on to transformers: The permeability of a core can be saturated: specs of max B field or max current 4me product I*t, Thermal noise: V n 4k b Tf high R > µa range lower limit Weiss domains lead to Barkhausen noise if termina4ng with high impedance (limit for DC type) Avoid external magne4c fields Torus material has dependency of µ r on temperature or on mechanical stress (micro phonic pickup) Avoid secondary electrons from being measured USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 24
25 BCM Tes4ng Fixture Image by M. Kesselman USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 25
26 SNS Current Transformer Image by M. Kesselman. USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 26
27 LHC Fast Current Transformer U. Raich CAS Frasca Beam Diagnos4cs USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 27
28 COMPONENTS INSIDE HEBT BCM ASSEMBLY Design by BNL for SNS USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 28
29 Wall Current Monitor Put a resistor over the gap and measure its voltage. V gap = R gap I beam V out R No DC in image current USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 29
30 Wall Current Monitor U. Raich USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 30
31 Wall Current Monitor Now for the details: Ceramic gap to avoid working in vacuum Distributed resistors (30 to 100) for beam posi4on independency Ferrite rings for low frequency response Shield for ground currents and noise protec4on Schema4cs of a wall current monitor and its equivalent circuit [1] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 31
32 Wait, there is more I in /n Broadband Model [4] 2ζ= (R L / R L + R s )((R s C/L e + (1/ R L ) L e /C) ω o = 1/(R L / R L + R s ) L e C I in /n Even a resistor is not a resistor: Low to Midband Model [4] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 32
33 Faraday Cups The Faraday Cup destruc4vely intercepts the beam DC coupled! (With just a resistor the signal is V out = I beam *R) Low current measurements possible e.g., 10pA Problem with secondary electrons:  Use long cup or voltage suppression or magne4c field If not properly terminated > very high voltage (beam poten4al) Must process beam power (SNS full power 1.4MW) [1] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 33
34 Faraday Cups Low power Faraday Cup [1] High power (1MW) Faraday Cup [1] USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 34
35 Noise Issues Noise can be a problem! There are many powerful noise sources in Accelerators:  Switching power supplies  Accelera4ng RF  Source RF Case in point:  SNS DTL BCM > single ended and inside a cavity (due to space limita4ons) USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 35
36 Noise Issues Noise from switching power supplies Grounded [8] USPAS09 at UNM Noise from RF Beam Noise of DTL current transformer (inside cavity, single ended) Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 36
37 Noise Issues Beam SCL Beam Current Monitor (single ended) USPAS09 at UNM [8] Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 37
38 Noise Issues Beeer: CCL BCM outside of cavity but s4ll single ended. Beam CCL Beam Current Monitor (single ended) USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 38
39 Noise Issues: Common Mode If noise is coupled into both wires, we can reject it! > common mode noise rejec4on by taking the difference. You will do this as a lab experiment. 20mV 2mV 20mV Differen4al noise on long twinax with far end shield grounded. Leu: top and boeom, noise on either center conductor into 50 ohms (each 20mV/div); center, difference (2mV/div); (most of residual signal due to digital scope subtrac4on). Right: same signals faster 4me scale (each 20mV/div and 1uS/div). From [2] Webber. USPAS09 at UNM Accelerator and Beam Diagnos4cs 39
40 References [1] Forck P., Lecture Notes on Beam Instrumenta4on and Diagnos4cs, Joint University Accelerator School, [2] Webber R.C., Tutorial on Beam Current Monitoring, BIW 2000, pp [3] Webber R.C., Charged Par4cle Beam Current Monitoring Tutorial, BIW1994, pp 3 23 [4] Webber R.C., Longitudinal Emieance: An Introduc4on to the Concept and Survey of Measurement Techniques, Including Design of a Wall Current Monitor BIW 1993 [5] Denard, J.C. CERN Accelerator School on Beam Diagnos4cs, 28 May 6 June 2008, Dourdan. [6] Hammond P., Electromagne4sm for Engineers, Pergamon Press. [7] Waters C., Current Transformers provide accurate, isolated Measurements, Power Conversion& Intelligent Mo4on, Issue December 1986 [8] Plum M., LANL Current Monitor Pickup Final Design Review, March [9] Edminister J., Schaum's Outline of Electromagne4cs BCM Lunch4me Seminar 40
For these various types, the electrical configurations that are available are:
RF Transformers RF transformers are widely used in lowpower electronic circuits for impedance matching to achieve maximum power transfer, for voltage stepup or stepdown, and for isolating dc from two
More informationApplication Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?
