Thermal Management Design for Acrich2

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1 Thermal Management Design for Acrich2

2 1. Introduction [ Contents ] 2. Thermal management for Acrich Change of Acrich2 characteristics with temperature 3. Thermal modeling for Acrich Thermal resistance of Acrich package 3-2. Characterization parameter of Acrich IC 3-3. Junction temperature calculation 3-4. Junction temperature of Acrich components 3-5. Maximum T t of IC and T s of LED 3-6. Characterization parameter of Acrich IC 4. Recommended design for proper thermal management 4-1. PCB design 4-2. Heat sink design 4-3. Interface material design 4-4. Material property

3 Introduction Acrich2 series designed for AC drive (or operation) doesn t need the converter which is essential for conventional lighting. Acrich2 has various applications in the field of general lighting like MR, incandescent, Down-light and Linear light. Thermal management of Acrich2 products is critical in the design of lighting products to ensure the highest performance and reliability of the end product. In this paper, the method for measuring junction temperature of the LED and Acrich IC are described. Furthermore, to improve thermal characteristics recommendations and methods for PCB design, heat-sink design and interface materials are suggested.

4 Thermal management for Acrich2 Change of Acrich2 characteristics with temperature Temperature is one of the most critical factors that determines the optical, electrical and lumen maintenance characteristics of an LED design, like Acrich2. Normally, luminous flux decreases gradually with increasing junction temperature. If the maximum junction temperature of an LED is it exceeded, it could have a severe impact on the LED reliability. The Acrich Integrated Circuit(IC) is also sensitive to temperature change. If the maximum temperature of the IC is exceeded the IC may operate abnormally. (a) (b) <Figure 1> Current wave form (a) normal operation (b) abnormal operation

5 Thermal modeling for Acrich2 Thermal resistance of the Acrich package A mechanical cross section of the Acrich package with the thermocouple is shown in figure 2. <Figure 2> Cross section of Acrich package T j is junction temperature of LED chip. T s is surface temperature of lead for the package. Rθ i-s is the thermal resistance from junction to package lead. P D is the power dissipation. T j = T s + (Rθ j-s * P D ) Thermal resistance of Acrich packages are shown in table 1. Acrich package 5630 Package power dissipation [W] 0.43 Rθ j-s [ /W] AZ Products SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA <Table 1> Thermal resistance of the Acrich2 package

6 Characterization parameter of Acrich IC A mechanical cross section of Acrich IC with the thermocouple is shown in figure 3. <Figure 3> Cross section of Acrich IC T j is junction temperature of IC chip. T t is top temperature of IC surface. ψ i-t is the characterization parameter from junction to IC top surface. P D is the power dissipation. T j = T t + (ψ j-t * P D ) Characterization parameter for Acrich IC are shown in table 2. Acrich IC 6 x 6 8 x 8 120V 220V 120V 220V IC power dissipation [w] ψ j-t [ /W] 100V V Products SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA <Table 2> Characterization parameter of Acrich IC: The value is measured under metal PCB

7 Junction temperature calculation The junction temperature for the LED and IC can be calculated in the following manner. Figure 4 shows thermocouple placements to T s (Surface temperature for LED) and T t (Top temperature for IC). After measurement of T s (LED) and T t (IC), using the given parameters, Rθ(LED) and ψ(ic) values, each junction temperature can be calculated. T s (LED) T t (IC) <Figure 4> Thermocouple placement <Figure 5> Temperature variation of IC and package for SMJEA

8 We can use the following example to show the calculations. Figure 6 shows the temperature variation for the SMJEA at 220Vrms with a power dissipation of 8.5W. T s (Surface temperature for LED) is T t (Top temperature for IC) is 64. Refer to table 1 and 2, Rθ j-s (LED) is 27 /W and ψ i-t (IC) is 5.0 /W. P D = 21.7V * 0.02A = 0.434W The junction temperature for the LED is calculated using the following formula: T j = T s + (Rθ j-s * P D ) = (27 /W * 0.434W) = 67.8 and the calculation for the IC is: T j = T t + (ψ j-t * P D ) = 64 + (4.98 /W * 0.79W) = 68 Figures 7-10 show the saturation curve over time of T s for the LED and T t for the IC. We have used a basic aluminum heatsink for reference. Refer to figure 5. <Top view> <Front view> <Side view> <Figure 6> Basic aluminum heat sink

