FMI WINE STUDY. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores

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1 FMI WINE STUDY The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores

2 For questions or comments, please contact: Patrick A. Davis, V.P. State Government Relations, Food Marketing Institute T Vickie Brown, Manager, Research, Food Marketing Institute T Food Marketing Institute (FMI) is the national trade association that conducts programs in public affairs, food safety, research, education, and industry relations on behalf of its 1,500 member companies food retailers and wholesalers in the United States and around the world. FMI s members in the United States operate approximately 26,000 retail food stores and 15,000 pharmacies. Their combined annual sales volume of $680 billion represents three-quarters of all retail food store sales in the United States. FMI s retail membership is composed of large multi-store chains, regional firms, and independent supermarkets. Our international membership includes 200 companies from more than 50 countries. FMI s associate members include the supplier partners of its retail and wholesale members. Published by: Food Marketing Institute 2345 Crystal City, Suite 800 Arlington, VA Printed in the U.S.A. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 2 of 23

3 Executive Summary The 21st Amendment to the Constitution, which repealed Prohibition in 1933, authorized each of the states to make its own rules for the sale of alcoholic beverages. In most states, some version of a three-tier system was created. Tier one is composed of producers, tier two is comprised of distributors (also known as wholesalers), and tier three is made up of retailers/restaurants/bars. Each is licensed by the individual states, with producers and distributors also licensed by Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau of the U.S. Department of the Treasury. In 18 states 1 (and Montgomery County, Maryland), that came to be called control states, the state also directly assumes aspects of the distribution and/or retailing roles, for some or all beverage alcohol products. Distributors also became the tax collectors for the state, collecting liquor excise taxes and occasionally other taxes, as well as providing state governments with detailed reports to track the movement of alcoholic beverages. The vast majority of U.S. states states and the District of Columbia -- permit food stores to sell wine, as listed in Table 1 2. The table also notes some of the sales restrictions adopted by these states. Table 1: States Allowing Wine Sales in Food Stores State Alabama Arizona California D.C. Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Louisiana Maine Related Regulations Local option Sunday blue laws n.a. n.a. Only beer and wine allowed in groceries, not spirits Only beer and wine allowed in groceries, not spirits Sunday blue laws* n.a. Spirits may only be sold in state stores. n.a. No cold beer may be sold in food stores. A Class AA High Alcohol Content Beer Permit (BAA) allows the manufacture and sale of high proof beer at wholesale to licensed retailer. n.a. Beverages with ABV greater than 15.5% may only be sold in statecontracted stores. 1 Alabama, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Michigan, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wyoming and Montgomery County, Maryland. 2 Local option allows local communities (counties, townships, etc) to determine, by vote or local government action, aspects of liquor licensing for their region. Sunday blue laws are the traditional term for restrictions on beverage alcohol sales on Sundays. n.a. in the Related Regulations column indicate no relevant regulations apply. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 3 of 23

4 Maryland Michigan Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire Counties may choose alcohol sales arrangements, including Sunday blue laws. The wholesale distribution of beer, wine, and spirits in Montgomery, Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester counties is conducted by the county, which also operates wine and liquor stores. Local option on Sunday sales n.a. Beverages with ABV greater than 16% sold only in state-contracted stores n.a. n.a. The state licenses wine and liquor outlets to third parties and operates 76 stores itself selling wine and spirits, along with two wholesale warehouses. 1,300 grocery stores sell wine and beer New Mexico Local option on Sunday sales North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oregon South Carolina South Dakota Texas Vermont Virginia Beer and wine may be sold in food stores, but liquor may be sold only in state stores. n.a. Beverages with ABV greater than 21% sold only in state agent stores Liquor stores are sales agents for state Beverages with ABV greater than 16% are sold only in package stores; local option on wine in food stores Sunday blue laws Groceries may apply for additional off-sale liquor licenses with the exception of towns where there are municipal liquor stores. Food stores need an additional license to sell beverages with ABV greater than 15.5%. City/county option 22 dry counties Sunday blue laws State distributes beverages exceeding 15% ABV Beverages with ABV greater than 14% may be sold only in state stores. Local option Washington Spirits sold only in state stores** West Virginia State wholesales spirits Wisconsin Wyoming n.a. n.a. Source: State Alcohol Control Boards laws and regulations. *The Georgia Legislature enacted a local-option statute in the spring of 2011, allowing cities and counties to hold referendums on Sunday Blue Laws restricting alcohol sales. In November 2011, 105 of 127 cities and counties overwhelmingly approved referendums allowing alcohol sales on Sundays. **In the wake of the passage of Initiative 1183 (which faces various legal challenges) all wine distribution and retail sales in the state of Washington will be done through private wholesale and retail systems. Wineries may continue to either sell through a wholesaler, or with the proper endorsement to their operating certificates, directly to retail accounts. Grocery store chains will be able to utilize centralized warehousing procedures under the new system, allowing a winery or wholesaler to deliver to one central point for distribution throughout the chain s stores. All state-operated retail outlets and warehousing operations will cease operations on June 1, 2012 barring any actions by the courts. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 4 of 23