So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),
More informationCurrent Probes. User Manual
Current Probes User Manual ETSLindgren L.P. reserves the right to make changes to any product described herein in order to improve function, design, or for any other reason. Nothing contained herein shall
More informationExperiment A5. Hysteresis in Magnetic Materials
HYSTERESIS IN MAGNETIC MATERIALS A5 1 Experiment A5. Hysteresis in Magnetic Materials Objectives This experiment illustrates energy losses in a transformer by using hysteresis curves. The difference betwen
More informationThe terminology used by Würth Elektronik clearly distinguishes between inductors and EMC ferrites in regard to the quality of the inductor:
1.8 Differentiating EMC ferrite inductor The terminology used by Würth Elektronik clearly distinguishes between inductors and EMC ferrites in regard to the quality of the inductor: EMC ferrites are based
More informationPulsed Power Engineering Diagnostics
Pulsed Power Engineering Diagnostics January 1216, 2009 Craig Burkhart, PhD Power Conversion Department SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques and Considerations in Pulsed Power Systems
More informationEdmund Li. Where is defined as the mutual inductance between and and has the SI units of Henries (H).
INDUCTANCE MUTUAL INDUCTANCE If we consider two neighbouring closed loops and with bounding surfaces respectively then a current through will create a magnetic field which will link with as the flux passes
More informationCurrent Probes, More Useful Than You Think
Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Training and design help in most areas of Electrical Engineering Copyright 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted from the IEEE 1998
More informationChapter 11. Inductors. Objectives
Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive
More informationLecture 24. Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works)
Lecture 24 Inductance and Switching Power Supplies (how your solar charger voltage converter works) Copyright 2014 by Mark Horowitz 1 Roadmap: How Does This Work? 2 Processor Board 3 More Detailed Roadmap
More informationFilters and Waveform Shaping
Physics 333 Experiment #3 Fall 211 Filters and Waveform Shaping Purpose The aim of this experiment is to study the frequency filtering properties of passive (R, C, and L) circuits for sine waves, and the
More informationGrounding Demystified
Grounding Demystified 31 Importance Of Grounding Techniques 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Grounding 42% Case 22% Cable 18% Percent Used Filter 12% PCB 6% Grounding 42% Case Shield 22% Cable Shielding 18%
More informationR f. V i. ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response
ET 438a Automatic Control Systems Technology Laboratory 4 Practical Differentiator Response Objective: Design a practical differentiator circuit using common OP AMP circuits. Test the frequency response
More informationDesigning a Low Power Flyback Power Supply
APPLICATION NOTE INTRODUCTION Bourns is a wellknown supplier of standard offtheshelf high power inductors for power supplies in consumer, medical and automotive applications. Bourns also has a strong
More informationAn equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.
3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally
More informationLast time : energy storage elements capacitor.
