# Approximation to real numbers by cubic algebraic integers. II

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1 Annals of Mathematics, 158 (2003), Approximation to real numbers by cubic algebraic integers. II By Damien Roy* Abstract It has been conjectured for some time that, for any integer n 2, any real number ε>0 and any transcendental real number ξ, there would exist infinitely many algebraic integers α of degree at most n with the property that ξ α H(α) n+ε, where H(α) denotes the height of α. Although this is true for n =2,weshow here that, for n =3,the optimal exponent of approximation is not 3 but (3 + 5)/ Introduction Define the height H(α) of an algebraic number α as the largest absolute value of the coefficients of its irreducible polynomial over Z. Thanks to work of H. Davenport and W. M. Schmidt, we know that, for any real number ξ which is neither rational nor quadratic over Q, there exists a constant c>0 such that the inequality ξ α ch(α) γ2, where γ =(1+ 5)/2 denotes the golden ratio, has infinitely many solutions in algebraic integers α of degree at most 3 over Q (see Theorem 1 of [3]). The purpose of this paper is to show that the exponent γ 2 in this statement is best possible. Theorem 1.1. There exists a real number ξ which is transcendental over Q and a constant c 1 > 0 such that, for any algebraic integer α of degree at most 3 over Q, we have ξ α c 1 H(α) γ2. Work partly supported by NSERC and CICMA Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary 11J04; Secondary 11J13.

2 1082 DAMIEN ROY In general, for a positive integer n, denote by τ n the supremum of all real numbers τ with the property that any transcendental real number ξ admits infinitely many approximations by algebraic integers α of degree at most n over Q with ξ α H(α) τ. Then, the above result shows that τ 3 = γ against the natural conjecture that τ n = n for all n 2 (see [7, p. 259]). Since τ 2 =2(see the introduction of [3]), it leaves open the problem of evaluating τ n for n 4. At present the best known estimates valid for general n 2 are (n +1)/2 τ n n where the upper bound comes from standard metrical considerations, while the lower bound, due to M. Laurent [4], refines, for even integers n, the preceding lower bound τ n (n +1)/2 of Davenport and Schmidt [3]. Note that similar estimates are known for the analog problem of approximation by algebraic numbers, but in this case the optimal exponent is known only for n 2 (see [2]). In the next section we recall the results that we will need from [6]. Then, in Section 3, we present the class of real numbers for which we will prove, in Section 4, that they satisfy the measure of approximation of Theorem 1.1. Section 3 also provides explicit examples of such numbers based on the Fibonacci continued fractions of [5] and [6] (a special case of the Sturmian continued fractions of [1]). 2. Extremal real numbers The arguments of Davenport and Schmidt in Section 2 of [3] show that, if a real number ξ is not algebraic over Q of degree at most 2 and has the property stated in Theorem 1.1, then there exists another constant c 2 > 0 such that the inequalities (2.1) 1 x 0 X, x 0 ξ x 1 c 2 X 1/γ, x 0 ξ 2 x 2 c 2 X 1/γ, have a solution in integers x 0,x 1,x 2 for any real number X 1. In [6], we defined a real number ξ to be extremal if it is not algebraic over Q of degree at most 2 and satisfies the latter property of simultaneous approximation. We showed that such numbers exist and form a countable set. Thus, candidates for Theorem 1.1 have to be extremal real numbers. For each x =(x 0,x 1,x 2 ) Z 3 and each ξ R, wedefine x = max{ x 0, x 1, x 2 } and L ξ (x) =max{ x 0 ξ x 1, x 0 ξ 2 x 2 }. Identifying x with the symmetric matrix ( x0 x 1 x 1 x 2 ),

3 APPROXIMATION TO REAL NUMBERS 1083 we also define det(x) =x 0 x 2 x 2 1. Then, Theorem 5.1 of [6] provides the following characterization of extremal real numbers. Proposition 2.1. Areal number ξ is extremal if and only if there exists aconstant c 3 1 and an unbounded sequence of nonzero points (x k ) k 1 of Z 3 satisfying, for all k 1, (i) c 1 3 x k γ x k+1 c 3 x k γ, (ii) c 1 3 x k 1 L ξ (x k ) c 3 x k 1, (iii) 1 det(x k ) c 3, (iv) 1 det(x k, x k+1, x k+2 ) c 3. In order to prove our main Theorem 1.1, we will also need the following special case of Proposition 9.1 of [6] where, for a real number t, the symbol {t} denotes the distance from t to a closest integer: Proposition 2.2. Let ξ be an extremal real number and let (x k ) k 1 be as in Proposition 2.1. Assume that, upon writing x k =(x k,0,x k,1,x k,2 ), there exists a constant c 4 > 0 such that {x k,0 ξ 3 } c 4 for all k 1. Then, for any algebraic integer α of degree at most 3 over Q, we have ξ α c 5 H(α) γ2 for some constant c 5 > 0. Since extremal real numbers are transcendental over Q (see [6, 5]), this reduces the proof of Theorem 1.1 to finding extremal real numbers satisfying the hypotheses of the above proposition. Note that, for an extremal real number ξ and a corresponding sequence (x k ) k 1, Proposition 9.2 of [6] shows that there exists a constant c 6 > 0 such that {x k,0 ξ 3 } c 6 x k 1/γ3 for any sufficiently large k. We also mention the following direct consequence of Corollary 5.2 of [6]: Proposition 2.3. Let ξ be an extremal real number and let (x k ) k 1 be as in Proposition 2.1. Then there exists an integer k 0 1 and a 2 2 matrix M with integral coefficients such that, viewing each x k as a symmetric matrix, the point x k+2 is a rational multiple of x k+1 Mx k when k k 0 is odd, and a rational multiple of x t k+1 Mx k when k k 0 is even.