5 Several states prohibit the sale of all alcoholic beverages in food stores, giving a monopoly on such sales to single-purpose stores, known as package stores. Over the years, however, several of these states have opened their markets, at least to wine, or beer, or wine and beer, but 17 states, listed in Table 2 below, still prohibit or severely limit, the sale of wine in food stores. Table 2: States Limiting Wine Sales in Food Stores State Additional Special Characteristics Alaska Only package stores may sell any beverage alcohol. Arkansas Food stores only allowed to sell wine from producers making less than 250,000 Colorado Connecticut Delaware Kansas Kentucky Massachusetts* Minnesota gallons of wine Food stores restricted from selling wine; Package stores limited to single location Food stores restricted from selling wine; Sunday blue laws Food stores restricted from selling wine Food stores restricted from selling wine; Local option for on-premise and Sunday sales; only 17 counties allow general on-premises sales Food stores restricted from selling wine; Local option for all alcohol sales, including Sunday sales, with multiple dry counties; Local communities may allow package-store sales of liquor by the drink or sales at wineries. Food stores are allowed three outlets per license to sell wine. Licenses are limited to local individuals. All other alcoholic beverages are sold through package stores. Food stores restricted from selling wine; Sunday blue laws Mississippi Food stores are restricted from selling wine. Beverages with ABV greater than 5% must be sold in state-contracted stores. Sunday blue laws; local option New Jersey Food stores are allowed only two outlets per license to sell wine; food stores otherwise restricted from selling wine; package stores are allowed only a single outlet license. New York Food stores may sell beer but are restricted from selling wine. Package stores allowed only a single outlet license to sell wine and spirits, not beer Oklahoma Food stores restricted from selling wine; Sunday blue laws Pennsylvania Rhode Island Tennessee Utah All alcoholic beverages sold only through state package stores Food stores restricted from selling wine Food stores restricted from selling wine; package stores limited to single outlet licenses, with licensee required to be local resident Food stores restricted from selling wine; Sunday blue laws Source: State Alcohol Control Board laws and regulations *The Massachusetts House passed S.2033, legislation that increases the number of liquor licenses an entity can hold for off-premise consumption. An agreement to increase the license limit staggered over an eight year period was called for. The legislation would allow an entity to apply for two more licenses to sell alcohol for off premise consumption, upon local approval in 2012 for a total of five, two more in 2016 for a total of seven and two more in 2020 for a total of nine licenses. The objective of these laws and regulations was to constrain and monitor the availability of alcoholic beverages so as to discourage alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, these regulations have had several unintended consequences: Reduced consumer choice and convenience, as reflected in Table 3 below, requiring consumers to search out a limited number of specialized stores and make additional shopping trips to buy wine; The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 5 of 23

