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1 Research Paper PREDICTION OF BEARING CAPACITY OF GRANULAR LAYERED SOILS BY PLATE LOAD TEST Sanjeev Kumar Verma 1, Pradeep Kumar Jain 2, Rakesh Kumar 3 Address for Correspondence 1 Technical Expert, DMI, Bhopal, Housing & Environment Deptt. of (M.P.) 2 Assistant Professor, 3 Lecturer, Dept. of Civil Engineering, M.A.N.I.T., Bhopal (M.P.) ABSTRACT: Bearing capacity and settlement are two main criteria for designing the foundation of a structure. Several theories and experimental methods have been propounded by many researchers for computing the bearing capacity and settlement parameters separately. Traditional bearing capacity theories for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations assume that the bearing stratum is homogenous and infinite. However this is not true in all cases. Layered soils are mostly encountered in practice. It is possible to encounter a rigid layer at shallow depth or the soil may be layered and have different shear strength parameters. In such cases shear pattern gets distorted and bearing capacity becomes dependent on the extent of the rupture surface in weaker or stronger material. The best estimation of bearing capacity and settlement on layered soil are possible only, if the pressuresettlement characteristics of the foundationsoil are known for the size of the footing. From the review of literature, it may be noted that the bearing capacity equations proposed for the homogenous soils by Terzaghi (1943) and Meyerhof (1951) are not applicable to layered soils. Hence it is necessary to develop an equation for predicting the bearing capacity of granular layered soils. In present investigation, plate load test have been conducted in a large tank to observe the load settlement behavior of plates of different sizes resting on layered granular soils. Tests were conducted on two layers of soils. Fine gravel layer overlain sand layer were tested using mild steel plates of square shapes. The effect of the placement of layers on the bearing capacity, settlement characteristics of footing, has been studied and an equation for predicting the bearing capacity of two layered granular soils is developed based on the plate load test data. INTRODUCTION One of the important geotechnical structures is the foundation which transfers the load coming from the superstructure to underlying soil subgrade without shear. Traditional bearing capacity theories for determining the ultimate load carrying capacity of shallow foundations assume that the thickness of the bearing stratum is homogenous and infinite. However, this is not true in all cases. It is possible to encounter a rigid layer at shallow depth or the soil may be layered and have different shear strength parameters (Bowles, 1988). The best estimation of bearing capacity and settlement on layered soil are possible only, if the pressuresettlement characteristics of the foundationsoil are known for the size of the footing. The problem of estimating the ultimate bearing capacity becomes complicated if the scale effect is taken into consideration. The study on scale effect shows that the ultimate bearing capacity decreases with the increase in the size of the foundation. This condition is more predominant in granular soils. In general, Ultimate bearing capacity is governed by settlement consideration rather than shear consideration. The bearing capacity increases as the width of footing is increased resulting in an increase in margin of safety against shear failure for a given intensity of loading. However, the increase in width increases the settlement for a given intensity of loading, thus reducing the margin of safety with respect to tolerable settlement. Therefore a reliable estimation of Ultimate bearing capacity for design of footing is necessary. Naturally occurring soils are often deposited in layers. Within each layer the soil may, typically, be assumed to be homogeneous, although the strength properties of adjacent layers are generally quite different. If a foundation is placed on the surface of a layered soil for which the thickness of the top layer is large compared with the width of the foundation, then realistic estimates of the bearing capacity may be obtained using conventional bearing capacity theory. however, this approach may not be appropriate, If the thickness of the top layer is not large compared to width of the footing. In present investigation attempt has been made to study the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics of footings subjected to central vertical load and resting on layered soil with the help of model tests, because in case of layer soil plate load test, the layer thickness is 2B or more, the effect of both layer will not be effected, However in case of actual large size footing the effect of lower layer will exist, Hence safe bearing capacity change. The tank size was 2000mm x 2000mm x1500mm (Length x Width x Depth). The depth below the base of the footing up to which the gravel is used is called as top layer thickness, and it thickness was varied as, 0.5B, 1.0B, 1.5B, and 2.0B, where B is the width of the plate. A total of 18 tests were conducted. For each test, load versus settlement curves were plotted and with the help of loadsettlement curves, the ultimate bearing capacity of soil is determined. Objective of the study To develop an equation for predicting ultimate bearing capacity of two layered soils based on the test data. Literature Review For strip or circular footing on twolayered soils, the bearing capacity usually depends on the ratio of thickness of the top layer to the footing width or diameter, i.e., H/B. The literature dealing with bearing capacity of footing is quite extensive. Methods for calculating the bearing capacity of multilayer soils range from averaging the strength parameters (Bowles, 1988), using limit equilibrium considerations (Meyerhof, 1974), to a more rigorous limit analysis approach (Michalowski and Shi, 1995). Semi empirical approaches have also been proposed based on experimental studies (Brown and Meyerhof, 1967; Meyerhof and Hanna, 1978; Pokrovsky s, 1937; Button s Analysis, 1953). The Finite Element Method, which can handle very complex layered patterns, has also been applied to this problem. (Burn and Frydman, 1997).