9 Junction temperature of Acrich components Graphs of T t of the IC and T s of the LED are measured below in figures A basic square aluminum heat sink is used as shown in figure 6. A 1.2W/mK thermal adhesive tape is used to attach the PCB to the Heat-sink. <Figure 7> SMJEA series temperature variation of IC and LED <Figure 8> SMJEA series temperature variation of IC and LED

10 <Figure 9> SMJEA series junction temperature variation of IC and LED <Figure 10> SMJEA series junction temperature variation of IC and LED

11 SMJEA VF[V] SMJEA SMJEA SMJEA Junction temperature for Acrich package [ ] Junction temperature for Acrich IC [ ] <Table 3> Junction temperature Acrich2 on a square aluminum heat sink

12 Maximum T t of IC and T s of LED In order to operate the Acrich2 normally, the junction temperature of the components (IC and LED) must operate lower than the maximum junction temperature. We can calculate the maximum junction temperature under different operating conditions by using the previous formulas and examples. Acrich IC There are two different Acrich ICs, one is a 6mm x 6mm and the other is an 8mm x 8mm. The 6 x 6 Acrich IC is used on the SMJEA and SMJEA and the 8 x 8 Acrich IC is used on the SMJEA , SMJEA and SMJEA These two devices have different thermal characterization parameters, therefore different Tt maximums. For example, the 6 x 6 Acrich IC has a thermal characterization parameter of 16.4 /W (SMJEA , 20Vrms) and the maximum junction temperature of the IC is 125, therefore the allowable max top temperature (T t_max ) is: T t_max = T j_max - (ψ j-t * P D ) = (16.4 /W * 0.41W) = 118 If we look at the 8 x 8 Acrich IC, it has a thermal characterization parameter of V) and the maximum top temperature of the IC is: T t_max = T j_max - (ψ j-t * P D ) = (4.98 /W * 0.79W) = 121 Table 4 gives a summary of allowable maximum T t of Acrich2 ICs. VF[V] Allowable maximum T t_max for IC [ ] 6 x 6 Acrich IC 8 x 8 Acrich IC <Table 4> Allowable maximum top temperature of Acrich IC measured on the metal core PCB.

13 Acrich package The 5630(5.6mm x 3.0mm) Acrich package has a thermal resistance of 27 /W which used on the SMJEA , SMJEA , SMJEA and SMJEA The maximum junction temperature of the 5630 Acrich package is 125, therefore the maximum permissible surface of lead temperature T s_max is: T s_max = T j_max - (Rθ j-s * P D ) = (27 /W * 0.434W) = 113 The AZ4 Acrich package which is used on the SMJEA has a thermal resistance of 5.7 /W. The maximum permissible surface of lead temperature is: T s_max = T j_max - (Rθ j-s * P D ) = (5.7 /W * 1.12W) = 118 Table 5 shows a summary of the allowable maximum T s of Acrich2 packages. VF[V] Allowable maximum T s_max for LED [ ] 5630 AZ4 All All <Table 5> Allowable maximum surface of lead temperature of Acrich package

14 Characterization parameter of Acrich IC The characterization parameters of the Acrich ICs change with power consumption as shown below in figure 11. [ Characterization parameter /W] <Figure 11> Characterization parameter of Acrich IC