Last time : energy storage elements capacitor. Charge on plates Energy stored in the form of electric field Passive sign convention Vlt Voltage drop across real capacitor can not change abruptly because
More informationEstimates of mutual inductance
Estimates of mutual inductance Biotavarts law: B I 2r B is the magnetic flux density at a distance r from a (long) conductor carrying a current I. B increases with increasing I B decreases with increasing
More informationCoil Testing in a Manufacturing Environment
Coil Testing in a Manufacturing Environment by Anthony Pretto, International ElectroMagnetics, Inc. Quality control is an integral part of any manufacturing process. As a part of that process, it is important
More informationA wave lab inside a coaxial cable
INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING Eur. J. Phys. 25 (2004) 581 591 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS PII: S01430807(04)76273X A wave lab inside a coaxial cable JoãoMSerra,MiguelCBrito,JMaiaAlves and A M Vallera
More informationOutput Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules
Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules Design Note 022 Ericsson Power Modules Ripple and Noise Abstract There is no industrywide standard for measuring output ripple and
More informationPrecompliance testing the conducted line emissions of DC supplied circuits
Precompliance testing the conducted line emissions of DC supplied circuits By Paul Lee, Director of Engineering, Murata Power Solutions It s quite common for a power supply (PSU) designer to work with
More informationAttenuation of Nanocrystalline and Ferrite Common Mode Chokes for EMI Filters
88 Attenuation of Nanocrystalline and Ferrite Common Mode Chokes for EMI Filters Szymon Pasko, Boguslaw Grzesik, and Fabian Beck Abstract The attenuation of common mode chokes based on nanocrystalline
More informationChap 21. Electromagnetic Induction
Chap 21. Electromagnetic Induction Sec. 1  Magnetic field Magnetic fields are produced by electric currents: They can be macroscopic currents in wires. They can be microscopic currents ex: with electrons
More informationIron Powder Cores for Switchmode Power Supply Inductors. by: Jim Cox
HOME APPLICATION NOTES Iron Powder Cores for Switchmode Power Supply Inductors by: Jim Cox Purpose: The purpose of this application note is to cover the properties of iron powder as a magnetic core material
More informationILB, ILBB Ferrite Beads
ILB, ILBB Ferrite Beads ElectroMagnetic Interference and ElectroMagnetic Compatibility (EMI/EMC) avid B. Fancher Inductive Products ivision INTROUCTION Manufacturers of electrical and electronic equipment
More informationFilter Considerations for the IBC
application note AN:202 Filter Considerations for the IBC Mike DeGaetano Application Engineering July 2013 Contents Page Introduction 1 IBC Attributes 1 Damping and 2 Converter Bandwidth Filtering 3 Filter
More informationChapter 14. Transformers ISU EE. C.Y. Lee
Chapter 14 Transformers Objectives Explain mutual inductance Describe how a transformer is constructed and how it works Explain how a stepup and down transformer works Discuss the effect of a resistive
More informationSubject: Glenair MILPRF 24758 Conduit Surface Transfer Impedance Test
Lothar O. Hoeft, Ph.D. Consultant, Electromagnetic Effects 5012 San Pedro Ct., NE Albuquerque, New Mexico 871092515 Phone: (505)8899705 Email: bud.hoeft@ieee.org 1 February 24, 2006 Subject: Glenair
More informationImpedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009
Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009 RF for Plasma Processing  Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines
More informationCoupling Impedance of SIS18 and SIS100 beampipe CERNGSIWebmeeting
Coupling Impedance of SIS18 and SIS100 beampipe CERNGSIWebmeeting 23 October 2011 TU Darmstadt Fachbereich 18 Institut Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder Uwe Niedermayer 1 Contents Motivation / Overview
More informationMinimizing Power Supply Transient Voltage at a Digital Wireless Telecommunications Products' Test Fixture
Minimizing Power Supply Transient Voltage at a Digital Wireless Telecommunications Products' Test Fixture By Jim Gallo and Ed Brorein Agilent Technologies, Inc. Abstract This paper addresses the problem
More informationJohnson Noise Dec. 23, 1998
Physics 623 Johnson Noise Dec. 23, 1998 Answer the questions 1 through 15 in this writeup before coming to the lab. They will be collected at the beginning of the lab. Read the sections of the text referenced
More informationES250: Electrical Science. HW7: Energy Storage Elements
ES250: Electrical Science HW7: Energy Storage Elements Introduction This chapter introduces two more circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor whose elements laws involve integration or differentiation;
More informationExperiment 10 Inductors in AC Circuits
Experiment 1 Inductors in AC Circuits Preparation Prepare for this week's experiment by looking up inductors, self inductance, enz's aw, inductive reactance, and R circuits Principles An inductor is made
More informationElectronic Components. Electronics. Resistors and Basic Circuit Laws. Basic Circuits. Basic Circuit. Voltage Dividers
Electronics most instruments work on either analog or digital signals we will discuss circuit basics parallel and series circuits voltage dividers filters highpass, lowpass, bandpass filters the main
More informationStandexMeder Electronics. Custom Engineered Solutions for Tomorrow
StandexMeder Electronics Custom Engineered Solutions for Tomorrow RF Reed Relays Part II Product Training Copyright 2013 StandexMeder Electronics. All rights reserved. Introduction Purpose Designing
More informationPHY114 S11 Term Exam 3
PHY4 S Term Exam S. G. Rajeev Mar 2 20 2:0 pm to :45 pm PLEASE write your workshop number and your workshop leader s name at the top of your book, so that you can collect your graded exams at the workshop.