2 For layered soils, an approximate method was suggested by Pokrovsky (1937) for a line load in case of the upper layer is more rigid than the lower layer. Button (1953) found that in layered cohesive soils the bearing capacity factor Nc value varies with the ratio of cohesions as well as the depth of the top layer with reference to the width of the footing. An analysis was developed by Meyerhof and Hanna (1978) for a foundation is supported by a weaker soil layer underlain by a stronger soil at a shallow depth and proposed a semi empirical relationship as below: Pokrovsky s (1937) an approximate method was suggested in 1937 by Pokrovsky for a line load if the upper layer is more rigid than the lower layer. An equivalent depth h for the top layer in terms of properties of these two layers is given by: h = t (E 1 ρ 2 / E 2 ρ 1 ) ½ h>t Where, E 1 and E 2 = Modulus of elasticity of top and bottom layer respectively (E 1 >E 2 ) ρ 1 and ρ 2 = Bulk density of top and bottom layer respectively The stresses in the lower layer (at M) are calculated assuming a depth z 2. For a point Q in upper layer, a virtual distance z 1 is used for determination of stresses with load at the imaginary G.L. Brown and Meyerhof (1969) investigated the ultimate bearing capacity of foundations resting on clay subsoil s for the cases of a stiff layer overlying a soft layer, and the soft layer overlying a stiff layer. The studies have been based on modal tests using circular and strip footings, and using a range of layer thicknesses and clay strengths. The results of the investigation are summarized in the charts. This may be used in evaluating the bearing capacity of layered clay foundations. The problems contain many variables, and the limitation of the study may be seen from the following points, which set forth the scope of the experimental work. All studies were carried out in terms of undrained shear strength of the clay, using total stress analyses. Studies were confined to surface loadings, using rigid strip and circular footing with rough bases. Only one type of clay was used. Therefore, although the strength of the clay was varied, the deformation properties remained constant. Meyerhof (1974) the ultimate bearing capacity of footing resting on subsoils consisting of two layers has been investigated for the cases of dense sand on soft clay and loose sand on stiff clay. The analyses of different modes of soil failure are compared with the result of model tests on circular and strip footing and some field observations of foundation failures. The ultimate bearing capacity of footing on sand layers overlying clay can be expressed by punching shear coefficients for the case of dense sand on soft clay and by modified bearing capacity coefficients or an empirical interaction relationship for the case of loose sand on stiff clay. If the shearing resistance of the sand layer approaches that of the clay, the bearing capacity does not vary significantly from that of the individual strata. Theory and test results show that the influence of the sand layer thickness beneath the footing depends mainly on the bearing capacity ratio of the clay to the sand, the friction angle of the sand, the shape and depth of the foundation. Meyerhof and Hanna (1978) the ultimate bearing capacity of footing resting on subsoils consisting of two layers has been investigated for the cases of a dense or stiff layer overlying a weak deposit, and a loose or soft layer overlying a firm deposit. The analyses of different models of soil failure are compared with the results of model tests on circular and strip footing on layered sand and clay soils. Theory and test results show that the influence of the upper soil layer thickness beneath the footing depends mainly on the shear strength parameters and bearing capacity ratio of the layers, the shape and depth of the foundation, and the inclination of the load. Hanna (1980) the ultimate bearing capacity of footing resting on subsoil consisting of a weak sand layer overlaying a strong deposit has been investigated. Based on model tests of strip and circular footing in a loose or compact sand layer overlaying a dense sand deposit, the classical equation of bearing capacity of footing on homogeneous sand was extended to cover cases of these footing in layered sands where the upper layer is the weaker. The theory compared well with available model test result. Design chart are presented. Georgiadis (1985) a new numerical method for evaluating the bearing capacity of shallow foundation on layered soil which may contain any combination of cohesive and cohesionless layers is presented. Several potential failure surfaces are analyzed and the minimum material factor for which the foundation is stable is determined. Comparison between the results obtained with the new method, a number of semiempirical solutions for uniform and twolayer systems, experiments and other numerical method including finite elements, provide a valuable assessment of the performance of the various methods used and demonstrate the validity of the new method. Bowles (1988) A practicable solution which gives reasonable safety is as follows 1. Consider the different layers of soil with in effective shear depth which is approximately equal to 0.5 B tan (45+Φ/ 2 ). If the thickness of the first layer below the base of the footing is more than the significant shear depth, analysis of single layer holds good. 2. Average values of c and Φ are obtained as c1h 1+ c2h c n h c n av = h Φ = av i h tanφ + h tan Φ +... h tanφ h n n tan Determine the bearing capacity of the footing considering the single layer with average shear strength parameter c av and Φ av. Madhav and Sharma (1991): The bearing capacity of a footing resting on stiff upper layer overlaying soft clay is examined. The stiff layer distributes the i
