1 Promoting the Urban Homestead: Reform of Local Land Use Laws to Allow Microlivestock on Residential Lots Mary Wood, Jeremy Pyle, Naomi Rowden, & Katy Irwin * INTRODUCTION Over the past several decades, Americans have divorced themselves from the ages-old endeavor of growing and harvesting their own food. During this era, the food system has undergone a radical change from its traditional makeup that predominated even just a few generations ago. Today, global distribution systems transport food thousands of miles before it reaches its final destination. While this model provides convenience and selection for consumers, the consolidation and centralization of food production has come at a high price. The U.S. food system is highly polluting, vulnerable to adversity, unsustainable, and, in some cases, unsafe for consumers. 1 For these and other reasons, citizens are increasingly urging their local officials to initiate regulatory and policy changes to encourage local food production on both public and private property. This Article explores some of the law and policy considerations for reforming city codes to allow for urban homesteading on residential city lots, focusing in particular on regulations pertaining to husbandry of microlivestock. Copyright 2010 by Mary Wood, Jeremy Pyle, Naomi Rowden, & Katy Irwin. * Mary Wood is the Philip H. Knight Professor of Law and Faculty Director of the Environmental and Natural Resources Law Program at the University of Oregon School of Law. Jeremy Pyle is an LL.M Candidate in Agricultural & Food Law, University of Arkansas School of Law and holds a J.D. from the University of Oregon School of Law. Naomi Rowden is a third year law student at the University of Oregon School of Law and is earning a concurrent graduate degree in Conflict and Dispute Resolution. Katy Irwin received her J.D. from the University of Oregon School of Law in See generally MICHAEL POLLAN, THE OMNIVORE S DILEMMA: A NATURAL HISTORY OF FOUR MEALS (2006). 68
2 2010] PROMOTING THE URBAN HOMESTEAD 69 THE URBAN HOMESTEADING MOVEMENT Urban homesteading is spreading rapidly in the United States as part of a worldwide movement known as relocalization, which seeks to build local resilience on several different fronts. Many new books promote and provide resources for the effort of transforming the urban or suburban yard into a food-producing lot. For example, The Urban Homestead 2 and The Backyard Homestead 3 are both excellent resource manuals for the homestead enterprise. The Integral Urban House, a recently reprinted classic from the 1970s, provides a detailed manual of animal husbandry. 4 Books and materials from the World War II vintage also provide instruction on chicken and rabbit husbandry. 5 Apart from how-to books, Farm City provides a lively narrative account of a couple engaged in urban homesteading in an impoverished area of Oakland, California. 6 Their inspiring approach takes hold in a neighborhood gripped with crime and poverty. A growing array of popular websites and blogs also promote urban homesteading. One site, Path to Freedom, features a family that produces fruits, vegetables, honey, goat milk, cheese, and eggs on its 0.1-acre garden in Pasadena, California. 7 The explosive growth of backyard chicken husbandry nationwide is also indicative of the popularity of this back-to-the-land strategy within city limits. As a New Yorker article observes, urban chicken raising is now a movement across North America. 8 As urban homesteading spreads, new local industries spring up to provide resources and infrastructure, and existing local businesses respond by providing the same. For example, local vendors in the Willamette Valley, such as the Coastal Farm Supply stores in Oregon and Washington, carry chicken coops and rabbit hutches in response to recent growth in urban homesteading. In addition, local garden shops and nurseries now stock a wide variety of fruit trees and other food producing plants, and also offer training sessions and other resources for the urban farmer. Microlivestock provides an important food-producing component of the urban homestead. As the leading book The Backyard Homestead 2. KELLY COYNE & ERIK KNUTZEN, THE URBAN HOMESTEAD: YOUR GUIDE TO SELF- SUFFICIENT LIVING IN THE HEART OF THE CITY (expanded & rev. ed. 2010). 3. CARLEEN MADIGAN, THE BACKYARD HOMESTEAD: PRODUCE ALL THE FOOD YOU NEED ON JUST A QUARTER ACRE! (2009). 4. HELGA OLKOWSKI ET AL., THE INTEGRAL URBAN HOUSE: SELF-RELIANT LIVING IN THE CITY (2008). 5. See, e.g., PAUL W. CHAPMAN, CHICKEN RAISING MADE EASY (1943); CLAUDE GOODCHILD & ALAN THOMPSON, KEEPING POULTRY AND RABBITS ON SCRAPS (1941). 6. NOVELLA CARPENTER, FARM CITY: THE EDUCATION OF AN URBAN FARMER (2009). 7. Path to Freedom: The Original Modern Urban Homestead, freedom.com (last visited Feb. 7, 2010). 8. Susan Orlean, The It Bird, NEW YORKER, Sep. 28, 2009 (internal quotation marks removed).
