1 0 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING WRITING OF DESCRIPTIVE TEXT USING TOURISM OBJECT VIDEO AT THE TENTH GRADE OF SMKN 1 GEGER IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014 ( A Quasi-Experimental Research ) PUBLICATION MANUSCRIPT Submitted to Post-graduate Program of Language Study of Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Getting Master Degree of Language Study of English Written by: Jaenuri NIM. S POST-GRADUATE PROGRAM OF LANGUAGE STUDY MUHAMMADIYAH UNIVERSITY OF SURAKARTA 2014
3 1 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING WRITING OF DESCRIPTIVE TEXT USING TOURISM OBJECT VIDEO AT THE TENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF SMK N 1 GEGER MADIUN IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014 ( A Quasi-Experimental Research) Abstract Jaenuri Muhammadiyah University of Surakarta This thesis depicts The Effectiveness of Teaching Writing Descriptive Text Using Tourism Object Video at The Tenth Grade Students of SMK N 1 Geger In The Academic Year 2013/2014. The objective of the research is to depict the students writing skill before using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger, to elaborate the students writing skill after using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger, to identify the effectiveness of using tourism object video, to increase the students writing skill in tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger, to illustrate the students problem in writing skill using tourism object video, to depict the teacher s problem to teach writing skill to students of tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in academic year 2013 / It is expected that the result of the research will provide a deeper understanding about using Tourism object video as a teaching media for English teachers and also for the readers. In order to obtain the objective of this study, the researcher used the design a quasi-experimental using pretest and post-test. The population of this study is the tenth grade student of SMK N 1 Geger in the Academic Year 2013/2014. The sample of this study is Accounting 2 class the tenth grade that consists of 32 students. Before the experiment was conducted, the students were given a pre-test. At the end of the experiment, the students were given a post-test. To analyze pre-test and post test, the researcher used t test by using SPSS 17. The result of the study showed that there is an increasing of students progress, after the students were given treatment. And the students achievement in mastering writing descriptive text was really excellent. In computation t test, alpha level used is T table score was Based on the score obtained, t value is greater than t table (7.34>2.02). Therefore, the researcher can conclude that the use of tourism object video is really effective to improve students writing ability. Founded on the result of the study, the researcher suggested that the use of tourism object video can be an alternative way to teach the language learner, especially to improve the students writing ability. This result hopefully would motivate language teacher to use tourism object video in teaching English as a foreign language in the classroom, especially when teaching English writing to the senior high and vocational students as well. Keywords: Tourism object video, Descriptive Text
4 2 INTRODUCTION Reading and writing are two activities that link each other. As a part of language skill, writing is very important to support communication among human being. In learning language, there are four of language skills so they can use English actively. Language is not only spoken, but also written. It is a basic language skill, just as important as speaking, listening, and reading. The primary function of language is a communication system. Moreover, communication can be divided into two; verbal communication and written communication. Both of them are important, but they are different. The researcher can say that only educated people can communicate in written language, because it is very complex one, not only in grammar point but also other factors which influence it. The grammar point in writing is necessary, whereas, in speaking is not so necessary as long as the speaker and listener understand each other. In addition, writing is one of the difficulties, which is faced by the students. According Richards & Renandya ( in Fauziati, 2002) that writing is the most difficult skill to master for foreign language learners. This is due not only to the need to generate and organize ideas using an appropriate choice of vocabulary, sentence, and paragraph organization but also to turn such ideas into a readable text. According to Harmer (2004 : 33) writing is integral part of a large activity where the focus is on something else such as language practice, acting out, or speaking. Writing is a complex activity since it requires students comprehensive abilities such as mastering grammar, vocabulary, and
5 3 punctuation. Besides, to write well, the students are expected to be able to present their ideas in the written form as writing is a means of communication. However, some think that writing is not only delivering ideas to others but also using a sheer energy to complete the writing process itself: thinking the ideas, preparing the outline, transferring the outline into draft, revising the draft, and finally proofreading the draft to prepare for the final outcome. Meyers (2005: 2) stated that writing is a way to produce language you do naturally when you speak. Writing is speaking to other on paper or on a computer screen. Writing is also an action a process of discovering and organizing your ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them. Writing skill is one of the important competences that must be mastered by students because we know that language is not only in spoken form, but also it can be used in written form. This skill does not merely focus on words, phrase, sentence pattern and grammar, but also focus on the idea of each paragraph in the text contextually. Palmer (1994: 5) states that writing is recursive. It goes back and forth we plan a little, put words on paper, stop to plan when we want to say next, go back and change a sentence, or change our minds altogether. Process writing is a way of looking at what people do when they compose written text. Teaching of writing should focus on writing process that is the students attention was directed to the how of the text construction. Nolasco (1987: 42) writing is often used to present an opinion. In writing the