15 Recommended design for proper thermal management PCB design The PCB is the most critical factor determining the thermal characteristics of Acrich2. FR4 is the most commonly used material for PCBs, however FR4 has a very low thermal conductivity due to the FR4 dielectric material. The following method is used to improve the thermal characteristics for an FR4 board by adding thermal vias between the top copper layer and the bottom copper layer. Better thermal performance can be achieved by using a metal core PCB which has a much better thermal conductivity and can improve the thermal dissipation. <Figure 12> Cross section of PCB: Metal core PCB, FR4 PCB and FR4 with thermal via PCB Metal core PCB Table 6 below shows typical thermal conductivity according to thickness for metal core PCBs. Layer Thermal conductivity [W/mK] Thickness [µm] Aluminum Dielectric layer Copper (Top) <Table 6> Thermal conductivity of metal core PCB

16 The thermal resistance for a metal core PCB(MCPCB) can be calculated by using the following equations: Rθ = t / (k * A) t is layer thickness k is thermal conductivity A is area For a 1661mm 2 area(such as the SMJEA PCB): Rθ = Rθ aluminum + Rθ Dielectric + Rθ Copper = (t / (k * A)) aluminum + (t / (k * A)) Dielectic + (t / (k * A)) Copper = 0.03 /W However, the actual thermal resistance for an MCPCB is much larger than 0.03 /W. This is because the effective (heat) area is smaller than the whole PCB area. The LED is not spread across the whole MCPCB. FR4 PCB Table 7 below shows typical thermal conductivity according to the thickness of FR4. For 1661mm 2 area, Rθ = Rθ Copper + Rθ FR4 + Rθ Copper = 4.8 /W Layer Thermal conductivity [W/mK] Thickness [µm] Copper (Bottom) FR Copper (Top) <Table 7> Thermal conductivity of FR4 PCB However, the actual thermal resistance for FR4 is much larger than 4.8 /W, because the effective (heat) area is smaller than the FR4 material. The LED is not spread across the whole PCB.

17 FR4 with thermal vias Thermal vias in FR4 are filled solder material like SnAgCu compound. Table 8 below shows typical thermal conductivity according to the thickness of the FR4 with via. The heat from the LED is able to pass more easily through FR4 with a thermal via from the top layer to the bottom layer because of the lower thermal resistance of the via. The equations to calculate thermal resistance for an FR4 board with thermal vias is below: Rθ = Rθ Copper + (Rθ FR4 // Rθ Thermal via ) + Rθ Copper = (t / (k * A)) copper + {(t / (k * A)) FR4 // (t / (k * A)) Thermal via } + (t / (k * A)) Copper = 3.7 /W In case of FR4 with six vias and a diameter of 0.3mm per via and 1661mm 2 area of PCB, the thermal resistance is 3.7 /W. This is a 23% improvement over the initial 4.8 /W derived from Table 8. If the effective thermal area (small heat source) is considered, the improvement gap increase around 50% over. Layer Thermal conductivity W/mK] Thickness [µm] Copper (Bottom) FR Thermal via (Solder) Copper (Top) <Table 8> Thermal conductivity of FR4 with thermal via PCB

18 Temperature simulation parameters for the IC and LED Product: SMJEA Voltage: 220Vrms Thermal pad: 100mm, 1.2W/mK Heat sink: Refer to figure 14 <Figure 13> Temperature comparison as kinds of PCB

19 Heat sink design One of the most effective and simplest cooling methods is to use a heat sink. In order to achieve good heat transfer between the components (IC and LED) and ambient temperature, the heat sink must have an optimal structure. Normally, the heat sink material that is used is aluminum due to its high thermal conductivity, low weight and low cost. For bulb applications, the heat transfer is done using free convection, but the structure of the heat sink must have an optimal size, a number of fins and gaps between each fin to allow for good air flow. The gap and quantity of fins is very important. The more fins, the more surface area, but a gap is needed to allow the air to pass. The following section describes example simulations using Flowtherm and provides the results of different bulb heat sinks for the SMJEA and SMJEA The examples will show different heat sink sizes and fin quantities. At simulation, the following are fixed: an aluminum metal PCB and 1.2W/mK thermal tape is used to adhere the PCB to the heatsink. First, for verification purposes between real tests and simulations, we will measure T t and T s for the SMJEA with the bulb heat sink. The bulb heat sink used is shown in Figure 15. Table 9 shows the results between measured and simulation for verification purposes. T t [ ] T s [ ] Experiment Simulation <Table 9> Comparison data between experiment and simulation for SMJEA with bulb heat sink 7.0mm 7.0mm <Figure 14> Basic bulb heat sink structure