3 70 ECOLOGY LAW CURRENTS [Vol. 37:68 notes, The final step in completing a backyard homestead is the addition of animals for milk and meat. 9 As indicated by many books and websites on the subject, microlivestock appropriate for the typical residential urban city lot include chickens, ducks, turkeys, geese, quail, rabbits, pygmy goats, bees, and even fattening, or finishing, a pig for a few months out of the year may be appropriate. 10 When these species are managed together, their interactions result in closed-loop production processes and synergies that build on nature s own relationships. For example, rabbits and chickens produce fertilizer for the garden, the garden produces vegetables for the family, the vegetable scraps provide food for the chickens, and the chickens produce eggs. As many authors have observed, animals are an integral part of the garden because they provide pest control and fertilizer. 11 Currently, a limited number of cities give citizens the opportunity to take advantage of these urban homesteading benefits by allowing some or all of these animals, subject to various restrictions or conditions. U.S. FOOD POLICY CONCERNS As cities consider revising their land use codes, several new factors should inform the policy choices that underlie the need for reform. Urban homesteading has become increasingly popular because it reflects private property owners interests in promoting household food security, food safety, sustainability, and self-sufficiency. Such emerging private property interests are compatible with, and in fact reinforce, city initiatives aimed at local food resilience and sustainability. The following discussion inventories some primary concerns motivating personal food production on private property. Drawbacks of the Present Food System Virtually all communities in the United States depend heavily upon imported food, produced far away in climates and soils non-native to the particular locality. 12 Existing food supply chains typically contain few, if any, locally produced products. 13 In Eugene, Oregon, for example, a city with a vibrant local food culture, the number of dollars spent at local 9. MADIGAN, supra note 3, at Guinea pigs are sometimes included as well. 11. See OLKOWSKI, supra note 4, at 252; MADIGAN, supra note 3, at 246; see also Pam Maynard, Raising Chickens and Poultry for Home Pest Control, smallflocks/factsheets/raising_chickens_and_poultry_for_home_pest-control.pdf. 12. THOMAS A. LYSON, CIVIC AGRICULTURE: RECONNECTING FARM, FOOD, AND COMMUNITY 4 (2004). 13. Id. at 5.
4 2010] PROMOTING THE URBAN HOMESTEAD 71 farmers markets is still only a tiny fraction of overall food retail sales. 14 Many agricultural products are harvested at distant farms in Mexico, Brazil, China, or Australia, then pass through various transportation channels as they are processed, packaged, and distributed to retailers where consumers purchase them and transport them home. 15 Studies have shown that the average fresh food item has traveled between 1300 and 2000 miles before reaching the dinner plate. 16 Because of this long-distance transport, as well as the machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, and other goods used in large-scale agricultural production, the food production system is a significant user of energy, accounting for 15.7 percent of the total national energy budget in Even worse, the energy necessary to produce a given food product often greatly exceeds the caloric content of the food itself. One source estimates an input of ten kilocalories of fossil fuel energy is required for every one kilocalorie of food energy produced. 18 Moreover, long-distance transport requires elaborate packaging and often refrigeration, both of which are highly consumptive. 19 Once these packaged food products reach the post-consumer stage, municipalities are responsible for recycling or disposing of the resulting waste. Family Economic Security Many homeowners have turned to their own backyards for food cultivation not only to provide a safer, healthier selection of food, but also as a buffer against hard financial times. In fact, home food production is now recognized as an important economic endeavor. In her book Depletion and Abundance, author Sharon Astyk notes the importance of a domestic economy for family security in the face of an 14. LAUREN MAUL, LANE COUNTY FOOD COALITION, LANE COUNTY FOOD SYSTEM ASSESSMENT REPORT: A COMPILATION OF FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH, 12 (2003). 15. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, U.S. AGRICULTURE TRADE: IMPORTS (2009), available at 16. NATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY AGRICULTURE INFORMATION SERVICE, FOOD MILES: BACKGROUND AND MARTKETING (2010), available at miles.html. 17. ECONOMIC RESEARCH SERVICE, ENERGY USE IN THE U.S. FOOD SYSTEM (2010), available at 18. Robert S. Lawrence, Director, Center for a Livable Future, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Presentation: Peak Oil and Health: Impacts on Food and Agriculture (Mar. 12, 2009), available at A calorie (or gram calorie) is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius. A kilocalorie refers to one thousand calories. 19. PATRICK CANNING ET AL., U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ENERGY USE IN THE U.S. FOOD SYSTEM 1 (2010), available at ERR94.pdf.
