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1 Course: Ingegneria del Software II academic year: Course Web-site: [www.di.univaq.it/ingegneria2/] Middleware Technology: Middleware Applications and Distributed Systems Lecturer: Henry Muccini and Vittorio Cortellessa Computer Science Department University of L'Aquila -Italy [www.di.univaq.it/muccini] [www.di.univaq.it/cortelle]

2 Copyright Notice» The material in these slides may be freely reproduced and distributed, partially or totally, as far as an explicit reference or acknowledge to the material author is preserved. Henry Muccini 2

3 Acknowledgment» Wolfgang Emmerich, Engineering Distributed Objects. Wiley, ISBN: » Ivica Crnkovic and Magnus Larsson, Building Reliable Component-Based Software Systems, Artech House Publishers, ISBN , 3

4 Distributed Systems [EDO2000, Ch. 1]» What a distributed system is - Def1: Intuitively, a distributed system consists of components that execute on different computers - For the system, to appear as a whole, the components need to interact each other 4

5 Why Distributed Systems» The decision to build a distributed rather than a centralized system often depends from the requirements, usually from the non-functional requirements: - If systems need to scale beyond the load of a single computer, the system need to be composed by different distributed and communicating components; - It is not possible to have these components in the same computer, as they are produced by different organizations; - System evolves and new components, with newer technology, may be required and have to interoperate with older components 5 > This lead to heterogeneous systems: older components remain on the original hw and operating system platform while new components may run on newer platforms - It may be useful to duplicate critical components on different computers to manage the possibility of failures

6 What is a Distributed System» As we said, a distributed system will have components that are distributed over various computers» We will use the term host to denote the hardware, the network operating system and the components hosted in the same computer Component1 Network O.S. Hardware ComponentN 6 Host

7 What is a Distributed System (cont.)» A distributed system is composed by many components and many hosts» These components need to interact» The middleware is a new layer introduced inside the host to allow components communication - As we will see later on, there are many functionalities associated to the middleware Component1 Middleware Network O.S. Hardware ComponentN 7 Host

8 What is a Distributed System (cont.)» Def: A distributed system is a collection of autonomous hosts that are connected through a computer network - Each host executes components and has a middleware - The user perceives the system as a single, integrated computing facility Distribution and complexity are hidden to the service user 8

9 What is a Distributed System? Component Component 1 Component 1 Component n n Middleware Middleware Network Operating System Network Operating System Hardware Hardware Host Host n-1 2 Component 1 Component n Middleware Network Operating System Hardware Host 1 Network Component 1 Component n Middleware Network Operating System Hardware Host n 9

10 Centralized systems Vs. Distributed Systems C = centralized, D = distributed C: One component is a non-autonomous parts > The component is completely dependent on the system. If the softw. system is deactivated, the component is deactivated D: Components are autonomous entities > They posses full control over their parts but they do not possescontrol over the other components 10

11 Centralized systems Vs. Distributed Systems C: Component shared by users all the time > Like a Database, all users share a centralized system that may become overloaded D: Distributed components can be unshared > If a component becomes overloaded, other similar components can be added to split the load > Component may be located so that they are local to the users and other components with which they interact 11

12 Centralized systems Vs. Distributed Systems C: Centralized systems are often fairly homogeneous > Same technology, usually same languages and compilers. Same type of machine code > Communication between parts can be achieved using programming languages primitives. D: Components of a distributed system do not need to be homogeneous > Components can be implemented in different languages, deployed in different operating systems and communicating through different middleware 12

13 Centralized systems Vs. Distributed Systems C: A centralized system can run in a single process D: Distributed systems execute components concurrently and components are often multi-threaded. C: Single point of failure D: Multiple points of failure > Network failure, component failure 13

14 14 Summarizing Centralized vs. Distributed Comp1 Network O.S. Hardware Host Comp 1 Comp n Middleware Network O.S. Hardware Host 2 Comp 1 Comp n Middleware Network O.S. Hardware CompN Host 1» Non-autonomous» Homogeneous» Shared resource» Single point of Failure Network» Autonomous» Non Homogeneous» Shared/unshared» Multiple points of Failure

15 Distributed System Requirements» What are we trying to achieve when we construct a distributed system?» Certain requirements are common to many distributed systems - Scalability - Openness - Heterogeneity - Resource Sharing - Fault-Tolerance - Transparency 15

16 Scalability» Adoption of distributed systems to - accomodate more users - respond faster (this is the hard one)» Usually done by adding more and/or faster processors» Components should not need to be changed when scale of a system increases. 16» Design components to be scalable! SA can help!