More informationMEASUREMENT SETUP FOR TRAPS
Completed on 26th of June, 2012 MEASUREMENT SETUP FOR TRAPS AUTHOR: IW2FND Attolini Lucio Via XXV Aprile, 52/B 26037 San Giovanni in Croce (CR)  Italy iw2fnd@gmail.com Trappole_01_EN 1 1 DESCRIPTION...3
More informationCURRENT SENSING USING RESISTIVE SHUNTS. Team 5
CURRENT SENSING USING RESISTIVE SHUNTS ECE 480 Design Team 5 Joshua Myers Ryan Laderach Stephen England Kenji Aono 4/1/2011 OUTLINE What is current sensing? Common Methods of Current Sensing High/Low Side
More informationAMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE
AMPLIFIED HIGH SPEED FIBER PHOTODETECTOR USER S GUIDE Thank you for purchasing your Amplified High Speed Fiber Photodetector. This user s guide will help answer any questions you may have regarding the
More informationApplication Note AN:005. FPA Printed Circuit Board Layout Guidelines. Introduction Contents. The Importance of Board Layout
FPA Printed Circuit Board Layout Guidelines By Paul Yeaman Principal Product Line Engineer V I Chip Strategic Accounts Introduction Contents Page Introduction 1 The Importance of 1 Board Layout Low DC
More informationMode Choke Improves Efficiency and Reduces Cost. John Gallagher Staff Field Applications Engineer Pulse Electronics
Integrated Common Mode and Differential Mode Choke Improves Efficiency and Reduces Cost John Gallagher Staff Field Applications Engineer Pulse Electronics Jgallagher@pulseelectronics.comcom Conducted Noise
More informationFerrite Toroids. Product Brief
Product Brief 2008 Ferrite Toroids for LAN and EMI Applications Ferrite cores rank among the indispensable key components in modern entertainment and industrial electronics, advanced information and communication
More informationVoltage Transformers. VT Types
Voltage Transformers VT  Voltage Transformer, also know as Potential Transformer (PT) CVT  Capacitive Voltage Transformer also know as CCVT (Capacitive Coupled VT) BPD  Bushing Potential Device also
More informationInductor and Magnetic Product Terminology
INTRODUCTION IFC LPT ILB IHSM IM IMC LPE TJ LPC IRF IHB The scope of this application note is to define the terminology associated with inductors and their applications. Some of these terms are listed
More informationCrosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs
This article deals with the modeling and simulation of shielded twisted pairs with CST CABLE STUDIO. The quality of braided shields is investigated with respect to perfect solid shields. Crosstalk effects
More informationClass A Amplifier Design
Module 2 Amplifiers Introduction to Amplifier Design What you ll learn in Module 2. Basic design process. Section 2.0 Introduction to Amplifier Design. Section 2.1 DC Conditions. Design a BJT class A common
More informationHomework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering
Homework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of
More informationInduction and Inductance
Induction and Inductance How we generate E by B, and the passive component inductor in a circuit. 1. A review of emf and the magnetic flux. 2. Faraday s Law of Induction 3. Lentz Law 4. Inductance and
More informationSlide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger
Slide 1 / 26 Inductance 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 2 / 26 Mutual Inductance If two coils of wire are placed near each other and have a current passing through them, they will each induce an emf on one
More informationFerroxcube. For more information on Product Status Definitions, see page 3. 2008 Sep 01 275 CBW625
CBW625 For more information on Product Status Definitions, see page 3. 2008 Sep 01 275 INTRODUCTION Ferrites are used not only in the known consumer and professional electronics applications, but also
More informationRXAM4SF Receiver. Pinout. Connections