5 72 ECOLOGY LAW CURRENTS [Vol. 37:68 increasingly tenuous market economy. 20 Financial hardship and economic uncertainty leads to increased food insecurity, which is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods or limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. 21 During the period between 2006 and 2008, for example, an average of 13.1 percent of Oregon households experienced food insecurity. 22 Recent studies in California indicate that 12 percent of adults statewide are currently in food insecure households. 23 As food prices and unemployment rise, more households can be expected to pursue home food production for this reason. Freedom of Food Choice Other homeowners may be motivated by a desire to take responsibility for producing as much of what they eat as possible. As author Michael Pollan notes in The Omnivore s Dilemma, the industrialized meat and dairy industry imposes deplorable conditions on animals raised for food. 24 Factory farms that hold and manage thousands of pigs or dairy cows pollute valleys and waterways with appalling amounts of manure, as thoroughly documented in David Kirby s Animal Factory. 25 Responsible animal husbandry on private property is a viable alternative to this industrial system. In fact, some predict that in the coming years urban livestock is going to become more and more common, because the current situation with our food is just untenable... If you raise and slaughter your own meat you ll know the animal was raised in the best conditions imaginable with air and sunlight and stimulation and healthy food SHARON ASTYK, DEPLETION AND ABUNDANCE: LIFE ON THE NEW HOMEFRONT 118 (2008); see also SHARON ASTYK & AARON NEWTON, A NATION OF FARMERS: DEFEATING THE FOOD CRISIS 39 (2009) ( It is easy in our vast agricultural system to imagine that someone will always produce what is needed and make sure we get it. But as we ve seen, that system has already begun to fall apart. However, we have become so disconnected from agriculture that most Americans simply don t fully grasp the relationship between farming and food in any meaningful sense. ). 21. Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Food Security in the United States: Measuring Household Food Security, FoodSecurity/measurement.htm (last visited Apr. 7, 2010). 22. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY 21 (2008), available at 23. Id. 24. POLLAN, supra note See generally DAVID KIRBY, ANIMAL FACTORY: THE LOOMING THREAT OF INDUSTRIAL PIG, DAIRY, AND POULTRY FARMS TO HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT (2010). 26. COYNE & KNUTZEN, supra note 2, at
6 2010] PROMOTING THE URBAN HOMESTEAD 73 Potential for Urban Farming With grass lawns covering over twenty-five million acres across the United States, urban and suburban families have a wealth of opportunity to engage in urban homesteading in some fashion. 27 In Eugene, Oregon, there is a flourishing victory garden movement, modeled after the WWII victory garden strategy, that has generated hundreds of new gardens across Eugene s major neighborhoods, including low-income ones. Homeowners are planting gardens and mini-orchards, raising chickens, and finding other ways to make productive use of their land to enhance their family food security and broaden food choice. By lifting restrictions on food production on private, residential land, and empowering the cadre of landowners eager to put their backyards to productive use, cities and communities can take advantage of the enormous leveraging opportunities and public resource savings potential that exist. Average homeowners can meet nearly all of their meat and dairy nutritional needs by maintaining microlivestock that are now recognized accoutrements of the full-fledged urban homestead. 28 While some cities already allow various types of microlivestock, others are too restrictive to allow for meaningful animal husbandry and individual choice. Reforming local land use or municipal codes to allow citizens to manage a broad variety of microlivestock would advance many city policies, without the expenditure of public revenue, simply by leveraging landowner initiative. Given the myriad benefits of local food production, a city policy that allows people to make productive use of their property in this manner falls squarely within the traditional values of American property law. PROPERTY LAW: A NEW BALANCING TEST FOR USES OF PRIVATE PROPERTY A municipal land use code determines what uses an owner can make of his or her property. Governed by policy choices that reflect the overriding needs of the community, it must be a dynamic set of rules that responds to change. The most basic duty of city government, which may be exercised through its land use authority, is to provide for the essential welfare of its citizens. The primary reason land use codes are unduly restrictive as to animal husbandry is because they are still geared towards maintaining a sharp distinction between rural and urban life. Cities have generally prohibited microlivestock because they are legally considered farm 27. See Lawn Institute, FAQs, 28. See, e.g., COYNE & KNUTZEN, supra note 2.