6 4 students can express their opinion about something. For example, students can look the writer's opinion in book, letter, articles, poem, etc. and the The students can send their opinion or idea, feeling, and message to other people in written form about what they read or look. Every teacher probably has his or her own media in teaching English as foreign language. An effective teacher has a multitude of media and must be able to select the ones, which will be the most efficient in leading the learners to the desired terminal behavior. To reach the success in teaching and learning process, teacher needs some teaching media such as regalia, chart, picture, etc. Choosing the appropriate media, the teacher should take a note of the suggestion from Gerlach and Ely (1999: 260) as follows, Once a medium has been verified as appropriate, it should be subjective to four other criteria level of sophistication, cost, availability, and technical quality. Tourism object video is one of teaching media that can be used by the teaching in teaching descriptive text. It gives visual aid to students in learning writing descriptive text. According to Howard (1998: 143), the teaching that uses visual aids will almost certainly be better and will not probably be easier because understanding and idea are most easily discovered by the students. The researcher believes that by using tourism object video the students will find teaching-learning process both stimulating and enjoyable. By tourism brochure, the students will be interested and more
7 5 enthusiastic in learning writing descriptive text. According to Hammond (1992: 78), the social function of descriptive text is to describe a particular person, place, or thing. The generic structures of this text are: (1) Identification: identifies the person, place or things to be described. (2) Description: describes parts, qualities, characteristics. The purpose of descriptive text is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to: (1) Describe a special place and explain why it is special. (2) Describe the most important person in your live. (3) Describe the animal s habit in your report. In this study, the researcher focuses on a certain problems. The major problems in this study are as follows: 1. How is the students' writing skill before being taught using tourism object video in the tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in the academic year 2013 / 2014? 2. How is the students' writing skill after being taught using tourism object video in the tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in the academic year 2013 / 2014? 3. Is tourism object video effective to increase students writing skill at the tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in the academic year 2013/2014? 4. Do the students encounter some problems in writing skill using tourism object video?
8 6 5. Do the teachers also encounter some problems when teaching the students in writing descriptive text using tourism object video at SMKN 1 Geger in academic year 2013/2014? Based on the formulation above, the objectives of this research are: 1. To describe the students writing skill before being taught using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger. 2. To describe the students writing skill after being taught using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger. 3. To identify the effectiveness of using tourism object video to increase the students writing skill in tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger. 4. To know the students problem in writing skill using tourism object video. 5. To know the teacher s problem to teach writing skill to students of tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in academic year 2013 / The result of the research is useful for English Foreign Language Classroom. In this case, the writer shows the functions of this result. The functions conclude to researcher, students, teacher, and school. 1. Theoritically The researcher hopes that it can increase the experience of the students and practice in English lesson. Besides that, from the result of this research helps researcher to know how far the students master the writing skill by using tourism object video. 2. Practically
9 7 1. For students The result of this research can assist the students to increase their motivation, their learning writing and will attract their interest in learning English writing since they serve a lot of fun and pleasure then their writing skill can be developed. 2. For teacher The teacher would be more creative and creative again in teaching learning process and do not make the students feel bored but more interested. Tourism object video can be used as one education aid to develop students writing skill or well as to avoid the students difficulty in teaching learning process of English in the writing skill. 3. For school This research can be as a the starting place of knowledge about English and it can increase collections in library, so the students who have curiosity with writing will read this research to improve their knowledge in writing skill and give them inspiration and motivation. RESEARCH METHODS In conducting the study, the researcher uses a q u a s i - experimental research. According to Arikunto (2010: 123) that quasi experiment research is the way to look for the causality between two factors which intend to be generated by researcher which eliminates other factors that disturbs. Arikunto (2010: 23) states that experimental research is the most conclusive and scientific methods because the researcher actually
10 8 establishes different treatments and then studies their effects. He also defines that experimental research as the kind of study in which the researcher is interested in learning about the effects of a certain conditions (independent variables) and other conditions (dependent variables) in controlled setting. According to Iskandar (2010: 48), a variable is a characteristic that takes on different or considerations for different individuals. There are two types of variables: independent and dependent variables. The independent variable is simply a classifying variable; it classifies the individual of the study. He also says that the values of the dependent variable depend on the independent variable. Therefore, the variables of this study are: 1) Independent variable: the use of tourism object video. 2) Dependent variable: the score of writing descriptive text. This research was conducted at the tenth grade students SMK N 1 Geger in academic year 2013/2014 from July to Desember Arikunto (2010) stated that a population is a set (or collection) of all elements processing one or more attributes of interest. The researcher takes the population of this research is the tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger academic year 2013/2014 that consists of nine classes. Each class consists of 32 students, so the population is 288 students. The researcher determines the sample by using random sampling technique. In this case, the researcher will take one class randomly from