RXAM4SF Receiver The superheterodyne receiver RXAM4SF can provide a RSSI output indicating the amplitude of the received signal: this output can be used to create a fieldstrength meter capable to indicate
More informationMeasuring Telecommunication Transformers
Measuring Telecommunication Transformers Rapid expansion of the Internet and Mobile Communications has driven the need to transmit digital information at high frequencies. This need has put new requirements
More informationFaraday s Law of Induction
Faraday s Law of Induction Potential drop along the closed contour is minus the rate of change of magnetic flu. We can change the magnetic flu in several ways including changing the magnitude of the magnetic
More informationChapter 14: Inductor design
Chapter 14 Inductor Design 14.1 Filter inductor design constraints 14.2 A stepbystep design procedure 14.3 Multiplewinding magnetics design using the K g method 14.4 Examples 14.5 Summary of key points
More informationG019.A (4/99) UNDERSTANDING COMMON MODE NOISE
UNDERSTANDING COMMON MODE NOISE PAGE 2 OF 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION 2 DIFFERENTIAL MODE AND COMMON MODE SIGNALS 2.1 Differential Mode signals 2.2 Common Mode signals 3 DIFFERENTIAL AND COMMON
More informationUNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMONMODE EMISSIONS IN HIGHPOWER ELECTRONICS
Page 1 UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMONMODE EMISSIONS IN HIGHPOWER ELECTRONICS By Henry Ott Consultants Livingston, NJ 07039 (973) 9921793 www.hottconsultants.com hott@ieee.org Page 2 THE BASIC
More informationSimple Harmonic Motion: AC circuits: alternating current electricity
Simple Harmonic Motion: AC circuits: alternating current electricity Alternating current (AC) circuits explained using time and phasor animations. Impedance, phase relations, resonance and RMS quantities.
More informationLRC Circuits. Purpose. Principles PHYS 2211L LAB 7
Purpose This experiment is an introduction to alternating current (AC) circuits. Using the oscilloscope, we will examine the voltage response of inductors, resistors and capacitors in series circuits driven
More informationNZQA registered unit standard 20431 version 2 Page 1 of 7. Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians
NZQA registered unit standard 0431 version Page 1 of 7 Title Demonstrate and apply fundamental knowledge of a.c. principles for electronics technicians Level 3 Credits 7 Purpose This unit standard covers
More informationAVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation
AVX EMI SOLUTIONS Ron Demcko, Fellow of AVX Corporation Chris Mello, Principal Engineer, AVX Corporation Brian Ward, Business Manager, AVX Corporation Abstract EMC compatibility is becoming a key design
More informationLecture Notes on Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics
Lecture Notes on Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics Peter Forck Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) Darmstadt, Germany email: p.forck@gsi.de Joint University Accelerator School January March
More informationPower Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnaboutelectronics.org. Module
Module 1 www.learnaboutelectronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working
More informationUtility powerline related noise, Powerline Noise: How Series Filters Work (AND WHY THEY DON T ALWAYS)
Powerline Noise: How Series Filters Work (AND WHY THEY DON T AWAYS) Most powerline treatment products depend upon series filters to correct line noise problems in the audio/video system. However, these
More informationBrookhaven National Laboratoy, Upton, NY 11973, USA
10th Beam Instrumentation Workshop BNL, Upton, NY, May 69,2002 BNL69259 BPM System for the SNS Ring and Transfer Lines1 W. C. Dawson, P. Cameron, P. Cerniglia, J. Cupolo, C. Degen, A. DellaPenna, A.