7 74 ECOLOGY LAW CURRENTS [Vol. 37:68 animals. 29 This distinction, however, runs counter to the growing interest of citizens in making full use of their privately owned property to provide for healthy food and family self-sufficiency. The urban homesteading movement breaks down distinctions between farm and city life, drawing both individual and community value from productive use of property within city borders. A new set of microlivestock breeds provides opportunities for creating farm value on backyard lots without intruding upon neighboring properties. Accordingly, city officials nationwide should consider revising their land use codes to relax restrictions on urban microlivestock. Such code reform remains compatible with the nuisance framework that imbues land use codes. A nuisance is a substantial and unreasonable interference with the use or enjoyment of land. 30 Determining whether a nuisance exists requires a balancing test between potentially conflicting property uses. The balancing test precludes only activities that cause substantial harm, and even then restricts the use only if the social utility of the activity does not outweigh its harm. 31 Through application of this test, nuisance law has always sought to promote productive use of property. At the same time, property owners do not have a legitimate expectation to a perfect existence of their own design. Neighbors do cause constant irritations of one sort or another, whether it be loud stereos, barking dogs, wind chimes, or smelly tobacco smoke. But these intrusions generally do not rise to the level of harm that justifies a regulatory prohibition. The same guiding principle should inform city officials in revising land use codes for urban homesteading. New uses of property invoked by modern concerns should be prohibited only if they rise to the level of substantial harm to neighbors, and only if such uses are not justified by the social value of the action. Microlivestock generally cause no substantial harm to neighboring properties. As the popular book The Integral Urban House explains: Most municipal ordinances restricting livestock were made to protect urbanites from the smell, noise, flies, and general nuisance-causing behavior associated with farm animals in the city that are managed as 29. For example, in Eugene, Oregon, the municipal code does not distinguish microlivestock from farm animals at all. Indeed, the section that currently allows for rabbits and fowl in residential areas is titled Farm Animals Allowed. EUGENE, OR., CODE (1) (2010). 30. JOSEPH SINGER, PROPERTY LAW: RULES, POLICIES, AND PRACTICES 271 (Aspen 4th ed. 2006). 31. Id. ( [N]uisance is a substantial and unreasonable interference with the plaintiff s use and enjoyment of his property. (citation omitted)); id. at 278 ( The Restatement (Second) of Torts 826(a) defines land use as unreasonable when the gravity of the harm outweighs the utility of the actor s conduct. ).
8 2010] PROMOTING THE URBAN HOMESTEAD 75 if they were still on the farm. Systems must be constructed that allow small livestock to be raised compatibly with these urban sensibilities. 32 An increasing array of urban homestead books and websites provide information on strategies that maximize compatibility between food production and neighborhood concerns. 33 Where there is the possibility of substantial harm through noise, odor, or sanitation problems, existing general code provisions provide ample authority to city officials to abate the activity. Of course, if all else fails, property owners can file a nuisance lawsuit in court. Applying the classic nuisance test to various types of microlivestock husbandry, the social utility side of the equation has changed markedly in recent times. In view of the concerns outlined above, there is heightened value on urban homesteading as an important endeavor for community food security and sustainability. The many co-benefits of raising diverse sources of food on urban homesteads also weigh heavily in the balance. These include public health benefits, decreased amounts of packaging, a reduced public recycling burden, pollution-free and antibiotic-free food choices, responsible husbandry of animals, and, in many cases, an enhanced sense of neighborhood community. Shifting appropriately to reflect the changing conditions of society, the social utility balancing test generally supports use of urban private property for microlivestock. Revising the land use code to expand such use of private property will have tradeoffs. Some homeowners will undoubtedly object. But the objections of a few must be analyzed carefully to determine if they are truly suffering substantial harm, and, if so, whether such impacts warrant abandoning the strategy of urban food production to create a more secure, resilient community for the rest of the citizenry. A private property owner does not have the right to invoke the regulatory arm of local government for every irritation or as a means to resist a cultural shift toward self-sufficiency. In any event, the objections of one homeowner must be balanced against the rights of the other homeowner to make productive use of his or her private property. Nevertheless, the city must have in place basic safeguards against excessive noise, disruption, smell, or disease caused by raising any animals within city limits. LOCAL ORDINANCES Most, but not all, city ordinances set limits on the number of animals that a property owner can have on a given residential lot. The restrictions are often bundled together with specifications as to lot sizes and setbacks. Ordinances vary considerably in this respect. Animals are often grouped 32. OLKOWSKI, supra note 4, at See discussion supra.