4 1084 DAMIEN ROY Proof. Corollary 5.2 together with formula (2.2) of [6] show that there exists an integer k 0 1 such that x k+2 is a rational multiple of x k+1 x 1 k 1 x k+1 for all k>k 0. If S is a 2 2 matrix such that x k+1 is a rational multiple of x k Sx k 1 for some k>k 0, this implies that x k+2 is a rational multiple of x k Sx k+1 and thus, by taking transpose, that x k+2 is a rational multiple of x t k+1 Sx k. The conclusion then follows by induction on k, upon choosing M so that the required property holds for k = k 0. Note that, in the case where all points x k have determinant 1, one may assume that M GL 2 (Z) inthe above proposition and the conclusion then becomes x k+2 = ±x k+1 Sx k where S is either M or t M depending on the parity of k k 0. This motivates the following definition: Definition 2.4. Let M GL 2 (Z) beanonsymmetric matrix. We denote by E(M) the set of extremal real numbers ξ with the following property. There exists a sequence of points (x k ) k 1 in Z 3 satisfying the conditions of Proposition 2.1 which, viewed as symmetric matrices, belong to GL 2 (Z) and satisfy the recurrence relation { M if k is odd, x k+2 = x k+1 Sx k, (k 1), where S = t M if k is even. Examples of extremal real numbers are the Fibonacci continued fractions ξ a,b (see [5] and [6, 6]) where a and b denote distinct positive integers. They are defined as the real numbers ξ a,b =[0,a,b,a,a,b,...]=1/(a +1/(b + )) whose sequence of partial quotients begins with 0 followed by the elements of the Fibonacci word on {a, b}, the infinite word abaab starting with a which is a fixed point of the substitution a ab and b a. Corollary 6.3 of [6] then shows that such a number ξ a,b belongs to E(M) with (2.2) M = ( a )( b ) = We conclude this section with the following result. Lemma 2.5. matrix ( ab +1 a b 1 ). Assume that ξ belongs to E(M) for some nonsymmetric ( ) a b M = GL c d 2 (Z), and let (x k ) k 1 be as in Definition 2.4. Then, upon writing x k =(x k,0,x k,1,x k,2 ), we have, for all k 2, (i) x k+2 =(ax k,0 +(b + c)x k,1 + dx k,2 )x k+1 ± x k 1, (ii) x k,0 x k+1,2 x k,2 x k+1,0 = ±(ax k 1,0 dx k 1,2 ) ± (b c)x k 1,1.

5 APPROXIMATION TO REAL NUMBERS 1085 Proof. For k 1, we have x k+1 = x k Sx k 1 and x k+2 = x k+1 t Sx k where S is M or t M according to whether k is even or odd, and so x k+2 = t x k+2 = x k Sx k+1 =(x k S) 2 x k 1. Since Cayley-Hamilton s theorem gives we deduce (x k S) 2 = trace(x k S)x k S det(x k S)I, x k+2 = trace(x k S)x k+1 det(x k S)x k 1 which proves (i). Finally, (ii) follows from the fact that the left-hand side of this inequality is the sum of the coefficients outside of the diagonal of the product ( ) 0 1 x k Jx k+1 where J =, and that, since Jx k J = ±x 1 k,wehave x k Jx k+1 = ±Jx 1 k x k+1 = ±JSx k A smaller class of real numbers Although we expect that all extremal real numbers ξ satisfy a measure of approximation by algebraic integers of degree at most 3 which is close to that of Theorem 1.1, say with exponent γ 2 + ε for any ε>0, we could only prove in [6] that they satisfy a measure with exponent γ 2 +1 (see [6, Th. 1.5]). Here we observe that the formulas of Lemma 2.5 show a particularly simple arithmetic for the elements ξ of E(M) when, in the notation of this lemma, the matrix M has b =1,c = 1 and d =0.Taking advantage of this, we will prove: Theorem 3.1. Let a be apositive integer. Then, any element ξ of ( ) a 1 E a = E satisfies the measure of approximation of Theorem 1.1. The proof of this result will be given in the next section. Below, we simply show that, for a =1,the corresponding set of extremal real numbers is not empty. Proposition 3.2. Let m be a positive integer. Then, the real number η =(m +1+ξ m,m+2 ) 1 =[0,m+1,m,m+2,m,m,m+2,...] belongs to the set E 1.