3 applied uniform stress on to the soft soil over a much larger width. The loading on the soil clay is considered to be uniform (q u ) over a width, B and to decrease linearly or exponentially with distance. The bearing capacity of a footing with variable surcharge is evaluated and shown to increase by about 2030% in case the surcharge stress extends to a distance of 5B corresponding to Es (the ratio of moduli of E c upper and lower layers) of 100. A similar increase is obtained in the case of triangular loading as well. Michalowski and shi (1995) the bearing capacity of strip footing over a two layer foundation soil is considered. The kinematics approach of limit analysis is used to calculate the average limit pressure under footing. The method is applicable to any combination of parameters of the two layers, but the results are presented only for a specific case when a footing placed on a layer of a granular soil resting on clay. The depth of a collapse mechanism is found to be very much dependant on the strength of the clay. Very weak clay can attract the mechanism even at great depths. The results are presented as limit pressures rather than traditional bearing capacity coefficients. The later are strongly dependant not only on the internal friction angle of the sand, but also on the thickness of the sand layer, cohesion of the clay, and surcharge pressure. Results are presented in the form of dimensionless charts for different internal friction angle of sand. It was found that linear interpolation within 5 increments is acceptable in the range of Φ from 30 to 45. Burd and Frydman (1997) a study has been carried out of the bearing capacity of sand layers overlaying clay soil of the case where the thickness of the sand layer is comparable to the width of a rigid foundation placed on the soil surface. A discussion is presented of the dimensionless group that governs the behavior of this type of foundation. A parametric study is carried out using both finite element difference methods. This study based on the use of soil parameter obtained from an assessment of the range of values that might be expected to be appropriate for fullscale structure. The results of the parametric study are used illustrate the mechanic of the system and also to develop charts that may be used directly in design. In particular, the results illustrate that the shear strength of the clay has an important influence on the mechanisms of load spread with in the fill. Several experimental studies have also been done by many researchers for computing the Bearing capacity and load settlement behavior of layered soils. The effect of size of foundation on bearing capacity of granular material were investigated by Cerato and Lutenegger (2007) to evaluate the trend of decreasing bearing capacity factor, N γ, with increasing footing width, B. Load Testing and Settlement Prediction of Shallow Foundation study was done by Anderson et al. (2007). The purpose of this study was to critically examine insitu test methods as a means for predicting settlement of shallow foundations. The results of the static load test showed that the actual settlements were less than that predicted by all methods. Bearing Capacity of Square and Circular Footings on a Finite Layer of Granular Soil Underlain by a Rigid Base has been studied by Cerato et al. (2006) through a model test. Results of the model scale footing tests show that the bearing capacity factor, N Y, should be modified up to H/B=3, instead of H/B=1. The footing shape factor, S Y, should account for both shape and finite layering. From the above theories it may be noted that there is decrease in the ultimate bearing capacity when the foundation is resting on to layered soil and scale effects need to be considered on bearing capacity of shallow foundation. However, these theories needs to be verified experimentally for layered granular soils and based on the test results new equations accounting for the effect of size of the footing and the properties of layers needs to be developed, if required. From above review, it is found that most of the investigators have found that on increasing the width of test plate, the ultimate bearing capacity increases (in case of clay) but at a decreasing rate as the size increases. Most of the investigators have found that the observed values of ultimate bearing capacity are much greater than those calculated from Terzaghi equation. Properties of soils used in plate load tests The sand used in