Charging of electric vehicles as reserves of power systems

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1 Charging of electric vehicles as reserves of power systems echarge workpackage ECV-seminar, TTY, Pertti Järventausta Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto (TTY)

2 Smart Grids - future energy systems - distributed energy resources with fully integrated network management Smart grids has two main functions, which are challenges to the distribution system: 1) Enabler of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly open energy market interactive customer interface, integration of active resources, demand response, common market models and comprehensive ICT solutions 2) Critical infrastructure of society fault and major disturbance management self-healing networks island operation and microgrids UPS systems

3 Challenge in integration of renewable energy sources - availability of emission free balance power Consumption Production Wind and solar power requires more balance power Smart Grid enables balance by interconnected networks and also by integrated active small resources

4 Demand Side Management (DSM) and Demand Response (DR) Reference: (Bartholomew, Callender, Hindes 2009)

5 Using small resources in ancillary service markets Two different cases are calculated small electricity consumers and medium electricity consumers The ancillary service markets are frequency regulation (FR) frequency controlled disturbance reserves (FCDR) manually controlled disturbance reserves (MCDR) balancing market (BM). Case Number of loads Average annual mean power of the individual loads (kw) Average peak power of the individual loads (kw)* Small consumers Medium consumers

6 Frequency dependent charging Plug-in vehicles will be a remarkable load New load brings new challenges...but also opportunities ancillary services Ancillary services provided by frequency dependence frequency regulation, disturbance reserve, Active power drawn by the charger is made dependent of locally measured grid frequency new dynamic load

7 Electric vehicles as resources of Smart Grids Possible roles of EVs in Smart Grids New load (charging) 3/13/2015

8 A simulated case study of distribution network Real distribution network supplied from 110/20 kv primary substation having 457 km 20 kv network and 793 km 0.4 kv network, 469 secondary substation and 7612 customer Roughly half of the customers have an EV with dumb and slow charging Peak powers of the MV feeders

9 Electric vehicles as resources of Smart Grids Possible roles of EVs in Smart Grids New load (charging) Controllable load EV charging can be controlled at least as on/off (~switch) adjustment of charging current 3/13/2015

10 Electric vehicles as resources of Smart Grids Possible roles of EVs in Smart Grids New load (charging) Controllable load EV charging can be controlled at least as on/off (~switch) adjustment of charging current Controllable energy storage Vehicle-to-grid V2G Vehicle-to-home V2H 3/13/2015

11 EV as a controllable load or energy storage Possible use of electric vehicles as resources of Smart Grids Actor Energy retailers Distribution network operators Transmission system operator Individual electricity consumer Use Electricity trade optimization Balance management Balancing market operation Network management (long term planning and real time operation) Disturbance reserves (manually or automatically activated) Frequency regulation Backup power Peak load management Energy cost optimization Power quality improvement

12 Role of service provider in intelligent charging

13 Intelligent charging / frequency controlled charging Älykäs latausjärjestelmä taajuus- ja/tai jänniteohjatun lataustehon ohjaus muu ohjaus Hz? V? Frequency value 0.01 Hz accuracy Fast sampling Output control PWM signal adjustment Charge current limitation Logging and reporting Logging past events and submitting information Status of available reserve?

14 Electric vehicle charging stations as aggregated frequency containment reserves (FCR) Mika Lötjönen

15 Introduction Electric vehicles as aggregated FCR objective is to find out the impacts under disturbances FCR-D, under normal conditions FCR-N PSCAD is utilized for the simulations Power system utilized consists of three voltage levels a simplified equivalent of the transmission grid (HV) for frequency phenomena studies (source Fingrid) distribution system consisting of MV and LV equivalents from Tampere (source Tampereen Sähkölaitos) the distribution model is connected to the main grid via HV/MV charging stations are on the LV-side

16 Finnish grid equivalent Hihgly simplified equivalent model reflects the structure of Finnish main grid and it consists of 8 nodes which define the 400 kv transmission system generation and loads are connected to the 400 kv nodes via HV/MV transformers the model is feasible for frequency phenomena studies The effect of the rest of the Nordic power system on frequency response is modelled via two equivalent dynamic generators the two equivalents emulate on general level the effect of the inertia and the frequency reserves in other Nordic countries 3-bus, 2-generator equivalent for rest of Nordic system Finnish grid equivalent

17 Distribution system (source Tampereen Sähkölaitos) 10 to 20 nodes in each MV / LV -model Latausasema 1 Latausasema solmupisteessä 7 R M0408 M0290 M0198 M0224 M #2 #1 Tämä on latausasema bussille 3 Phase RMS M0431 Pyynikintori 8 V1 M Phase RMS V MV-distribution system model M Phase RMS V10 M0354 Bus_PJ1 R 13 Phase RMS R R R V1 LV-distribution system model

18 Electric vehicles as FCR Frequency limits set by the Grid Code Normal operation f = 49,9 50,1 Hz no action taken Activation of FCR frequency is outside the normal operation limits Electric vehicles as FCR under disturbances and normal conditions activation of reserves outside the normal operation frequency limits utilizing the charger models available (AC/DC/(DC)) Other reserve loads and reserve power machines also utilized ftf control_1s Pload_control Main : Graphs ffft2 Frequency reaches minimum limit Frequency reserve is activated Power to the charging system Is turned off Min Min Min x f 0.7 Pload_control_PI PI-controlled charging Min Electric vehicles as FCR

19 LUT, echarge, Frequency control 50.2 Overall target: Developing simulation models related to frequency control in smart grid environment (and demonstrations) Frequency ( Hz ) Over frequency Lower limit of dead band, for instance Hz Upper limit of dead band, for instance Hz Under frequency : : : : :30 Current status: Frequency control developed, implemented and tested in Green Campus environment Power Load increased Normal operation of the load, 6 MW Load decreased Possbility to demonstrate frequency controlled charging with commercial products (charging poles and EV) 19 Jukka Lassila, LUT

20 LUT GREEN CAMPUS DEMONSTRATIONS Älykäs sähköinen liikenne Smart charging Latauksen ohjaus puhtaasti kaupallisia tuotteita ja olemassa olevaa infraa hyödyntäen Kaupallinen sähköauto kaupallinen lataustolppa tietoliikennerajapinnat yleisesti käytettyjen standardien mukaan V2G Tekninen demo Modifioitu Plug-in hybridi (Prius) Ei standardi rapapintoja, kommunikaation rauta (auto - tolppa) noudattaa jokseenkin uuden päivittyvän latausstandardin mukaista rakennetta 20 Jukka Lassila, LUT

21 LUT GREEN CAMPUS DEMONSTRATIONS Frequency control, controllable charging Sähköverkko Electricity utility z Hz Lataustolppa GC EMS Ethernet GC unit, Linux Ensto, RS485 Data 21 Jukka Lassila, LUT

22 LUT GREEN CAMPUS DEMONSTRATIONS Frequency control, V2G 2500 Taajuus (Hz) Teho (W) :40 11:45 11:50 11:55 12:00 12:05 12:10 12:15 12:20 12:25 Aika :40 11:45 11:50 11:55 12:00 12:05 12:10 12:15 12:20 12:25 Aika 22 Jukka Lassila, LUT

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