Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 10. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

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1 Reactions in Solution (Acids and Bases): Chapter 0 Chapter Outline Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases The Arrhenius Theory The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Hydrogen Ion) The BrØnstedLowry Theory The Autoionization of Water Amphoterism Strengths of Acids Chapter Outline AcidBase Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Acidic Salts and Basic Salts The Lewis Theory The Preparation of Acids

2 Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids Aqueous acidic solutions have the following properties: They have a sour taste. They change the colors of many indicators. Acids turn blue litmus to red. Acids turn bromothymol blue from blue to yellow. They react with metals to generate hydrogen, H (g). Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids They react with metal oxides and hydroxides to form salts and water. They react with salts of weaker acids to form the weaker acid and the salt of the stronger acid. Acidic aqueous solutions conduct electricity. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Bases Aqueous basic solutions have the following properties: They have a bitter taste. They have a slippery feeling. They change the colors of many indicators Bases turn red litmus to blue. Bases turn bromothymol blue from yellow to blue. They react with acids to form salts and water. Aqueous basic solutions conduct electricity.

3 AcidBase Definitions Arrhenius Definition acid: proton donor base: OH donor BrØnstedLowry Definition acid: proton donor base: proton acceptor Lewis Definition acid: electron pair acceptor base: electron pair donor The Arrhenius Theory Svante Augustus Arrhenius first presented this theory of acids and bases in 884. Acids are substances that contain hydrogen and produces H in aqueous solutions. Two examples of substances that behave as Arrhenius acids: HCl (aq) H O ( ) H O Cl HCO H H O HCO (aq) ( ) ( aq ) ( aq ) H O ( aq ) (aq) The Arrhenius Theory Bases are substances that contain the hydroxyl, OH, group and produce hydroxide ions, OH, in aqueous solutions. Two examples of substances that behave as Arrhenius bases: NaOH Na NH (g) H O OH ( aq) ( aq ) NH4( aq) OH( aq)

4 The Arrhenius Theory Neutralization reactions are the combination of H (or H O ) with OH to form H O. Strong acids are acidic substances that ionize 00% in water. List of aqueous strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, H SO 4, HNO, HClO 4, HClO Strong bases are basic substances that ionize 00% in water. List of aqueous strong bases: LiOH, NaOH, KOH, RbOH, CsOH, Ca(OH), Sr(OH), Ba(OH) The Arrhenius Theory For a typical strong acidstrong base reaction, the formula unit, total ionic, and net ionic equations are given below. The formula unit equation is: HCl ( aq ) NaOH( aq) NaCl( aq) H O ( ) The total ionic equation is: H ( aq ) Cl ( aq ) Na ( aq ) OH ( aq ) Na ( aq ) Cl ( aq ) H O ( ) The Hydronium Ion (Hydrated Proton) The protons that are generated in acidbase reactions are not present in solution by themselves. Protons are surrounded by several water molecules. How many varies from solution to solution. H (aq) is really H(H O) n Where n is a small integer. Chemists normally write the hydrated hydrogen ion as H O and call it the hydronium ion. 4

5 The BrØnstedLowry Theory J.N. BrØnsted and T.M. Lowry developed this more general acidbase theory in 9. An acid is a proton donor (H ). A base is a proton acceptor. Two examples to illustrate this concept. HBr H O H O Br acid base NH H O NH 4 base acid OH The BrØnstedLowry Theory Acidbase reactions are the transfer of a proton from an acid to a base. HCl acid NH NH4 base Cl An important part of BrØnstedLowry acidbase theory is the idea of conjugate acidbase pairs. Two species that differ by a proton are called acidbase conjugate pairs. The BrØnstedLowry Theory Conjugate acidbase pairs are species that differ by a proton. 5

6 The BrØnstedLowry Theory Standard format for writing conjugate acidbase pairs. HF H O H O F acid base HF acid acid base F base The subscript 's indicate the pair. HO base HO acid nd The subscript 's indicate the pair. st The BrØnstedLowry Theory The major differences between Arrhenius and BrønstedLowry theories. ) In BrønstedLowry Theory the reaction does not have to occur in an aqueous solution. ) In BrønstedLowry Theory bases are not required to be hydroxides. The BrØnstedLowry Theory An important concept in BrØnstedLowry theory involves the relative strengths of acidbase pairs. Weak acids have strong conjugate bases. Weak bases have strong conjugate acids. The weaker the acid or base, the stronger the conjugate partner. The reason why a weak acid is weak is because the conjugate base is so strong it reforms the original acid. Similarly for weak bases. 6

7 The BrØnstedLowry Theory NH H O NH 4 OH Since NH is a weak base, NH 4 must be a strong acid. NH 4 gives up H to reform NH. Compare that to NaOH Na (aq) OH (aq) Na must be a weak acid or it would recombine to form NaOH Remember NaOH ionizes 00%. NaOH is a strong base. The BrØnstedLowry Theory Amines are weak bases that behave similarly to ammonia. The functional group for amines is an NH group attached to other organic groups. NH HO NH4 OH CH NH H O CH NH OH The Autoionization of Water Water can be either an acid or base in Bronsted Lowry theory. Consequently, water can react with itself. This reaction is called autoionization. One water molecule acts as a base and the other as an acid. H O H O H O base acid acid OH base 7

8 The Autoionization of Water Water does not do this extensively. [H O ] = [OH ].0 x 0 7 M Autoionization is the basis of the ph scale which will be developed in Chapter 8 Amphoterism Other species can behave as both acids and bases. Species that can behave as an acid or base are called amphoteric. Proton transfer reactions in which a species behaves as either an acid or base is called amphiprotic. Amphoterism Examples of amphoteric species are hydroxides of elements with intermediate electronegativity. Zn and Al hydroxides for example. Zn(OH) behaves as a base in presence of strong acids. Zn(OH) HNO Zn(NO) H O 8

9 Amphoterism Zn(OH) behaves as an acid in presence of strong bases. Molecular equation Zn(OH) KOH K Zn(OH) 4 Zn(OH) is insoluble until it reacts with KOH Total Ionic Equation Zn(OH) K OH K Zn(OH) 4 Strengths of Acids For binary acids, acid strength increases with decreasing HX bond strength. For example, the hydrohalic binary acids Bond strength has this periodic trend. HF >> HCl > HBr > HI Acid strength has the reverse trend. HF << HCl < HBr < HI Strengths of Acids The same trend applies to the VIA hydrides. Their bond strength has this trend. H O >> H S > H Se > H Te The acid strength is the reverse trend. H O << H S < H Se < H Te 9

10 Strengths of Acids The acid leveling effect masks the differences in acid strength of the hydrohalic acids. The strongest acid that can exist in water is H O. Acids that are stronger than H O merely react with water to produce H O. Consequently all strong soluble acids have the same strength in water. HI H O H O I essentially 00% Strengths of Acids HBr, which should be a weaker acid, has the same strength in water as HI. HBr H O H O Br essentially 00% Acid strength differences for strong acids can only be distinguished in nonaqueous solutions like acetic acid, acetone, etc. Strengths of Acids The following is a relative ranking of acid and base strengths (and their conjugate partners.) Acid Conjugate Base Strongest Acid Weakest Base HClO 4 ClO 4 H O acid loses H H O CH COOH CH COO HCN CN H O base gains H OH NH NH Weakest Acid Strongest Base 0

11 Next Class: Reactions in Aqueous Solution: Chapter 0 Finish OWL Homework (Chapter 0) Finish Reading Chapter 0

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