More informationEstimates of mutual inductance
Estimates of mutual inductance Biotavarts law: B I 2r B is the magnetic flux density at a distance r from a long conductor carrying a current I. B increases with increasing I B decreases with increasing
More informationCalibration i of ESD Generators According to IEC Edition 2.0:
Calibration i of ESD Generators According to IEC 6100042 Edition 2.0:200812 Presented by : Standards and Calibration Laboratory (SCL) Innovation and Technology Commission The Government of the HKSAR
More informationEE301 Lesson 14 Reading: 10.110.4, 10.1110.12, 11.111.4 and 11.1111.13
CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS Learning Objectives EE301 Lesson 14 a. Define capacitance and state its symbol and unit of measurement. b. Predict the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor. c. Analyze how
More informationChapter 10: Transverse Beam Instabilities
Chapter 10: Transverse Beam Instabilities Here we will follow very much the same format as in the previous chapter on Longitudinal Instabilities. We saw in chapter 9 that the charged bunches will induce
More informationINTRODUCTION SELF INDUCTANCE. Introduction. Self inductance. Mutual inductance. Transformer. RLC circuits. AC circuits
Chapter 13 INDUCTANCE Introduction Self inductance Mutual inductance Transformer RLC circuits AC circuits Magnetic energy Summary INTRODUCTION Faraday s important contribution was his discovery that achangingmagneticflux
More informationGary Green. January 8, 2014
s Arrays of s Ultra Sensitive York NeuroImaging Centre, UK January 8, 2014 s Arrays of s 1 s 2 3 4 5 Arrays of s 6 7 8 s  a bit of history s Arrays of s Oersted (1819) demonstrated an electric current
More informationTop View (Nearside) Side View Bottom View (Farside) ± ±.08. 4x.28. Orientation Marker Balanced port 1.
Model BD2FA Ultra Low Profile 168 Balun Ω to Ω Balanced Description The BD2FA is a low profile subminiature balanced to unbalanced transformer designed for differential input locations on data conversion
More informationAccessories Filter & Ring Core Chokes FP, L and LP Series
Description These Filters and chokes are designed to reduce input interference and/or output ripple voltages occurring in applications with switched mode power supplies. Since all our filters contain a
More informationSupplementary Notes on Transformers
Supplementary Notes on Transformers A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors the transformer's coils. Figure 1 illustrates
More informationChapter 30 Inductance
Chapter 30 Inductance  Mutual Inductance  SelfInductance and Inductors  MagneticField Energy  The R Circuit  The C Circuit  The RC Series Circuit . Mutual Inductance  A changing current in
More informationTransformers. AC Theory. Module
Module 11 AC Theory What you ll learn in Module 11. Section 11.1 Transformer Operation. Transformer Operation. Transformer Losses. Off Load Current. Volts per Turn. Section 11.2 Magnetic Circuits & Transformer
More informationUnderstanding Adjustable Speed Drive Common Mode Problems and Effective Filter Solutions
Understanding Adjustable Speed Drive Common Mode Problems and Effective Filter Solutions September 22, 2014 Todd Shudarek, Principal Engineer MTE Corporation N83 W13330 Leon Road Menomonee Falls WI 53051
More informationElectrical Machines II. Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer
Electrical Machines II Week 1: Construction and theory of operation of single phase transformer Transformers Overview A transformer changes ac electric power at one frequency and voltage level to ac electric
More informationAfter completing this chapter, the student should be able to:
Inductance OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, the student should be able to: Explain the principles of inductance. Identify the basic units of inductance. Identify different types of inductors.
More informationUsing ferrites for interference suppression
Using ferrites for interference suppression 1. Introduction Tim Williams, Elmac Services 2. The effect of magnetic material on a conductor 3. Common and differential mode cable currents 4. The effect of
More informationRLC Resonant Circuits
C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document
More informationT9 / R9. Long Range RF Modules. Features. Applications. General Description
T9 / R9 Long Range RF Modules Features FM Narrow Band Crystal Stabilised Range up to 1,000 Metres 868MHz / 433MHz Versions 4 channel versions 434.075MHz 433.920MHz 434.225MHz 434.525MHz Miniature SIL Package
More informationQ Measurement with the AIM4170 revised
Q Measurement with the AIM4170 revised 72208 Summary: The AIM4170 can be used to determine the Q of coils and of tuned circuits. A function is included in the program to measure the Q of series and parallel
More informationStochastic Cooling in RHIC
Stochastic Cooling in RHIC Mike Brennan and Mike Blaskiewicz Brookhaven National Lab ColliderAccelerator Department Particle Accelerator Conference 2009 Vancouver, Canada May 6, 2009 Acknowledgements
More informationChapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee
Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive
More informationWireless Power Transfer System Design. Julius Saitz ANSYS
Wireless Power Transfer System Design Julius Saitz ANSYS 1 WPT System 2 Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) NearField (Inductive coupling, resonant) Do not rely on propagating EM waves Operate at distances
More informationApril 1. Physics 272. Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html. Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.