6 Table 3: Retail Outlets for Wine Total Number of Retail Adult Population per Total Adult Population Outlets for Wine Retail Outlet for Wine Open States 155, ,733,379 1,003 Closed States 16,387 67,039,711 4,091 Source: Adams Wine Handbook 2010 and state agencies Created alcohol-retailing monopolies, with limited business opportunities and artificially constrained business strategies 3 dependent on state protection; Deprives states of significant revenues from additional license fees, from sales taxes on potential incremental wine sales, and revenue generated by increased employment and business profitability, as summarized in Table 4 below and discussed on pages 16 and 17; Table 4: Projected Tax Revenues Generated by Reducing Restrictions on Wine Sales in Food Stores Federal Tax State & Local Tax Total Federal Tax Revenues $1,941,341,576 Total State and Local Taxes $3,316,681,377 Total Projected Increase in Tax Collections $5,258,022, Source: Stonebridge Research Group LLC, U.S. Economic Census and IMPLAN Reduced employment opportunities that would be generated in food stores (and in other businesses) when they add these products to their offerings, as summarized in Table 5 and discussed on pages 12 to 16; Table 5: Projected Impact on U.S. Employment of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores Jobs Created Direct Employment 37,352 Indirect Employment Impact 59,682 Induced Employment Impact 71,211 Total Employment Impact 168,245 Source: U.S. Economic Census, Industry Interviews, IMPLAN, Stonebridge Research Group LLC Reduced sales and profitability of food retailers, for whom wines sales may directly represent between 2% and 12% of total sales revenue, while also generating significant additional sales per shopping trip, as shown in Table 12; By separating the sale of wine from the sale of other foods, healthier consumption of wine with meals is discouraged in favor of consumption of wine merely for its alcoholic components. 3 Most states that limit beverage alcohol sales to package stores also limit the other products these stores may sell, in some cases eliminating all other products, as well as restricting other business practices, whether offering chilled beverages or carrying products to customer cars. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 6 of 23

7 The next section of this report examines these issues in detail. The conclusions of this analysis include: Impact on Package Stores The calculations in the study consider the impact of partially reducing the sizable gap in retail access to wine in restricted states by the issuance of 5% increase in new off-premise 4 wine sales licenses. This expansion in licenses would reduce total package store sales by only 2.52%, as explained on page 12. Analysis of store counts across the states, in which food stores and package stores both sell wine, demonstrates that package stores can and do successfully continue in business and to even increase in number in those states in which wine is sold in the food channel, as shown in Appendix 1. This analysis found that, in 22 of the 34 states and the District of Columbia, the number of package stores increased and, in one other, the number was stable. In 12 states, the number of package stores declined, but in most of those cases the number of food stores also declined, indicating broader economic factors (than competition for wine sales) were likely involved. In addition, in several states in which opening of the wine market is under consideration, food retailers have proposed a variety of compensating measures for existing license holders, ranging from protected geographic zones around existing smaller stores, to transfer surcharges shared by existing license holders and/or allowing the existing license holders to expand their product offerings or to obtain multiple licenses themselves to grow their businesses. These compensating measures should protect many of the existing package store businesses. In many cases, these measures would add value to existing liquor licenses, by increasing demand and thus their transfer value, should the license holder choose to sell his license. Altogether, opening the market for wine sales will have minimal impact on existing package stores. Methodology In conducting this study, Stonebridge Research Group reviewed data on wine sales and store counts in multiple states, wine consumption, alcohol abuse data, and U.S. Government data and interviewed statelevel contacts and multiple parties in the beverage alcohol and food marketing industries, drawing as well on Stonebridge s extensive prior research on the business of wine. The findings from the research were then entered into the IMPLAN model, described below, to determine the overall employment, revenue, and tax impacts of the actions being examined. Direct, Indirect and Induced Effects (IMPLAN) Much like dropping a pebble into a pond, changes in any one industry, or sector of the U.S. economy, has ripple effects across the entire economy. Economic impact studies estimate the impact of an industry in a defined geographical area by identifying and measuring specific concrete economic events. The impact of events tracked in this report are changes in food store and package store sales. The geographic area in this study is the total U.S. 4 Off-premise refers to the sale of beverage alcohol in closed packages for consumption in another location, as contrasted with onpremise, where beverage alcohol is sold at the location where it is consumed. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 7 of 23

