Argument and Position

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1 RESEARCH NOTES Argument and Position An argument presents logical reasons and evidence to support a viewpoint thesis cited examples topic sentence

2 Parts of an Argument (THESIS)! ISSUE - problem or controversy about which people disagree (TOPIC SEN)! CLAIM - the position on the issue (CITED EX. - DIRECT QUOTATIONS)! SUPPORT - reasons and evidence that the claim is reasonable and should be accepted (ADDRESSING OF THE OPPOSITION)! REFUTATION - opposing viewpoints

3 Types of Claims! CLAIM OF FACT - statement that can be proven or verified by observation or research! Within ten years, destruction of rain forests will cause hundreds of plant and animal species to become extinct.

4 Types of Claims! CLAIM OF VALUE - states that one thing or idea is better or more desirable than another.! Requiring community service in high school will produce more community-aware graduates.

5 Types of Claims! CLAIM OF POLICY - suggests what should or ought to be done to solve a problem.! To reduce school violence, more gun and metal detectors should be installed in public schools.

6 Types of Support (introducing sen)! REASON - a general statement that supports a claim. (giving the cited example)! EVIDENCE - consists of facts, statistics, experiences, comparisons, and examples that show why the claim is valid. (relevance sen.)! EMOTIONAL APPEALS - ideas that are targeted toward needs or values that readers are likely to care about.

7 Inductive and Deductive Arguments! INDUCTIVE - reaches a general conclusion from observed specifics.! By observing the performance of a large number of athletes, you could conclude that athletes possess physical stamina.

8 Inductive and Deductive Arguments! DEDUCTIVE - begins with a major premise and moves toward a more specific statement or minor premise.! Athletes possess physical stamina. Because Anthony is an athlete, he must possess physical stamina. collective understanding

9 Strategies for Reading an Argument! What does the title suggest? Preview!! Who is the author, and what are his or her qualifications?! What is the date of publication?! What do I already know about the issue?

10 Strategies for Reading an Argument! Read once for an initial impression.! Read the argument several more times.! Annotate as you read.! Highlight key terms.! Diagram or map to analyze structure.

11 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments Cited! Evaluate Types of Evidence - Is it sufficient to support the claim?! Personal Experience - may be biased, so do not accept it! Examples - should not be used by themselves STAAAHHHP HERE

12 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments! Statistics - can be misused, manipulated or misinterpreted.! Comparisons and Analogies - reliability depends on how closely they correspond to the situation. ARE NOT ENOUGH WITHOUT DIRECT QUOTATIONS! Relevancy and Sufficiency of Evidence - is there enough of the right kind to support the claim?

13 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments! Definition of Terms - should be carefully defined and used consistently ARE STRONGER METHODS OF SUPPORT, BUT STILL NEED DQs! Cause-Effect Relationships - evidence that the relationship exists should be present! Implied or Stated Value System - are they consistent with your personal value system?

14 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments! Recognizing and Refuting Opposing Viewpoints! Question the accuracy, relevancy or sufficiency of the opponent s evidence.! Does the author address opposing viewpoints clearly and fairly?! Does the author refute the opposing viewpoint with logic and relevant evidence?

15 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments! Unfair Emotional Appeals! Emotionally Charged or Biased Language! False Authority! athletes endorsing underwear! movie stars selling shampoo! Association! a car being named a Cougar to remind you of a sleek animal! a cigarette advertisement featuring a scenic waterfall

16 Strategies for Evaluating Arguments! Unfair Emotional Appeals! Appeal to Common Folk! an ad showing a product being used in an average household! a politician suggesting he is like everyone else! Ad Hominem - attack on the person rather than his/her viewpoint! Join the Crowd Appeal or Bandwagon

17 What emotional appeal is being used?! Come early so you won t have to stand in line because everyone knows you can make a deal with Dave and save.! As a test pilot, Susan Gibbs knows performance. That s why I drive a Mustang, she says.! Olson s pizzas are lower in fat and calories. Other pizza makers don t care about your health.