Physics 272 April 1 Spring 2014 http://www.phys.hawaii.edu/~philipvd/pvd_14_spring_272_uhm.html Prof. Philip von Doetinchem philipvd@hawaii.edu Phys272  Spring 14  von Doetinchem  164 Summary Gauss's
More informationCLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES IN ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM
CLASSIFICATION OF SERVICES IN ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Version No 7.6 (dated 17 March 2011) METROLOGY AREA: ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM BRANCH: DC VOLTAGE, CURRENT, AND RESISTANCE 1. DC voltage (up to 1100
More informationInductors and ferrite are dual element of capacitors. They work by increasing the loop impedance of the circuit (Fig. 1), the device impedance, Z X
APPICATION Introduction Inductors and ferrite are dual element of capacitors. They work by increasing the loop impedance of the circuit (Fig., the device impedance, X = π f must be larger than the series
More information* Selfinductance * Mutual inductance * Transformers. PPT No. 32
* Selfinductance * Mutual inductance * Transformers PPT No. 32 Inductance According to Faraday s Electromagnetic Induction law, induction of an electromotive force occurs in a circuit by varying the magnetic
More informationUnderstanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling
Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,
More informationCommon Mode Choke Filtering Improves CMRR in Ethernet Transformer Applications. Application Note. June 2011
Common Mode Choke Filtering Improves CMRR in Ethernet Transformer Applications June 2011 Application Note Common mode chokes provide an effective EMI filtering solution for Ethernet transformer applications.
More informationChapter 15: Transformer design
Chapter 15 Transformer Design Some more advanced design issues, not considered in previous chapter: : n Inclusion of core loss + + Selection of operating flux i 1 density to optimize total loss v 1 v Multiple
More informationBalanced circuits and differential amplifiers
Engineering Note 18.1 Balanced circuits and differential amplifiers J M Woodgate FInstSCE DISCLAIMER Care is taken to determine that 'Engineering Notes' do not refer to any copyrighted or patented circuit
More informationMore Concepts. I = dq. Current is the rate of flow of charge around a circuit.
RC Circuits In this presentation, circuits with multiple batteries, resistors and capacitors will be reduced to an equivalent system with a single battery, a single resistor, and a single capacitor. Kirchoff's
More informationINTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET. TDA8340 TDA8341 Television IF amplifier and demodulator. Product specification File under Integrated Circuits, IC02
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS DATA SHEET Television IF amplifier and demodulator File under Integrated Circuits, IC02 November 1987 DESCRIPTION The ;Q and ;Q are integrated IF amplifier and demodulator circuits
More informationOutline. Systems and Signals 214 / 244 & Energy Systems 244 / 344. Ideal Inductor. Ideal Inductor (cont... )
Outline Systems and Signals 214 / 244 & Energy Systems 244 / 344 Inductance, Leakage Inductance, Mutual Inductance & Transformers 1 Inductor revision Ideal Inductor NonIdeal Inductor Dr. P.J. Randewijk
More informationTRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS AET 8. First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947
AET 8 First Transistor developed at Bell Labs on December 16, 1947 Objective 1a Identify Bipolar Transistor Amplifier Operating Principles Overview (1) Dynamic Operation (2) Configurations (3) Common Emitter
More informationEXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP
1.17 EXPERIMENT 1.2 CHARACTERIZATION OF OPAMP 1.2.1 OBJECTIVE 1. To sketch and briefly explain an operational amplifier circuit symbol and identify all terminals 2. To list the amplifier stages in a typical
More informationUNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ESE206  Electrical Circuits and Systems II Laboratory.
UNIVERSITY of PENNSYLVANIA DEPARTMENT of ELECTRICAL and SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ESE06  Electrical Circuits and Systems II Laboratory. Objectives: Transformer Lab. Comparison of the ideal transformer versus
More information