8 IMPLAN is the acronym for IMpact analysis for PLANing. IMPLAN is a well established and widely used economic model that uses input-output analyses and tables for over 500 industries to estimate regional and industry-specific economic impacts of changes in a specific industry. The IMPLAN model and its structure are updated annually to reflect changes in the U.S. economy, in wages, in productivity assumptions, and in regional economic structures. The IMPLAN model grew out of work initially developed by the U.S. Forest Service working with the University of Minnesota in It is the standard model for analyzing regional economic activity and impacts, used by hundreds of organizations in federal, state and local governments, universities and the private sector, including the Federal Reserve, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the National Agricultural Statistics Service of U.S.D.A. Conclusion The study concludes that the benefits of allowing wine sales in food stores in terms of job creation, government revenues, and consumer choice, far outweigh any potential negative impacts. Enabling wine to be sold in 8,489 food stores in states that currently restrict such sales is estimated to produce a total economic impact of $14.3 billion, including a net increase of more than 168,000 jobs across the U.S. and incremental tax collections of more than $3.3 billion at the state and local level and of more than $1.9 billion at the federal level. Table 6: Total Projected Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores Impact Total Wage Impact $7,242,595,248 Total Revenue Impact $1,827,548,986 Total State and Local Tax $3,316,881,377 Total Federal Tax $1,941,341,578 Total Economic Impact $14,328,367,189 Source: Stonebridge Research Group LLC, IMPLAN, Industry Interviews. U.S. Economic Census, 2007 and U.S. B.L.S. data. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 8 of 23

9 This market expansion in licenses is projected to reduce total package store sales by only 2.52%. Most package stores are likely to sustain their businesses, as they have in most states with open markets, or take advantage of the mitigations offered through market reform to redeem the increased value of their licenses. While adapting to a changing economic environment is often difficult, those states that have made the change found their fears of a dramatic decline in sales were unjustified. Allowing food stores to sell wine will return wine to its appropriate and traditional role as part of a meal, encouraging healthy consumption while increasing consumer choice and convenience. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 9 of 23

10 Table of Contents The Analysis Consumer Access and Consumer Choice Table 7: Retail Outlets for Wine Reducing Restrictions to Open Markets and Increase Consumer Access Table 8: Potential Increase in U.S. Retail Outlets for Wine Food Store Impacts Table 9: Direct Impact on Food Store Sales Implications for Package Stores Table 10: Package Stores Sales and Employment Competitive Implications for Existing Package Stores Table 11: Store Count Overview, 2001 to 2009, for States Allowing Wine Sales in Food Stores Other Economic Impacts Impact on Wine Sales in the U.S Table 12: Direct Impact on U.S. Wine Sales Table 13: Impact on U.S. Wine Industry Impact on Wine Distribution Industry Table 14: Direct Impact on Wine Distribution Overall Employment Impact Table 15: Projected Impact on U.S. Employment of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores16 Impact on Government Revenues Table 16: Projected Tax Revenues Generated by Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores 17. Total Economic Impacts Table 17: Total Projected Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores Appendix 1: Food and Package Store Count Appendix 2: Wine Consumption by State, Appendix 3: Density of Retail Outlets for Wine, Open Market States, Appendix 4: Density of Retail Outlets for Wine, Restricted States About Stonebridge Research Group LLC The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 10 of 23