9 76 ECOLOGY LAW CURRENTS [Vol. 37:68 together in certain categories, such as fowl, and an overall limit imposed, thereby allowing the homeowner to allocate the types of animals within the allowance. Some cities, such as Portland, Oregon, have taken the approach of aggregating goats, rabbits, and various types of fowl into one category; Portland sets a total limit of three before a permit requirement is triggered. 34 In our view, this approach of grouping different animals, despite their unique benefits and impacts, is somewhat arbitrary and overly restrictive. Moreover, it defeats the objective of using animals in synergy on an urban homestead. Rabbits, for example, occupy very little space and are kept within a hutch, adding no real cumulative impact to the fowl kept on site. On the other hand, chickens and turkeys have separate sorts of impacts because of their size. Consequently, we would recommend establishing separate categories and limits for chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, rabbits, bees, goats, and pigs. Seattle, Washington, has taken roughly this approach, though it aggregates all fowl. 35 Other policy choices must be addressed in conjunction with local land use reform, including requirements of physical structures and enclosures, sanitation, permits, inspections, neighbor notice and consent, animal harvest and management, commercial activity, and possible revision of general nuisance provisions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to resolving the inevitable debates that will occur in deciding how each of these areas will be addressed in a particular locale, but there are good reasons to avoid overly burdensome regulation. For example, should a city require microlivestock owners to hold a permit? Portland, Oregon, and Cleveland, Ohio, chose to require permits, but most cities do not. 36 In our view, a permit system does not provide protections that are not already provided by general nuisance provisions. Moreover, a permit system would strain local government resources and potentially discourage homeowners from keeping microlivestock, particularly those who would do so primarily for financial reasons. CONCLUSION Protecting the private property rights of local citizens to make productive use of their property can be an important part of any municipal strategy to meet community sustainability and resilience objectives. 37 Local governments can capitalize on private property 34. PORTLAND, OR., CODE (E) (2010) ( A person keeping a total of three or fewer chickens, ducks, doves, pigeons, pygmy goats or rabbits shall not be required to obtain a [permit]. ). 35. SEATTLE, WASH., CODE (2010). 36. See, e.g., PORTLAND, OR., CODE (2010); CLEVELAND, OHIO, CODE (i). 37. Modern food policy should be aimed at other areas as well. Public places and schools should be utilized to the maximum extent possible to create edible landscaping and community gardens. Local small-scale commercial food production should be incentivized. This includes
10 2010] PROMOTING THE URBAN HOMESTEAD 77 owners energy and innovation to promote food security, healthier outcomes, and family self-sufficiency. To do so, however, cities will have to revise land use codes to allow a broader array of home food production, including husbandry of microlivestock. Ideally, such code revisions would be addressed right away, as there is typically a significant lag time between effecting regulatory change and engendering the desire for food production on urban homesteads. Meanwhile, families and households must create the necessary infrastructure and educate themselves on proper care and feeding of microlivestock. Regulatory change should be encouraged nationwide to begin the process of building expertise in managing microlivestock in residential neighborhoods. encouraging the development of small chicken farms and dairies, as well as inducing farmers to produce important staple crops of high protein beans, grains, and edible seeds. This is the focus of Willamette Valley s Bean and Grain project. See grain.html.
Reform of Local Land Use Laws To Allow Microlivestock on Urban Homesteads A white paper produced by the Sustainable Land Use Project of the Environmental and Natural Resources Program University of Oregon
Food Systems 17 Goals 17 (A) A healthy share of the food that supplies Victoria s daily needs is sustainably grown, processed and packaged in the city, in surrounding agricultural areas, and on Vancouver
Keeping It Legal: Regulations and Licenses for Growing and Selling Food in Oregon Adapted from Growing Farms Online, a comprehensive training program for beginning farmers, from the OSU Small Farms Program.
Zoning to Support Local Food Systems Craig Richardson Clarion Associates Chapel Hill, NC email@example.com Local Food Systems Regulatory Tools to Remove Barriers Bronze (Good) Silver (Better)
1 Agricultural Production and Research in Heilongjiang Province, China Jiang Enchen Professor, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China. Post code: 150030
Lec1: Prelusion-Significance of livestock and poultry in Indian economy-livestock and Poultry census - role of livestock and poultry in Indian agriculture. Livestock farming is an integral part of crop
DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Attachment A CUSTOMER INFORMATION BULLETIN REQUIREMENTS FOR KEEPING PETS AND OTHER ANIMALS 1055 South Grady Way-Renton, WA 98057 Phone: 425-430-7200 (then
Types of Farming In the Standard Grade Geography exam there are three types of farming you need to know about arable, livestock and mixed. Arable farms are ones where the main way of making money is by
Not just feet and feathers Poultry is a term for domesticated fowl, particularly focusing on the species valued for their meat and egg use, such as chickens and turkeys. In this lesson, we will focus on
Arizona City Attorneys Association 2015 Annual Meeting LAND USE ODDITIES Ellen Van Riper Pigs can fly in the City of Phoenix Not all land use regulations are found in your city s Zoning Ordinance. General
