1 Injury Prevention in the Library Workplace Why the human body and libraries don t mix and what to do about it Ryan O Connor Accredited Exercise Physiologist (AEP) BSc Ex. & Sports Science ESSAM
2 Objectives Mechanism of injuries: OOS General treatment strategies ideas for self management Ergonomics overview prevention strategy Enable staff to reduce the risk factors that are inherent in computer/screen based work. To ensure staff are able to recognise the signs & symptoms usually associated with the onset of soft tissue injuries & take appropriate steps to avoid exacerbating the condition.
3 Objectives Know how to correctly adjust your chair and workstation to optimise the match with the body Effectively use simple keyboard workstation assessment checklists to identify & assess the functionality of workstations Perform basic exercise routines to promote musculotendon nimbleness, blood flow and reduce muscle fatigue. Questions?
4 Office Workstation Facts A typical computer based worker is defined as spending 30 hours or more per week working at a computer The average person working at a keyboard can perform 50,000 to 200,000 keystrokes a day Researchers* found that typists typically exerted 4-5 times the amount of force required to operate the keyboard and potentially lead to upper extremity symptoms. * Feuerstein, M., Armstrong, T., Hickey, P., and Lincoln, A Computer keyboard force and upper extremity symptoms. J Occup Environ Med vol 39, pp out of 3 office workers have reported experiencing discomfort and/or pain after working in an office environment for > 12 months. (painful neck/shoulder, lower back pain, headache, eye strain) # Junghanns, Ertel, Ullsperger Anforderungsbewältigung und Gesundheit bei computergesützter Büroarbeit, 1998 Coping and Health in VDU-assisted office work in WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational Health Newsletter, June. Vol 3, no 2 (WHO Geneva) p9
5 Risk of injury So its little wonder why... So many people are getting injured at in the office environment. Something to ponder -> Athletes train and get properly coached to run correctly and use the best equipment.. But how many of us are really conditioned for office work and use the best equipment for office work???
6 OOS So what are you at risk of? Occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) range of conditions - including injury characterised by discomfort or pain in the muscles, tendons and other soft tissues. It usually develops over time and caused by types of work with sustained or constrained postures, repetitive and/or forceful movements. What can cause OOS? Any work requiring fast repetitive movements, fixed postures held for long periods, repeated forceful movements and or working at a poorly designed workstation has an OOS risk.
7 Types of OOS? Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) Medial Epicondylitis (Golfers Elbow) Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) Shoulder Bursitis or Impingement Can I Have a Volunteer??
8 Symptoms and Areas affected by OOS Swelling, numbness, restricted movement and weakness in or around muscles and tendons of the back, neck, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hands or fingers. Difficulty holding objects in the hands - affecting your day to day functional ability. Low Back Pain Shoulder Tension/Ache Low Back Neck Soreness Pain Wrist/Elbow Soreness Upper back Ache Q: How do we prevent OOS? A: Regular exercise, stretching and implementing well designed ergonomic programs!
9 Shoulder issues in libraries Shelving Compactus Trolleys Scanning returns area or desk Mouse work Displays (monitor or literal) Chair height? Age related? Hormonal links? Genetics
10 Tips for Safe Shelving Reaching overhead puts stress on your shoulders, arms and upper back Use foot stool when shelving books on high shelves INCORRECT CORRECT
11 Tips for Safe Shelving Carrying too many books while shelving can put stress on your arms and shoulders Carry only the book being shelved INCORRECT CORRECT
12 Tips for Safe Shelving Bending at the waist puts stress on your back Squat when shelving books on low shelves Keep your back straight INCORRECT CORRECT CORRECT
13 Tips for Safe Shelving Lifting heavy books can put stress on your wrists, arms and shoulders Use two hands to lift heavy books, such as bound volumes of serials Use two-handed power grip to disperse load and maintain neutral hand positions while shelving INCORRECT CORRECT POWER GRIP
14 Tips for Safe Shelving Pinch grip strength is approximately 25% of the strength of using the whole hand, increasing the risk of wrist injury Avoid use of a pinch grip when shelving INCORRECT CORRECT
15 Work Organization Take stretch breaks Vary tasks, whenever possible Switch hands and arms Work at a comfortable pace Too fast a pace does not allow the body to recover from repetitive or forceful motions
16 Working postures, Question: Are they always harmful? 16
22 What is Ergonomics Ergonomics = The study of the relationship between human capabilities (Natural Laws) & the work environment and its demands (Work) The study of how humans interact with their work environment to reduce injury, increase efficiency and reduce error Aim = To fit the task to the person
23 One Main Aim Prevent & address these office based ailments!!
24 One Main aim - 4 basic ideas Equipment Selection Workstation Design Workflow Design Human Body Proper Seating Posture
25 One Main aim - 4 basic ideas Human Body Proper Seating Posture
26 Is this you at the end of the day?
27 Principles of Proper Sitting <
28 One Main aim - 4 basic ideas Equipment Selection Human Body
29 Equipment Phone/Documents Documents Chair/Footstool Office Chair Keyboard/Mouse Desk/ Workstation Monitor Hard-Drive/Monitor Familiarize yourself to various options..