this investigation was dry, Narmada sand and particle size 75 µ to 4.75 mm. The fine gravel is used in this investigation was dry, geera gitti and particle size 2.25mm to 10 mm. Table: 1 Properties of soils used in Plate Load Tests Plate Load Test Programme In present investigation plate load test has been conducted in a large test tank to observe the load settlement behaviour of plates of different sizes resting on layered granular soils. Tests were conducted on two layers of soils. Fine gravel layer overlain sand layer were tested using mild steel plates of square shapes. The effect of the thickness of the top layer on the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics of footing has been studied. The large test tank (shown in Photo 1) is having inside dimensions of 2.0 m X 2.0 m in plan and 1.50 m in depth. The tank was made from steel plates and was supported directly on steel angle sections of size 50mm x 50mm. The tank was strengthened by cast iron angles and plates at the corners, top, and bottom of the tank. The entire tank rested on the solid concrete base. A cross beam was fixed on vertical posts to support the loading device. The horizontal
4 cross beam (Channel section) was thus placed across the middle of the tank. An overall view of the test arrangement is illustrated in Photo 2. To prepare the test bed, the sand or gravel was allowed to fall freely for a height of one metre with the help of strainer. When the soil layer becomes approximate 10 cm the strainer is lifted the same height above. The strainer (sieve) is lifted slowly such that free fall is approximately one meter. For each layer the required amount of sand or gravel to produce a desired bulk density was weighted out and placed in the test tank. When sand or gravel is filled up to the desired height, the sand or gravel was then gently leveled out. Each layer maintains a constant height of one meter, so as to achieve a uniform density in all the test beds. Photo:1 Large Steel Test Tank Photo:2 Plate Load Test Arrangement Total eighteen numbers of tests were performed. While three tests were performed on homogenous sand and three tests were performed on homogenous Gravel. Twelve tests were performed with layered soils. The details of tests carried out are listed in Table 2. The plate is placed at the proposed level of the foundation and is subjected to incremental loading. At each increment of loading settlement is measured and a load settlement curve is plotted. The ultimate bearing capacity and the settlement of the foundation can be determined with the help of load settlement curve for test plate. Table: 2 Details of Plate Load Tests Performed Plate Load Test Results Three tests were conducted on homogenous sand with square test plates of size 250 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm. The thickness of all size square plate is 25 mm. Loadsettlement curves are plotted for each size of test plates on natural scale as well as on loglog scale. For comparision loadsettlement graph for all plate size are plotted in a graph as shown in Fig.1. The ultimate bearing capacities of the square test plates are calculated by both intersection tangent method and loglog method. for each size of test plates on natural scale as well as on loglog scale. For comparision loadsettlement graph for all plate size are plotted in a graph as shown in Fig.2. The ultimate bearing capacities of the test plates are calculated by both intersection tangent method and loglog method. Fig.:1 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on homogenous sand Three tests were conducted on homogenous fine gravel with square test plates of size 250 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm. The thickness of all size square plate is 25 mm. Loadsettlement curves are plotted Fig. :2 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on homogenous gravel Twelve tests were conducted on layered soils with square test plates of size 250 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm and layer thickness L = 0.5 B, L = B, L= 1.5 B and 2 B (Where L = Thickness of top layer fine gravel and B = Width of test plate). Loadsettlement curves are plotted for each size of test plates and thickness of top layer fine gravel on natural scale as well as on loglog scale. For comparision loadsettlement graph for all plate size in same thickness
5 of top layer fine gravel are plotted in a graph as shown in Fig.3 to Fig 6. The ultimate bearing capacities of the test plates are calculated by both intersection tangent method and loglog method. Fig. 5 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on Layered soils at top layer (Fine gravel) L = 1.5 B Fig. 3 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on Layered soils at top layer (Fine gravel) L = 0.5 B Fig. 4 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on Layered soils at top layer (Fine gravel) L = B Fig. 6 Comparative study of Load  Settlement curve for various size square test plate on Layered soils at top layer (Fine gravel) L = 2 B Table: 3 Ultimate Load obtained from Model Plate Load Tests on Granular layered soils in Kg, as well as Ultimate Bearing