Backyard Buffers Protecting Habitat and Water Quality What is a buffer? A buffer (also called a riparian buffer area or zone) is the strip of natural vegetation along the bank of a stream, lake or other
To: From: Planning Commission Jon Hoffman, Planner Date: September 22, 201 Subject: Municipal Code Amendments to Chapter 25 and Chapter 2 to allow miniature pot bellied pigs and miniature goats. PROPOSAL
Sustainable Food & Farming Systems Some thoughts on agricultural ecosystems. Sustainability is. providing for the NEEDS of ALL people alive today, without jeopardizing future generations. A sustainable
Speech at the High-Level Conference on World Food Security SUN Zhengcai Minister of Agriculture People s Republic of China Rome, June 2008 Distinguished Chairperson, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,
The Pillars of Agricultural Literacy Overview The following standards offer a framework for agricultural literacy throughout life. Foundational Knowledge is addressed first. This section provides a guide
The Food Supply Chain In India Untapped Comparative Advantage N. Viswanadham Contents l The Ecosystem Review l Agri-Service Ecosystem in India The Food Supply Chain Institutions: Regulatory & Social Factors
Breimyer Seminar July 17, 2013 U.S. Cattle History, Cycles and Trends Ron Plain, Ph.D. D. Howard Doane Professor Dept. of Agricultural & Applied Economics University of Missouri-Columbia http://web.missouri.edu/~plainr/
INTRODUCTION The 3-year upper primary syllabus development was guided by the RNPE, 1994, which called for the review of the Primary curriculum. It followed the introduction of lower primary Environmental
COMPREHENSIVE PLAN SECTION B, ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES April 20, 2010 EXHIBIT 1 ELEMENT 4 WATER RESOURCES TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GOALS AND POLICIES 4.2.A General Goals and Policies 1 4.2.B
Sustainability. Livestock. Good Living. 2016 MEDIA KIT sheep! www.countrysidenetwork.com MAGAZINES WEBSITES SOCIAL MEDIA MOBILE NEWSLETTERS 145 Industrial Drive, Medford, WI 54451 715-785-7979 1-800-551-5691
Edible Landscapes and Urban Agriculture in San Diego First Lady Michelle Obama visits New Roots Garden in San Diego Fibonacci Corporate Garden at Alexandria Real Estate Equities Fresh produce on display
Penland, Grant From: Sent: To: Subject: Penland, Grant Monday, July 14, 2014 2:36 PM Penland, Grant FW: PAS Inquiry Response - Denver Area Urban Chicken and Beekeeping From: Ann Dillemuth [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
International Symposium Sustaining Food Security and Managing Natural Resources in Southeast Asia - Challenges for the 21st Century - January 8-11, 2002 at Chiang Mai, Thailand A Review of Food Security
Primary Activities: Agriculture Def. : growing crops and tending livestock, for sale or subsistence. 10% of the total earth land is for crop farming. Declining trend in agriculture employment in developing
Agricultural Land, Farm Use and Right to Farm Agricultural Land Goal 3 and OAR 660-033-0020(1) Jim Johnson Land Use and Water Planning Coordinator Oregon Department of Agriculture http://www.oregon.gov/oda/
The seven pillars of sustainable, small-scale farming and food sovereignty in the Global North and South A position paper of the Working Group on Agriculture and Food (WG A&F) of the German NGO Forum on
Friedensreich Hundertwasser, 738 Grass for those who cry, 1975, 2013 NAMIDA AG, Glarus/Switzerland Healthy people depend on healthy food systems Sustainable Food Systems for Food Security and Nutrition
Science of Life Explorations Celebrate the Growing Year: The Farmer s Year A Farmer s Year While you are in school or on a vacation, farmers are working hard to provide us with the foods we eat and the
Food Distribution and Transport Slides Images copyright. TEACHING THE FOOD SYSTEM A PROJECT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE 1 Overview Introduction Why food is transported Industry consolidation
F A R M L A N D P R E S E R V A T I O N Permanently preserving privately owned productive agricultural land ensures a stable land base for the future of the agricultural industry. Farmland preservation,
The Sustainable Development Goals: where does nutrition fit in? Christine P. Stewart, MPH, PhD Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Presented by: Edye Kuyper, MS Nutrition Advisor, INGENAES Project,
Chesterfield county virginia How Code Compliance Can Contribute to Clean, Attractive and Safe Neighborhoods Planning Department Code Compliance Office 804-748-1500 Code Compliance can improve neighborhoods
CUESA S SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE FRAMEWORK Mission The Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture is dedicated to promoting a sustainable food system through the operation of the Ferry Plaza
MILKING A COW Learning Station Description: Students listen to behavioral instructions expected when around livestock and are then introduced to what a cow eats, both hay and grain, how many times a day
AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS OF JAPAN Takeshi Kimura, Agricultural Counselor Embassy of Japan, Washington, D. C. I would like, first, to sketch the Japanese agricultural situation and, second, to review Japan's
Sustainable cocoa Building a transparent and sustainable supply chain Cargill Cocoa & Chocolate Together with farmers, Cargill is making sustainable cocoa and chocolate a reality. Committed to sustainability
28 April 2016 Total Income from Farming in the United Kingdom First estimate for 2015 This release presents the first estimate of Total Income from Farming for the United Kingdom for 2015. Total Income
Missouri Soybean Economic Report State Analysis March 2014 The following soybean economic impact values were estimated by Value Ag, LLC, as part of a Missouri Soybean Merchandising Council funded project.