18 Emotional appeals continued! We can work magic with your children, says Eileen of Eileen s Day Care. Call upon us, and your children will be happy you did.! Liberty Bell Airlines flies anywhere in this great land, from sea to shining sea.! As a young man, Candidate Alan Wilson learned what it means to work hard by spending long hours lifting boxes and sweeping floors working in a department store.

19 Errors in Logical Reasoning commonly called logical fallacies invalidate the argument or render argument flawed! Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question! Female police officers should not be sent to crime scenes because apprehending criminals is a man s job.! Hasty Generalization - conclusion derived from insufficient evidence! Because one apple is sour, all of them in the bowl must be sour.

20 Errors in Logical Reasoning! Non Sequitur ( It Does Not Follow )! Because my doctor is young, I m sure she ll be a good doctor.! False Cause! Because I opened the umbrella when I tripped on the sidewalk, the umbrella must have caused me to trip.! Either-Or Fallacy! Because of the violence, TV must be either allowed or banned.

21 For Each Argument:! Identify the claim.! Outline the reasons to support the claim.! What types of evidence are used?! Evaluate the adequacy and sufficiency of the evidence.! What emotional appeals are used?! Does the author recognize or refute counter arguments? OPPOSITION

22 Comparing the Arguments:! Compare the types of evidence used.! Which argument did you find more convincing? Why?! What further information would be useful in assessing the issue?

23 Ethos, Pathos, Logos

24 Ethos, Pathos and Logos 1. Ethos = an ethical or moral argument 2. Pathos = an emotional argument 3. Logos = a logical argument

25 Ethos = an appeal to ethics Ethos: Ethos is related to the English word ethics and refers to the trustworthiness of the speaker/writer. Ethos is an effective persuasive strategy because when we believe that the speaker does not intend to do us harm, we are more willing to listen to what s/he has to say. Likewise, when a judge comments on legal precedent audiences tend to listen because it is the job of a judge to know the nature of past legal cases. For example, professional football players have established their credibility in sports by playing in the NFL. If LT tells us that VIZIO is the best plasma television for watching the game, we believe that he knows what he is talking about.

26 Pathos = an emotional argument An effective use of pathos will alter the mindsets of the audience through the use of emotional appeal. Both words and pictures can achieve this appeal. In this picture, Haitian children are collecting water. Children and adults spend all day digging for water because most of Haiti does not have access to water.

27 Pathos Pathos: Pathos is related to the words pathetic, sympathy and empathy. Whenever you accept a claim based on how it makes you feel without fully analyzing the rationale behind the claim, you are acting on pathos. Those who wish to persuade you will play with your emotions. They may persuade you with fear, love, patriotism, guilt, hate or joy. A majority of arguments in the popular press are heavily dependent on appealing to your emotions. We, as a society, should not react to emotional arguments without fully considering all of the facts. Although the use of pathos can be manipulative, it is the cornerstone of moving people to action and it will continue to be used again and again. Appeals to pathos touch a nerve and compel people to not only listen, but to also take the next step and act in the world.

28 Logos! Logos means logic Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect. Logos appeals to the left side of the audience's brain. The audience finds certain patterns, conventions and modes of reasoning to be convincing and persuasive. The audience relies on reasoning and facts to make its decision. Numbers, polls and statistics are also examples of the persuasive use of logic.

29 Oppositional Statement: A sentence in the thesis paragraph that refutes the opposition. Unlike previous essays, this is an additional sentence in the thesis paragraph. Since refuting the opposition is a required supporting paragraph for the argument essay, your thesis statement can contain two topics. EXAMPLE ARGUMENT THESIS PARAGRAPH: The Pony Express fails to deliver. Many experts credit the Pony Express for the founding of the United States Postal Service. The Pony Express is not only short lived, but also ineffective. Though many look to the Pony Express as a system of American communication, they are not considering the system s failures in communication. THESIS

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