capacities in KN/m 2. (Taken q u = load intensity at settlement of 1/5 th of size of test plate). Discussion on Load Settlement Behavior of Layered Granular Soils The ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of layered soil is more than the ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of homogenous soil bed of sand for a particular size of the square test plates. The ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of sand is slightly less than the ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of layered soil. The ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of homogenous fine gravel slightly more than the ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of layered soil. The ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of layered soil for L = 2 B is slightly equally than the corresponding value for homogenous Fine gravel. Effect of thickness of top layer soil (Fine gravel) on Ultimate Bearing Capacity (q u ) & settlement Ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) increases with increase in the thickness of top layer of fine gravel. For the same load intensity, settlement is decreases with increase in the thickness of top layer soil beds of fine gravel. Ultimate bearing capacities (q u ) remain constant after the top layer of fine gravel is exceeding twice of the width of square test plate on layered soil. Settlement in 250mm square test plate is more than the 300mm and 400mm square test plates for same load intensity. Effect of size of test plate on Ultimate Bearing Capacity (q u ) & settlement
6 Ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) increases with the increase in the size of square test plate. For the same settlement, load increases with the increase in the size of the square test plate. For the same load intensity, settlement decreases with the increase in the sizes of square test plate. Ultimate bearing capacity increases with increase the top layer thickness of fine gravel layer, in all size test plates. Calculation of N γ For homogenous soils and layered soils The value of N γ is calculated based on the Terzaghi s bearing capacity equation and assume that the equation is valid for homogenous soil as well as layered soils. The Terzaghi s equation for calculating the ultimate bearing capacity of square footing is given as: q ult = CN c + γ D N q γ B N γ.. 1 Where, q ult = Ultimate bearing capacity C = Cohesion D = Depth of footing B = Width of footing γ = Dry Density of soil N c, N q, N γ were the Terzaghi s bearing capacity factors. In case of cohesionless soil, C = 0, and also depth of footing, D = 0, hence equation (1) is written as, q ult = 0.4 γ B N γ 2 In the above equation (2), the value of B, γ, and q ult are known, only the value of N γ was unknown. The values of N γ for homogenous sand as well as layered soils are calculated and given in Table 4. Table: 4 The value of N γ for various sizes of square test plates on homogenous soils as well as Layered soils. Calculation of angle of shearing resistance (ϕ) A lot of theories are available for calculating the bearing capacity factors Nc, N q, and N γ. In the present investigation Vesic s bearing capacity theory are considered for calculating the angle of shearing resistance (ϕ). The calculation is based on the interpolation of N γ value of different angle of shearing resistance. Angle of shearing resistance (ϕ), corresponding to N γ value of homogenous soils as well as layered soils are calculated and given in Table 5. Table: 5 Angle of shearing resistance (ϕ) corresponding to N γ value of homogenous soils as well as layered soils. Effective Depth factor (X) of Layered soils by applied vertical load Effective depth factor (X) is the important consideration in any load testing. It gives the idea to safe design and construction of any civil engineering projects. Hence it is necessary to calculate the effective depth factor (X) of layered soils. In the case of layered soils, the ultimate bearing capacity in the combination of the layers affected by the load, an effective depth factor (X) is introduced. It is defined as the multiplication factor which, when multiplying with the width of test plates give the total thickness of soils affected by the applied load. In present investigation, Effective depth factor (X) of layered soils is determined by the following equation: (q Layered ) = (q fine gravel ) at top layer + (q sand ) at bottom layer (q Layered ) = Thickness of top layer (fine gravel)/(xb) x0.4x(γ Layered )B(N γ ) fine gravel + XB 0.5B x 0.4 x(γ sand )B(N γ ) sand.3 XB