20 Figure 15 shows the temperature variation of IC and LED with modification to the fin quantity of the heat sink. < Simulation parameters > Product: SMJEA Voltage: 220Vrms Thermal pad: 100µm thickness, 1.2W/mK thermal conductivity Heat sink: Refer to figure 14 <Figure 15> Temperature variation with change in number of fins As the simulation shows, a heat sink with 20 fins has a T t and T s of 70.6 and 70.4 Respectively, but with a 0 fin heat sink, T t and T s are increased to 76.2 and The IC and LED junction temperature are calculated to be: T j_ic = T t + (ψ j-t * P D ) = (4.98 /W * 0.792W) = 80 T j_led = T s + (Rθ j-s * P D ) = (27 /W * 0.434W) = 88

21 The bulb heat sink shown in figure 14 is not an optimal structure for the SMJEA It is just one example, therefore more optimization may be done changing the size, fin gap, fin quantity and shape to even further reduce the junction temperature. The next simulation is for SMJEA which has a 12W power dissipation. Figure 17 is the simulation result by changing the heat sink size. In simulation, an aluminum heat sink, metal core PCB and 1.2W/mK thermal tape are used for the input parameters, however these heat sink conditions shown in Table 10, are not the most optimal structure either for the SMJEA More optimization of the heat sink structure and use of high quality thermal material can improve the thermal characteristics. Fin Base Free space Length Case I Length [mm] Heat sink Free space depth [mm] Thickness [mm] Diameter [mm] Quantity [ea] area [mm 2 ] Case II Case III Base Fin Gap [mm] 3.6 <Table 10> Simulation parameters for SMJEA heat sink

22 < Simulation parameters > Product: SMJEA Voltage: 220V,RMS Thermal pad: 100µm, 1.2W/mK <Figure 16> Simulation results for the SMJEA As mentioned earlier, for a complete understanding of whether a certain heat sink will dissipate the appropriate heat for Acrich2 products, T t and T s must be checked and these values must be no more than T t_max and T s_max as shown in table 4 and 5.

23 Interface material design Thermal interface material can help control junction temperature of the Acrich2 as well. It is used to fill the air gap between the Acrich2 PCB and the heat sink. Thermal interface materials are thermally conductive and electrically isolating. They come in pad (tape) or liquid dispensable types. Figure 17 shows simulation results using different thermal interface materials. Thermal resistances of interface materials can go from 0.52 /W to 2.25 /W. Thermal pad material performance (thermal resistance) depends on the pressure used in the assembly process. Actual product performance is directly related to the surface roughness, flatness and pressure applied. < Simulation parameters > Product: SMJEA Voltage: 220V,RMS Thermal pad thickness: 100mm Thermal pad area: 1661mm 2 (SMJEA PCB size) Heat sink diameter: Refer to figure 14 <Figure 17> Temperature variation of IC and LED as value of thermal resistance of interface material

24 Material property Material Aluminum_Pure Aluminum_4.5% Cu, 1.5% Mg, 0.6% Mn Aluminum_4.5% Cu Copper_Pure Copper_90% Cu, 10% Al Thermal conductivity [W/mK] Copper_89% Cu, 11% Sn Copper_70% Cu, 30% Zn Copper_55% Cu, 45% Ni Gold Iron_Pure Iron_99.75% pure Nikel_Pure Nikel_80% NI, 20% Cr Nikel_73% Ni, 15% Cr, 6.7% Fe Silicon Silver Tin Tungsten Aluminum oxide, sapphire Silicon carbide Silicon dioxide Silicon nitride Glass <Table 11> Thermal conductivity

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