11 The Analysis Consumer Access and Consumer Choice The economic impact of differential wine retailing regulation among states varies by culture, local industrial structure, and demographics, as well as other factors. For example, wine consumption tends to be higher in tourism-driven economies, whether Las Vegas or Branson, Missouri. Moreover, the demographics of wine consumers are well documented; wine consumers tend to be college educated, from households with incomes greater than $75,000. Ethnicity may also influence wine consumption; the wine industry in many states was founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries by European immigrants, bringing from home a culture of wine making and consumption. The interplay of geography and public policy can influence wine consumption as well; higher tax states often drive sales into adjacent states, whatever the regulatory environment. Thus, Connecticut and New Jersey may gain overflow sales from higher-taxed New York, and Missouri may gain sales from highertaxed Tennessee. Consequently, as Appendix 1 shows, wine consumption patterns vary significantly among states, reflecting all of these variables. Nevertheless, it is clear that the restrictions on wine sales channels have distorted the structure of wine markets in several states. As summarized in Table 7, closed states allow consumers far less choice in retail access to wine than do states with more open markets. If food stores in closed states were allowed to offer wine, it is reasonable to assume that the density of outlets per adult would move closer to the average found among open states. The actual number of new licenses issued would, of course, vary widely among states. As detailed in Appendices 3 and 4, the density of retail outlets among nearly all of the closed states is significantly higher than among most of the open states 5, despite the wide variations in both wine consumption among the states and in their beverage alcohol regulations. The density of outlets, and thus opportunities for consumer choice, in the closed states also diverges significantly from that of the U.S. as a whole. Table 7: Retail Outlets for Wine Total Number of Retail Adult Population per Total Adult Population Outlets for Wine Retail Outlet for Wine Open States 155, ,733,379 1,003 Closed States 16,387 67,039,711 4,091 Total U.S. 171, ,773,090 1,297 Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Census Bureau 5 A few states appear as outliers. Several New England states have quite high density of small package stores. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 11 of 23

12 Reducing Restrictions to Open Markets and Increase Consumer Access In Table 8 below, we show the impact of increasing the number of retail outlets per adult to bring the density of outlets in currently closed states to just half of that currently found in the U.S. as a whole, i.e., to grow the number of outlets from one per 4,091 adults to one outlet per 2,695 adults. Such a license expansion would represent only a 5% increase in total U.S. off-premise licenses to sell wine, while creating 8,489 new off-premise wine sales outlets and licenses. We have assumed that these new licenses would be awarded by auction, or similar open process, to food stores to enhance consumer convenience and generate the other benefits described in this study. Table 8: Potential Increase in U.S. Retail Outlets for Wine Current U.S. Retail Outlets for Wine 171,587 Estimated Incremental Retail Outlets for Wine 8,489 Number of Outlets Increase in U.S. Retail Outlets for Wine 4.95% Source: Stonebridge Research Group and Adams Wine Handbook Food Store Impacts Currently, across the U.S., sales of wine represent between 2% and 12% of total food store sales revenue, depending on region, based on Stonebridge s survey of the food store industry. Several years of food store Infoscan 6 data have shown that consumers tend to buy a more expensive basket of goods per shopping trip when they shop for wine at food stores, producing an incremental sale of about $20, beyond the cost of the wine purchased. Thus, allowing food stores in restricted states to sell wine would not only increase their sales by the volume and value of the wine sold, but would likely increase overall store sales due to this basket effect of shopping for wine. Table 9: Direct Impact on Food Store Sales Average Revenue per Store 5,388,893 6% Sales Increase per Average Store 323,334 Total U.S. Food Store Sales Increase, for 8,489 2,744,782,326 stores receiving licenses to sell wine Total U.S. Food Store Employment 2,462,730 Increased U.S. Food Store Employment 7,973 Total U.S. Food Store Payroll $54,666,290,000 Increase in U.S. Food Store Payroll $176,983,904 Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Stonebridge Research Group LLC 6 Infoscan data is collected from the price scanner machines at check out of most food and drug stores, especially chain stores, and analyzed by Information Resources Inc. and The Nielsen Company, to track and report sales patterns by dollar, volume, and region. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 12 of 23