7 Where, X = Effected depth factor B = Width of square test plate In equation (3), it is assume that the Ultimate bearing capacity of layered soils is equal to the sum of the bearing capacities of fine gravel at top layer and bearing capacity of sand at bottom layer. It is also assumed that the total effected depth of layered soils is XB, during applying the vertical load. The X is multiplying with the width of test plate to find out the total thickness of layered soils is affected by vertical load. Table: 6 Effective depth factor (X) and the total depth affected of layered soils during applied vertical load Determination of the general equation for effected depth in layered soils. Based on the Table 6, the graph is plotted between Effective depth factors (X) versus Thickness of top layer/width of square test plate or (T/B) (Shown in Fig. 7). The effected depth of layered soils are given by the equation, D efl = 0.73 R T/B for 0.5 < T/B < 2.0 Where, D efl = Effected depth of layered soils R T/B = Thickness of top layer/width of square test plate (T/B) If the top layer thickness (fine gravel) of layered soils and size of test plate is known, then with the help of above equation, the effected depth of layered soils by applied vertical load is easily calculated. Fig.: 7 Curve are plotted between Effective depth factor (X) and Thickness of top layer/width of square test plate or (T/B) of Layered soils. CONCLUSIONS In case of layered soils, for the same thickness and type of soils in top layer (fine gravel) and bottom layer (sand), the ultimate bearing capacity increases with the increase of size of square test plates and settlement decreases with increases the size of the square test plate. In case of layered soils in which the top layer is courser (fine gravel) than the bottom layer (sand), the ultimate bearing capacity increases with the increase of the thickness of top layer (fine gravel) and settlement decreases in all cases. The ultimate bearing capacity (q u ) of layered soil for L = 2 B is slightly equally than the corresponding value for homogenous Fine gravel and Ultimate bearing capacities (q u ) remain constant after the top layer of fine gravel is exceeding twice of the width of square test plate on layered soil. In case of homogenous sand and fine gravel, the value of N γ obtained from the Terzaghi s theory find results of the plate load test, decreases with increases the size of square test plates. In case of layered soils, the value of N γ obtained from the Terzaghi s theory find results of the plate load test, increases with increases the thickness of top layer (fine gravel). The value of angle of shearing resistance (ϕ) for homogenous sand and homogenous fine gravel, calculated indirectly from plate load test results and Vesic s theory is more than the value calculated in laboratory by box shear test. In the case of layered soils, the ultimate bearing capacity in the combination of the layers affected by the load, an effective depth factor (X) is introduced. It is defined as the multiplication factor which, when multiplying with the width of test plates give the total thickness of soils affected by the applied load. Effected depth factor (X) is not constant in layered soil. Its value depends on the thickness of top layer and width of test plates. Its value varies from to Its value increases with increase the thickness of top layer (fine gravel). The effected depth of layered soils are given by the equation, D efl = 0.73 R T/B for 0.5 < T/B < 2.0 REFERENCES 1. Bowles J.E. (1988). Foundation analysis and design, 4 th Ed., McGrawHill, New York, N.Y. 2. Burd, H.J., and Frydman, S. (1997), Bearing capacity of planestrain footing on layered soils. Can.Geotech.J, 34, Cerato A. B., A.M.ASCE; and Lutenegger A. J., P.E., M.ASCE, Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi. 4. Technical notes on Bearing Capacity of Square and Circular Footings on a Finite Layer of Granular Soil Underlain by a Rigid Base, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE,Volume 132, No. 11, November 1, Commissiong, D.M. (1968). The ultimate bearing capacity of surface footing on dry sand overlying
8 saturated clay, M.Eng. Thesis, Nova Scotia technical College, Halifax, N.S. 6. Ghumman (1966), Effect of shape on bearing capacity of model footing in sand, M.Tech dissertation. 7. Hanna, A.M. (1982), Bearing capacity of foundations on a weak sand layer overlying a strong deposit. Can.Geotech.J, Hanna, A.M., and Meyerhof G.G. (1980), Design charts for ultimate bearing capacity of foundations on sand overlying soft clay. Can.Geotech.J, 17(2) Madhav, M.R., and Sharma, J.S.N. (1991). Bearing capacity of clay overlain by stiff soil, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 117(12): Meyerhof G.G. (1948), An investigation of the bearing capacity of shallow footings on dry sand, 2 nd international conference on SMEF, Vol. 1, p Meyerhof.G.G. (1974), Ultimate bearing capacity of footing on sand layer overlying clay. Can.Geotech.J, 11(2), Michalowski, R.L., and Shi, L. (1995). Bearing capacity of footings over twolayer foundation soils, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, 121(5): Ramasamy, G (1984), Estimation of settlement of footings on sand. A critical Re appraisal Indian Geotechnical journal, Vol. 14, pp Srivastava, A.K. (1982), Relevance of small scale model tests for estimating load settlement behaviour of footings on sand. M.Tech dissertation. 15. Varghese P.C., A text Book of Foundation Engineering, Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Edition Zhu, F., Clark, J.I., and Phillips, R. (2001). Scale effect of strip and circular footings on a dense sand. J. Geotech. Geoenvioron Eng., 127(7),
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