6 1086 DAMIEN ROY Proof. We first note that, if a real number ξ belongs to E(M) for some nonsymmetric matrix M GL 2 (Z) with corresponding sequence of symmetric matrices (x k ) k 1, and if C is any element of GL 2 (Z), then the real number η for which (η, 1) is proportional to (ξ, 1)C belongs to E( t CMC) with corresponding sequence (C 1 x t k C 1 ) k 1. The conclusion then follows since ξ m,m+2 belongs to E(M) where M is given by (2.2) with a = m and b = m +2 and since ( ) t 1 1 CMC = for C = ( ) m +1 Remark. In fact, it can be shown that E a is not empty for any integer a 1. For example, consider the sequence of matrices (x k ) k 1 defined recursively using the formula of Definition 2.4 with ( ) ( 1 1 a x 1 =, x = 3 +2a a 3 a 2 ) +2a 1 a 3 a 2 +2a 1 a 3 2a 2 +3a 2 and ( ) a 1 M =. Then, using similar arguments as in [6, 6], it can be shown that (x k ) k 1 is a sequence of symmetric matrices in GL 2 (Z) which satisfies the four conditions of Proposition 2.1 for some real number ξ which therefore belongs to E a. 4. Proof of Theorem 3.1 We fix a positive integer a, areal number ξ E a, and a corresponding sequence of points (x k ) k 1 of Z 3 as in Definition 2.4. For simplicity, we also define X k = x k and δ k = {x k,2 ξ}, (k 1). The constant c 3 being as in Proposition 2.1, we first note that (4.1) {x k,0 ξ} x k,0 ξ x k,1 c 3 Xk 1, {x k,1ξ} x k,1ξ x k,0ξ 2 + x k,0ξ 2 x k,2 ( ξ +1)c 3 Xk 1. For k 2, the recurrence formula of Lemma 2.5 (i) implies (4.2) x k+2,2 = ax k,0 x k+1,2 ± x k 1,2 and Lemma 2.5 (ii) gives x k,0 x k+1,2 = x k,2 x k+1,0 ± ax k 1,0 ± 2x k 1,1. Using (4.1), the latter relation leads to the estimate {x k,0 x k+1,2 ξ} X k {x k+1,0 ξ} + a{x k 1,0 ξ} +2{x k 1,1 ξ} c 7 X 1 k 1

7 APPROXIMATION TO REAL NUMBERS 1087 for some constant c 7 > 0 (since X k Xk+1 1 c2+γ 3 Xk 1 1 by virtue of Proposition 2.1 (i)). Combining this with (4.2), we deduce δ k+2 δ k 1 a{x k,0 x k+1,2 ξ} ac 7 Xk 1 1. Since the sequence (X k ) k 1 grows at least geometrically, this in turn implies that, for any pair of integers j and k which are congruent modulo 3 with j k 1, we have δ j δ k c 8 Xk 1 with some other constant c 8 > 0. Since {x k,0 ξ 3 } δ k x k,0 ξ 3 x k,2 ξ c 3 ξ Xk 1, (k 1), we conclude that, for i =1, 2, 3, the limit θ i = lim {x i+3j,0 ξ 3 } = lim δ i+3j j j exists and that θ i {x k,0 ξ 3 } (c 8 + c 3 ξ )Xk 1 for k i mod 3. Since, for all sufficiently large k, Proposition 9.2 of [6] gives {x k,0 ξ 3 } c 9 X 1/γ3 k with a constant c 9 > 0, these numbers θ i are nonzero. Thus the sequence ( ) {x k,0 ξ 3 } has (at most three) nonzero accumulation points and therefore k 1 is bounded below by some positive constant, say for k k 0,toexclude the finitely many indices k where x k,0 =0. Applying Proposition 2.2 to the subsequence (x k ) k k0,weconclude that ξ has the approximation property stated in Theorem 1.1. University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada address: References [1] J.-P. Allouche, J. L. Davison, M. Queffélec, and L. Q. Zamboni, Transcendence of Sturmian or morphic continued fractions, J. Number Theory 91 (2001), [2] H. Davenport and W. M. Schmidt, Approximation to real numbers by quadratic irrationals, Acta Arith. 13 (1967), [3], Approximation to real numbers by algebraic integers, Acta Arith. 15 (1969), [4] M. Laurent, Simultaneous rational approximation to the successive powers of a real number, Indag. Math. 11 (2003), [5] D. Roy, Approximation simultanée d un nombre et de son carré, C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, ser. I 336 (2003), 1 6. [6], Approximation to real numbers by cubic algebraic integers I, Proc. London Math. Soc. 88 (2004), 42 62; arxiv:math.nt/ [7] W. M. Schmidt, Diophantine Approximation, Lecture Notes in Math. 785, Springer- Verlag, New York, (Received October 11, 2002)

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