30 Office Chairs
31 What makes a good chair 5 Star Base Castors /Flooring Lumbar Support Seat Pan i. Width (>2cm wider) ii. iii. Back of knee allowance (~ 5 cm) Waterfall type front 3 Lever Mechanism i. Back Rest Height/Tilt ii. iii. Seat Pan Tilt Seat Height
32 What s about ergonomic library equipment? Generally its BUDGET Vs NEEDS Ergonomic trolleys can be very helpful MAY be use for: Perfomance minimising risk However staff will still need to remember proper manual tasks skills
33 One Main aim - 4 basic ideas Workstation Design /Setup Human Body
34 Workstation Design & Setup Do you know how to setup your workstation optimally? What do you reckon is the first equipment at your workstation you should setup first?
35 Chair Setup!
36 Chair Setup: Step 1(Seat Height) Assess/Adjust Seat height Main Aim: Relaxed shoulders, void of tension May require footrest if feet does not reach the ground
37 Chair Setup: Step 2 (Seat Pan Tilt) Assess/Adjust Seat Pan Tilt Aim: Upper legs to be horizontal and parallel to the ground May require footrest if feet does not reach the ground
38 Chair Setup: Step 3 (Back Rest Height) Assess/Adjust Back Rest Height Aim: Backrest adjusted to support small of the back (lumbar region)
39 Chair Setup Can I have a volunteer??!!
40 Examples Anterior Pelvic Tilt
41 Monitor Setup!
42 Monitor Setup Eye level at TOP THIRD of screen Distance approx 1 arms length away Centrally positioned Bifocal lenses users may need to lower monitor position
43 Keyboard/Mouse Setup Keyboard should be positioned close enough to the body to avoid a forward shoulder position Angle at elbow approx 90 to 100 degrees
44 Phone/Documents Setup Documents should be place centrally between keyboard and screen. A document holder is an excellent tool to avoid rotation at the neck. Another method to avoid discomfort at the neck is to avoid necking the phone. - Position phone on opp. Side of master hand
45 Workspace Layout / Setup When designing your workspace layout Main rule: time spent on task = reach distance
46 One Main aim - 4 basic ideas Work Flow/System Design Human Body
47 Benefits of good work design/flow: task variation, breaks & stretching Reduced incidence of strains Strains = Muscles stretched too far too fast Allowance for movement of other parts of the body Improved Muscle Blood Flow Especially to areas that have remained static for a prolonged duration Recharge spinal fluids Increased Healing of microscopic muscle tears Enhanced Relaxation/ Freshness, both physical & mental
48 Duration and Variety of Tasks Long duration + Low variety of tasks (i.e. Repetitive movements) = Risk of occupational overuse syndrome (OOS) and musculoskeletal injuries (MSD). Potent mix of factors = high risk Repetitive movements Quick movements Long duration Same joints Same muscle groups Same motion Work involving movement repeated over and over is very tiring because the worker cannot fully recover in the short periods of time between movements.
49 Work system & Work flow Ergonomic researchers after looking through injury data and work habits reported that: work duties and physical work load should be distributed throughout the working day, allowing a range of activities to be integrated as part of normal task organisation and structure. This would provide maximum benefit to the workers by reducing the risk of overuse symptoms and Increase task performance Duration Low variety of tasks Typing 3 hrs Photocopying 1 hr Typing 2.5 hrs Phonecall 30 mins Printing 1.5 hrs Duration Low variety of tasks Typing 45 min Photocopying 10 min Phonecall 15 mins Printing 5 mins Typing 45 mins Photocopying 10 mins Meeting 30 mins Typing 20 mins Phonecall 10 mins Stretch Break 3 mins Åborg, C., Fernström, E., and Ericson, M. O., 1998 Work content and satisfaction before and after a reorganisation of data entry work. Applied Ergonomics, vol 29, no. 6 pp
50 Breaks Individuals who perform moderate to intensive computer work must take frequent "vision breaks". A good rule-of-thumb is to focus on a distant object for 15s seconds every 15 minutes or so. Individuals who perform moderate to intensive computer work are also recommended to take "posture breaks. A good rule of thumb is for about 5 to 10 mins every hour.
51 Stretching taking the muscle to its end range of motion and holding it for a period of time
52 Guidelines for Stretching Smooth, Controlled and purposeful movements Hold stretch for 20-30secs Remember to breath normally Point of slight tension (Not Pain!)
55 Stretches (Office Worker) Condition: Poor Hip/Trunk Flexibility, Lower back discomfort Stretch: Hamstring Stretch, Lower Back Stretch
56 Stretches (Office Worker) Condition: Poor Hip/Trunk Flexibility, Lower back discomfort Stretch: Hamstring Stretch, Lower Back Stretch
57 Stretches (Office Worker) Condition: Forward Pelvic Tilt, (Pronounced Lumbar Curve) Stretch: Hip Flexor Stretch, Lower Back Stretch
58 Never too late to stretch! Everyone should be stretching from the young to the old.
59 Summary Appropriate shelving techniques Know how your chair works and what adjustments to make for your body Appropriate monitor, keyboard and mouse placement No necking the phone (opp. Side to master hand) Shorter more frequent breaks Eye rest breaks (15 seconds every 15 to 30 mins) Posture rest breaks (5-10 mins every hour) Vary tasks Pace yourself Monitor your body- EXERCISE & STRETCH
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