11 9 tenth grade, because the writing skill in this grade needs to build. Therefore, the researcher chooses tenth grade with 32 students as a sample of the research. To analyze the data the researcher applies an appropriate technique to find but whether it is effective or not teaching writing using tourism brochure. The researcher used descriptive and inferential analysis. Sugiyono (2010: 23) says that descriptive statistic is a statistic that has the function of describing or giving a description on the observed object by the data of population as in the fact, without doing analysis and making conclusion which obtains to the general. On the other hand, inferential analysis is a statistic that has the function to conclude the data from descriptive analysis. Hypothesis will be analyzed using t-test using statistic SPSS 17 program. The t-test is to see the score difference between the two variables: the student s ability in writing descriptive text before treatment and the student s ability after treatment. After getting the result of t- value, then the t- value is consulted to the t- value to be interpreted. RESEARCH FINDINGS This research took place at SMK N 1 Geger, Madiun. In conducting the research, the researcher took the tenth of AK2 class as the experimental research. The objective of this research is to find out the students writing skill before using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger, second is to elaborate the students writing skill after using tourism object video in SMK Negeri 1 Geger, third is to identify the effectiveness
12 10 of using tourism object video to increase the students writing skill in tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger, fourth is to know the students problem in writing skill using tourism object video, and the last is to depict the teacher s problem to teach writing skill to students of tenth grade of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in academic year 2013 / The result proved that tourism o bject video is r e a l l y effective to teach writing at the tenth grade students of SMK N 1 Geger Madiun. It can be known from the result of post test and Pre test is given for the students before giving treatment using tourism object video and after giving treatment using tourism object video. Based on the research findings, it can be known that the use of tourism object video is effective to improve students writing ability. Referring to the comparison between pre test and post test of the students it means of that this experiment, there is improvement of the score of writing skill where the pre test score was 65.6 and the post test score was The following table is the summary of computation of the score from pre-test and post- test of the students. Paired Samples Statistics Mean N Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean Pair 1 Pretest Postest
13 11 Paired Samples Test Paired Differences 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper t Df Sig. (2- tailed) Pair 1 Pretest Postest Based on the result of calculation from the data above, the reseacher found that the result of t is 7,34. Afterwards, the reseacher has to consult to t table on the significant level of 5%. The Result of t Table ( Tenth grade of Accounting 2 in the Academic Year of 2013 / 2014 ) df or db ( N 1 ) T T-table 5% Significant or no significant 31 7,34 2,02 Significant By looking at the result that it could be seen that t had greater value than the value from t table at level of significant. "" is 7, 34 and t table on the significant Level of 5% is 2,02. It means that there is any significant
14 12 differences between the result of pre- test and post- test. If t > t t, it means that Ha is accepted and Ho is rejected, and vice versa. df = N - 1 = 32 1 = 31 7, 34 has df or db = 5%. 7, 34 > 2, 02 for 5%. Ha is accepted because t > t t Based on the result of Hypothesis above the increasing students writing skill descriptive text by using tourism object video has good value. Those results are significant. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative hypothesis is accepted because the result of t has greater value than the t table of the significant 5% that is 7, 34 > 2, 02. Therefore, it means that Using Tourism Object Video can increase students writing skill descriptive text in the Tenth Grade Students of SMK Negeri 1 Geger in the Academic Year 2013 / Moreover, the findings from the calculation of the study and the hypothesis testing shows that the writing scores of the students there is a significance difference before and after the use of Tourism brochure in teaching writing descriptive text. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of tourism object video in teaching writing to the tenth grade students of SMK N 1 Geger Madiun is effective. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS The use of tourism object video in teaching writing descriptive text
15 13 at the tenth grade students of SMK N 1 Geger in academic year 2013/2014 is effective. It can be seen that the mean score of pre-test and post-test, the mean score of post-test was higher than the mean score of pre-test. Based on the critical value on the table using the 5% (0.05) alpha level significance and the degree of freedom is 31, it showed that the t- value is higher than t table (7,34 > 2,02). It means that tourism object video used by the researcher is effective to improve students writing to tenth grade students of SMK N 1 Geger. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. The researcher hopes that this thesis will be useful for the teachers, the students, and other researchers. Here the researcher wants to give some suggestions: 1. To The Teacher The researcher will hand over some suggestions to the teacher before teaching writing. The teachers must pay their attention the students in the class every time. They must control the improvement of the students writing skill and must be able to create the way how to improve their students writing skill. Then, the teacher must give motivation to the students before they begin the writing activity class to make their students more confident in their writing and the teacher can help their students by giving some questions about their topic to them. In other term, the reseacher also confirms that the teacher should try to use tourism object video as an alternative to teach English especially in writing descriptive text to the students. And also teacher should be creative enough in teaching writing
16 14 descriptive using media tourism object video to make students enjoyable in learning English. 2. To The Student The researcher will illustrate some suggestions to the students in order the students can improve their writing skill. When the students are learning something, they should have a good intension because it is as a controller of heart. The students feeling will enjoy in studying if their heart is constituted by a good intension. Writing is daily activities, if the students have a good willingness to be able to get fluently in writing they should practice it more and more. At the side of, the students should study hard to get good knowledge and explore all of their writing ability, and the students should be motivated in learning writing. In order to the student get a good result in writing skill for next time. REFERENCE. AlKhasawneh, fadi Maher S Writing for Academic Purpose: Problems Faced By Arab Post-graduate Students of The College Of Business, UUM. ESP World, Issue (2) 28, Vol Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta : PT Rineka Cipta. Astuti, Lina Teaching Writing Descriptive Text Through Specimen For Seventh Grade Students of SMPN 11 Madiun In The Schooling Year 2011/2012. Thesis. IKIP PGRI Madiun. Beck, John "Describe how the visual aids can help in teaching languages". Journal on line at ( accessed: September 10 th, 2013.
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