13 The Economic Census of the United States estimates average sales per outlet of food retailers at $5.4 million. Assuming only a 6% average increase in food store sales from adding wine to their offerings, the average food store would see a $323,334 increase in sales. Thus, adding wine to 8,489 food retail outlets, as defined in Table 9, would increase total food store revenue across the U.S. by $2.7 billion. Employment in the stores would likely increase by some proportion of this increase in sales. Assuming a 3.3% increase in employment per store, total food store employment in the U.S. would increase by 7,973, with an increase in total wages of almost $177 million. This number does not include the impact of the basket effect on store revenues and employment, as well as the many suppliers to these stores, and thus understates the full impact of grocery store expansion. Implications for Package Stores When analyzing the impact of this expansion on employment and revenues in existing package stores, some key facts about the U.S. wine market need to be considered: Competition for wine sales would significantly impact a relatively small segment of package stores and jobs. Wine sales are highly concentrated in a relatively small segment of the U.S. population. Two-thirds of all wine sales in the U.S. are purchased by about 26% 7 of all wine consumers. Moreover, while more than 40% of American adults consume wine at some point, only about 14% of U.S. adults consume wine weekly. Nationally, more than 50% of wine is purchased by women 8, who traditionally are uncomfortable in conventional package stores. Women thus tend to buy wine in food stores, or not buy it at all. Sales to these customers would, therefore, be incremental to those currently occurring in package stores. Wine represents between 10% and 60% of total package store sales 9, depending on the demographics of the particular store. If we assume that as much as one-third of the incremental wine sales at food stores would be shifted from package stores, representing about $914 million in sales, this shift, based on U.S. Economic Census data, would equal about 2.52% of total U.S. package store sales. In the unlikely case that all of this decline in sales would be translated into job loss, a total of 3,560 jobs in package stores might be at risk across the U.S. However, as noted earlier, the proponents of reform have proposed several mitigations designed to moderate this job impact, including ensuring protected zones around existing stores, expanding product offerings in package stores, and allowing package stores to hold multiple licenses to expand their regional footprints and grow their brands. Introducing food stores into the market for wine sale licenses will increase 7 Understanding and Enhancing the Market for California Wine in the U.S., a study conducted by Yankelovich Partners for the Wine Institute, Also The Nielsen Company and various studies conducted by Stonebridge Research Group LLC, Ibid 9 Stonebridge Research Group LLC industry surveys The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 13 of 23

14 the value of these licenses, providing compensation to existing license holders and increased demand for their experienced employees. Table 10: Package Stores Sales and Employment Total Current Package Store Sales in U.S. $36,300,000,000 Loss of Package Store Sales, Assuming One- $914,000,000 Third of Sales Shifted from Package Stores Resulting Percentage Loss of Sales in Package 2.52% Stores Total Package Store Employment in U.S. 141,255 Implied package stores jobs at risk 3,560 Total Package Store Payroll in U.S. $2,600,000,000 Implied Package Store Payroll at risk $65,465,565 Source: U.S. Economic Census and Stonebridge Research Group LLC Competitive Implications for Existing Package Stores The data indicates that package stores have successfully competed with food stores selling wine in most states with open markets. Package stores may even benefit from greater wine awareness stimulated by new visibility in food stores. Appendix 1, summarized in Table 11, shows the changes in the number of food stores and package stores that have occurred over the past decade in the states allowing wine sales in food stores. The table indicates that, contrary to expressed concerns by the liquor store sector, the number of such stores continues to increase in most states. Specifically, in 22 of the 34 states and the District of Columbia, the number of package stores increased and in one, the number remained stable. Moreover, in most states in which package store counts declined, the food store count also declined, suggesting more general economic factors at work. Table 11: Store Count Overview, 2001 to 2009, for States Allowing Wine Sales in Food Stores Number of States % Number of Package Stores Increased 22 63% Number of Package Stores Declined 12 34% Package Store Count Constant 1 3% Total (including Washington D.C.) % Source: Appendix 1, Adams Wine Handbook 2010, Economic Census of the U.S., U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Stonebridge Research Group LLC. Understanding of the wine business partly explains package stores resilience: Having wine in the food stores that consumers regularly visit increases awareness of the product, raising the overall interest in the sector, ultimately benefiting the more specialized retailer. The Economic Impact of Allowing Shoppers to Purchase Wine in Food Stores! Page 14 of 23

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