ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 4 Section 4.4 Acid Base Reactions ( ) Chapter 18 Section 18.1, 18.2, 18.3 Naming Acids 70

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1 ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 4 Section 4.4 Acid Base Reactions ( ) Chapter 18 Section 18.1, 18.2, 18.3 Naming Acids 70 Problems: Chapter 18: 5, 7, 21, 23, 24, 43, 44 Chapter 4: 49, 53, 54 Concepts: Definitions of acids/bases Arrhenius definition Bronsted-Lowry definition Strong and weak acids/bases Conjugate acid/base pairs Autoionization of water ph, poh molarity Neutralization reactions 1

2 1. Listed below are some of the properties of acids and bases. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word, acids or bases: a) produce hydrogen ions (H+) in solution e) have a sour taste b) have a bitter taste f) have a slippery, soapy feel c) produce hydroxide ions (OH-) ions g) react with acids to form salts d) react with bases to form salts h) react with many metals 2. List 3 strong acids and explain why these acids are considered strong acids. 3. List 3 weak acids and explain why these acids are considered weak acids. 4. List 2 strong bases and explain why these bases are considered strong bases. 5. List 1 weak base and explain why it is considered a weak base. NAMING REVIEW Name of ion Formula for ion Formula for acid Name of acid Sulfate Sulfurous acid Nitrite S 2- Cl 1-3- PO 3 H 3 PO 4 Acetic acid Hydrobromic acid 2

3 For the following acids or bases, complete the charts below. Acid Conjugate base Base Conjugate acid H 2 SO 4 H 2 O NH 4 1+ HSO 4 1- H 2 O HPO 4 2- HI NH 3 H 2 CO 3 O 2- H 3 PO 4 NO 3 1- For the following Bronsted-Lowry acids or bases, complete the reaction. Label the acid and base and the conjugate acid and base. HI + H 2 O NH 3 + H 2 O HNO 3 + H 2 O 6. Write a balanced equation for the dissociation (ionization) of the following acids in water (For those acids that are strong use a single arrow,, and for those that are weak you need to use a double arrow, ) a) HClO 4 + H 2 O H 3 O + (aq) + ClO 4 - (aq) b) H 2 SO 4 c) HC 2 H 3 O 2 d) HCl e) HNO 3 3

4 7. Write an equation for the dissociation (ionization) of the following bases in water. (For those bases that are strong use a single arrow,, and for those that are weak you need to use a double arrow, ) a) NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) b) Ca(OH) 2 c) Ba(OH) 2 d) KOH e) LiOH f) NH 3 + HOH Calculate the appropriate values for ph, poh, hydronium ion and hydroxide ions in the following tables. ph [H 3 O + ] poh [OH - ] Acidic or basic x x x

5 [H+] (Mol/L) [OH-] (Mol/L) ph poh Acid, Base, or neutral x x x x x

6 When an acid and base neutralize each other, what two substances are formed? 9. Write and balance the neutralization reactions for the following a. HBr + KOH b. HCl + LiOH c. HF + Ba(OH) 2 d. H 2 SO 4 + LiOH e. H 3 PO 4 + NaOH f. H 2 SO 4 + Al(OH) 3 g. H 3 PO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 h. Phosphoric acid + silver hydroxide i. Nitric acid + Iron (III) hydroxide 10. When titrating an acid with a base, how do you know that you have reached the end of the titration? 11. What indicator is clear in an acid and pink in a base? 6

7 12. A student pours exactly 26.9 ml of HCl acid of unknown concentration into a beaker. The student then adds 2 drops of the indicator spelled correctly in question #4 above and titrates the acid to neutrality using 43.7 ml of 0.13 M NaOH base. a. Write and balance the neutralization reaction of the acid and base. b. What is the concentration (molarity) of the acid? 13. A student makes an acid by dissolving 34 grams of KHSO 4 in 150 ml of water. The student then uses 32.6 ml of the KHSO 4 acid to titrate 12.1 ml of a KOH base of unknown molarity. a. Calculate the concentration of the acid b. Write the balanced equation for the neutralization. c. Calculate the molarity of the KOH base solution 14. In a laboratory, you make a base by adding 75.0 grams of NaOH to 380. ml of water. Then you titrate 15.0 ml of your base using a nitric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) that is 1.20 M. a. Calculate the molarity of the base b. How many ml of the 1.20 M sulfuric acid will be required to titrate 15.0 ml of base? 7

8 15. A student makes a standard acid by dissolving 4.00 grams of oxalic acid dihydrate (H 2 C 2 O 4 2H 2 O) in ml of water. a. What is the molarity of the standardized acid? b. The student then uses 45.0 ml of the standard acid to neutralize 20.0 ml of NaOH. What is the molarity of the base? c. The student then uses the base from part (b) to titrate 20.0 ml of a M HCl solution. How many ml of the base are needed to completely neutralize the HCl? 16. An 8.0 L tank containing sulfuric acid is neutralized when 5.0 g of Na metal is added. (an extremely foolish thing to do). Calculate the molarity of the sulfuric acid and the ph of the original solution. Write one or more chemical equations to describe the reactions occurring. 8

9 Acid/Base Anhydrides: Complete the following reactions (Remember types of reactions?): Na 2 O + H 2 O SO 3 + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 heat CaO + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 heat Complete the following statements: The salt formed form the reaction of nitric acid and potassium hydroxide is. The conjugate base of H 2 PO 1-4 is. Stomach acid is. Something with a sour taste is. Ammonia is an example of. A ph less than 7 indicates. Phenolphthalein turns in base. Red litmus turns blue in. A substance that reacts with metals to form hydrogen gas. A substance that tastes bitter is probably. An Arrhenius acid is. Will a basic solution conduct electricity?. What is the name of a substance that can donate two protons?. What is the name of a substance that can both donate and accept a proton? Give two examples of this type of substance. 9

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