# Implementing an Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm for Error Recovery in Concurrent Processing Systems

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1 Implementing an Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm for Error Recovery in Concurrent Processing Systems Dr. Silvia Heubach Dr. Raj S. Pamula Department of Mathematics and Computer Science California State University Los Angeles

2 Overview Problem Statement Recovery Algorithms Previous Work Implementation Issues Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm Simulation Comparison of Performance Conclusion 1

3 Problem Statement Design of a reliable concurrent processing system Transient errors detected by acceptance tests (AT) with a delay Consistent system states established using (global) checkpoints Error recovery is attempted by rolling back to previously established checkpoint and restarting the system What is the best method for rollback recovery? 2

4 Recovery Algorithms Iterative Algorithm Rolls back one checkpoint (CP) at a time, starting from most recent one Recovery (if possible) is achieved from the CP just prior to failure Probabilistic Algorithm Based on distribution of latency times Selects CP for recovery by comparing pairs of checkpoints for smaller expected cost of recovery 3

5 Previous Work Simulation of 4 concurrent processes Waiting times between events are independent exponential random variables Ranges for average times between inter-connections:.25-1 (hours) failures: (hours) acceptance tests: 1-2 (hours) Result: Probabilistic Algorithm better if checkpoint interval length < median of latency time distribution (=.45) 4

6 Implementation Issues Can't measure exact latency times (to get empirical distribution function) Theoretical derivation of latency distribution difficult due to dependencies introduced through interconnections Solution: Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm 5

7 Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm (APA) Use iterative method to measure approximate latency times Actual latency time Approximate latency time Failure Checkpoint AT Compute empirical distribution function of approximate latency times Switch to probabilistic method based on this empirical distribution function 6

8 Approximate Probabilistic Algorithm (APA) APA works for all distributions and allows for dependent events as well No parameter estimation needed (as would be necessary if one would be able to derive the theoretical distribution of latency times) Easy to implement Parameters for Implementation - N = number of data points collected using iterative algorithm - Length of checkpoint interval (=: error interval) during data collection phase 7

9 Simulation Two phases - data collection - performance comparison Phase I - 10 simulations, each up to 100 hours detected failures - exact and approximate latency times measured for error interval lengths 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, and

10 Latency Time Distributions exact

11 Simulation (Phase II) 30 simulations (up to time 100) for each combination of - CP interval length C = 0.1, 0.15,..., Recovery level 90% and 95% - N = 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 and 200 Compute average cost for each case Performance measure: Cost of APA as percentage of cost incurred with iterative algorithm 10

12 Comparison of Performance Exact Probabilistic N C > probabilistic method better - for C =.40 and.45, methods almost identical - if N = 25 is disregarded, get nice efficiency brackets 11

13 Comparison of Performance Exact Probabilistic N C Error Interval 0.1 N C >

14 Comparison of Performance Exact Probabilistic N C Error Interval 0.15 N C >

15 Comparison of Performance Exact Probabilistic N C Error Interval 0.2 N C >

16 Comparison of Performance Exact Probabilistic N C Error Interval 0.25 N C >

17 Conclusion APA performs very similar to "exact" probabilistic method for error interval length 0.1 and N > 25 - At least 40% for C = At least 30% for C = At least 20% for C = At least 10% for C = 0.25 For error interval lengths 0.15 and 0.2, APA achieves comparable efficiency brackets APA universally applicable, independent of assumptions on waiting times between events 16

18 Future Work Simulation - uniform selection of data points for all error intervals - other distributions Theoretical results - number of data points necessary as function of error interval length Author Info:

19 Author Info: Paper and Presentation

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