Hiring a Bay-Friendly Qualified Professional to Design or Manage Your Landscape 1 Are you a Homeowner needing help redesigning or managing your yard or garden? Property owner or manager looking to improve
Q1 Eco fika Quiz card What is the difference between fika and a coffee break, if any? Answer: Fika is one of the first words you will learn when visiting Sweden, and it works both as a verb and a noun.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Scalable Sustainable affordable Breakthrough technologies to Remake farming for modern cities LBNL in partnership with ITT Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies
Chapter 13: Managing Livestock & Pets Animal Health and Wellbeing There are a number of animals which you may choose to keep or farm on your rural residential property. These may include cattle, sheep,
Urban Agriculture Policy in San José B y A v a l o n S c h u l t z a n d S a r a S i c h l e y Urban Agriculture Policy in San José By: Avalon Schultz and Sara Sichley BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION URBAN
page 1/11 Scientific Facts on Liquid Biofuels for Transport Prospects, risks and opportunities Source document: FAO (2008) Summary & Details: GreenFacts Context - Serious questions are being raised about
Research to improve the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity for smallholder farmers Agricultural biodiversity the variability of crops and their wild relatives, trees, animals, arthropods,
Section 13: Agriculture, Department of Athens and Tifton Veterinary Laboratories The purpose of this appropriation is to provide payment to the Board of Regents for diagnostic laboratory testing, for veterinary
ANGLICANE CHURCH OF RWANDA The Rwanda Context Rwanda is located in Central and East Africa with a population of approximately 11 million. It is a country dominated by hills known as the Country of thousand
STATISTICAL PROFILE OF CAPE BRETON Prepared By: Nova Scotia Federation of Agriculture 1.0 Introduction Agriculture in the Local Economy Agriculture in Cape Breton is characterized by a diversity of farm
Organic Direct Marketing Why Direct Marketing? Small-scale producers can compete in a local market. Puts Puts power back into the hands of the producer. Maximizes income by selling direct to the consumer.
National Accounting Systems, Agricultural Statistics for Policy Analysis Workshop on Measuring Sustainable Agriculture, Food Security and Poverty Alleviation for enhancing Accountability in the Post 2015
EU subject code University subject Name of course/program Mobility Language Homepage 1,1 1,1 Environmental Engineering in Agriculture II Rural Communication and Extension 1,1 Tropical Forestry and Agroforestry
Who Will Retire Member s Equity? Roger G. Ginder Department of Economics Iowa State University May/June 1999 Who Will Retire Member s Equity? Structural Change, Board Decisions and Membership Control Structural
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY KENNESAW, GEORGIA PREPARED JANUARY 1997 REVISED NOVEMBER 2006 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction and Principles of Integrated Pest Management
Chapter 2 The Food and Energy Connection As mentioned in the previous chapter, energy from fossil fuel is now used both directly and indirectly at multiple stages of the food production and supply chain,
Seeds of Challenge A survey of how extreme weather impacts Wisconsin s agriculture Introduction Science tells us that climate change will increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather like droughts,
Famine Early Warning Systems Network PROJECTED FOOD SECURITY IMPACTS OF EBOLA IN GUINEA, LIBERIA, AND SIERRA LEONE October 8, 2014 Washington, DC Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone are FEWS NET remote monitoring
Water pollution, Aquifer Depletion, and Containment Facilities We face the challenge of increasing agricultural production on a global basis to feed a growing population, yet doing so in such a way that
www.defra.gov.uk Green Food Project Online Forum Summary Report July 2012 Crown copyright 2012 You may re-use this information (not including logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms
Tennessee Trends in Agricultural Production and Infrastructure Highlights - In many states the percentage of the state population designated by the U.S. Census Bureau as living in rural areas has declined,
Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem comes from sunlight This energy is converted to an organic form using photosynthesis which is then passed between organisms
Composting FAQ S Q. What are the basic ingredients I need for a compost pile? Browns are carbon-rich, dry, woody materials such as fallen leaves, hay, dried plants, shredded paper and cardboard. Greens
Based on the Article 88 item 2 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro I hereby issue THE DECREE ON PROCLAMATION OF THE LAW ON ORGANIC AGRICULTURE The Law on Organic Agriculture adopted by the
case study A diversified approach to fighting food insecurity and rural poverty in Malawi Map of Malawi Malawi: Facts and Figures Ø Population: 13.1 million Ø Human development index ranking: 164 out of
North Dakota Trends in Agricultural Production and Infrastructure Highlights - With no navigable waterways, North Dakota is heavily reliant on rail movements of its grain production. Did you know? Production
The Economics and Marketing of Goats: The Case of Missouri Emmanuel I.S. Ajuzie, Ph.D. Lincoln University Cooperative Extension Jefferson City, Missouri 65102 Introduction In recent years, goat and goat
Published 23 June 2015 Revised 10 July 2015 Organic farming statistics 2014 This release presents estimates of the land area farmed organically, crop areas, livestock numbers and numbers of organic producers
Grade 8: Module 4: Unit 1: Lesson 12 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Exempt third-party content is indicated by the footer: (name
Partners: Heifer Nepal Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania Poultry Skills for Rural Livelihoods The Potential of Village Poultry David Bunn, PhD Potential of Village Chicken 1. Value of Village
A Global Outlook on Sustainability in the Dairy Production VII CONGRESO COOPERATIVAS AGRO-ALIMENTARIAS Hans Jöhr Head Corporate Operations Agriculture Valencia, 27 February 2015 Content Part I: The challenge
TITLE 6 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Pollution Abatement CHAPTER 1 6-1-1 Health Officer; Duties and Powers 6-1-2 Rules and Regulations 6-1-3 Health Nuisances 6-1-4 Compulsory Connection to Sewer and Water 6-1-5
Organic Action Plan for Denmark Working together for more organics 1 Preface Organic products have derived from biodynamic idealism in small health food stores to a natural and ordinary shopping choice
AP HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2009 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Agriculture in the United States has changed significantly in the past few decades. With respect to the past, present, and projected trends in agriculture
You re One in Seven Billion! We ve all heard the expression, You re one in a million!. With the ever-growing number of people on the planet, it might be more accurate to say, You re one in seven billion!
FOOD 2030: How we get there FOREWord Food sustains us. Producing it provides jobs, supports our economy, and helps shape the character of our landscape and our countryside. A vibrant food culture has developed
The use of Permaculture Techniques to Lower the Cost and Space Requirements of Composting LANETTE SOBEL 6.7.2011 Self Reliance. Neighborhood Organizing. Reducing Carbon Emissions. Localization of Resources.
Seattle City Attorney Peter S. Holmes January 20, 2011 Members of the Health & Long-Term Care Committee Washington State Senate 466 J.A. Cherberg Building P.O. Box 40466 Olympia, WA 98504-0466 Re: SB 5073
Coordination of the Agricultural Research In the Mediterranean Area Call i text ARIMNet 2 Call 2014-15 SUBMISSION Pre-proposal by December 1 st, 2014 Full Proposal by May 11 th 2015 on http://arimnet-call.eu/
University of California July 2007 Agricultural Issues Center AIC Farm Bill Brief #1 The Farm Bill and California Food and Agriculture* Daniel A. Sumner** Every five years or so the United States reconsiders
Characteristics of Private Farms and Family Farm Labour in Hungary by Settlement Size Zsolt Andrási Drafter, HCSO E-mail: Zsolt.Andrasi@ksh.hu Pál Bóday Head of Section, HCSO E-mail: Pal.Boday@ksh.hu The
The agricultural statistics series will be based on the Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics that is located in the resource section and available from the Wikipedia web page (wiki.asfoc.ibge.gov.br).
Can I Burn? Learn the Law A Guide for Citizens Houston-Galveston Area Council Texas Commission on Environmental Quality 1 Outdoor Burning Outdoor burning, in general, is illegal in the Houston-Galveston
HANDOUTS Property Taxation Review Committee Legislative Services Agency September 1, 2004 Criteria For Good Proposals for Property Tax Reform Dr. Thomas Pogue, University of Iowa DISCLAIMER The Iowa General
China s experiences in domestic agricultural support Tian Weiming China Agricultural University Contents Background The policy system Major measures and their implementation Empirical assessment of the
CHICKENS 101 INTRODUCTORY COURSE HOUSING AND PREDATOR CONTROL THE BASICS: HOUSING 1 3 THE BASICS: HOUSING 1 Protect from rain and cold when first outside. After about three weeks, chickens can tolerate
HLPE report on Nutrition and Food Systems e-consultation on an Issues Note proposed by the HLPE Steering Committee From 9 December 2015 to 15 February 2016 Short Summary by the HLPE Secretariat 1 There
ALABAMA AGRICULTURAL & MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY SMALL FARMERS RESEARCH CENTER FACT SHEET Production Risk Any production related activity or event that is uncertain is a production risk. Agricultural production