17 Openness» Openness is concerned with extensions and improvements of distributed systems.» Detailed interfaces of components need to be published.» New components have to be integrated with existing components.» Differences in data representation of interface types on different processors (of different vendors) have to be resolved. 17

18 Heterogeneity» Components written in different programming languages» Running on different Operating Systems» Using different Middleware implementations» Using different Middleware specifications Should be able to interoperate and hide all these problems to the client object 18

19 Resource Sharing» Ability to use any hardware, software or data anywhere in the system.» Expensive components (systems) become cost-effective if they are shared by several hundred users» Resource sharing introduces security problems - Users need to be validated - The resource access needs to be controlled - Resource manager controls access, provides naming scheme and controls concurrency. 19

20 Fault Tolerance» Hardware, software and networks fail!» Distributed systems must maintain availability even at low levels of hardware/software/network reliability.» Fault tolerance is achieved by - recovery - redundancy 20

21 Distribution Transparency Scalability Transparency Performance Transparency Failure Transparency Migration Transparency Replication Transparency Concurrency Transparency Access Transparency Location Transparency 21 Read paragraph 1.4 in the TextBook

22 Middleware 22

23 Middleware» Middleware enable an object that resides on one host to request an operation execution from an object residing on a different host» We are going to show that middleware is a layer between the network operating system and the application layer» We are going to comprehend why middleware is built upon the transport layer and how it implements the session and presentation layer 23

24 Network operating system» A network implements the routing of packets between different hosts - It takes care of the composition of such packets into byte streams or fixed-length messages» Someone could think that network operating systems may be enough to let distributed components communicate - But there is a big gap between required services and network O.S. capabilities 24

25 Network operating system» A middleware is a layer, used to hide the complexity» Before talking about middleware, it is better reintroduce the concept of computer networks 25

26 The OSI Layers Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link This layer provides application funcionality. It will be implemented using distributed objects. This layer resolves differences (more complex data structure, heterogeneity) in the representation of information between comp. It establishes and maintain connections between distributed components. Important for connection-less transport layers It adds the capability of mapping longer messages. It describes how msgs need to be packed and unpacked It implements connections between multiple, arbitrary nodes of the network, executing routing It maps the physical layer into a layer that can transmit packets between two computers (1 to 1) 26 Physical It modulates and synchronizes the transmission of bits over a physical circuit

27 Detailing a previous drawing Comp 1 Comp n Middleware Network O.S. Hardware Host 2 Network Comp 1 Comp n Middleware Network O.S. Hardware 27 Host 1

28 Comp A Comp Z Application Presentation Middleware Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Hardware Network Comp 1 Comp n Application Presentation Middleware Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Hardware Host 2 28 Host 1

29 Transport Layer There exists different implementation of this layer, due to different Network layers Connection-oriented and connection-less transport layer implementations Two facets in UNIX/Windows networks: TCP: UDP TCP and UDP Connection-oriented, reliable, slower Better for long and reliable connections (ftp, rsh, rlogin, ) Connection-less, unreliable, faster Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Better for short connections (rwho) that do no require reliability 29

30 TCP Client Application Presentation Session Transport Requests Input Stream Output Stream Results Server Application Presentation Session Transport 30

31 UDP Client Application Presentation Session Transport Request Datagrams Server Application Presentation Session Transport 31 9 or 18 Kbs Result Datagrams

32 Direct Use of Network Protocols implies» Manual mapping of complex request parameters to byte streams - Records, strings or arrays» Manual resolution of data heterogeneity - Different PL and different Hw Encoding of data types» Manual identification of components 32 - Implementing object references using domain name, port and address information

33 Direct Use of Network Protocols implies» Manual implementation of component activation - Manually activate a server component -» No guarantees for type safety - Parameters supplied by clients must match the service definition» Manual synchronization of interaction between distributed components 33» No quality of service guarantees - E.g., atomic execution of services

34 Middleware» Layered between Application and OS/Network» Makes distribution transparent» Resolves heterogeneity of - Hardware - Operating Systems - Networks - Programming Languages Application Presentation Middleware Session Transport Network Data Link Physical 34» Provides development and run-time environment for distributed systems.

35 Forms of Middleware» Transaction-Oriented - They support transactions across different distributed systems - Component = Dbase application - Fault-tolerance and load balancing (replicated databases) 35» Message-Oriented - Everything is based on messages (client sends msg) - The content of such messages include the service parameters - Natural asynchronous communication more scalability - Multi-casting: useful to implement publish/subscribe architecture - Fault tolerance: using a queue that stores the messages

36 Forms of Middleware» RPC Systems - Initially part of the Sun ONC architecture - RPC are the origin of OO middleware > RPC are even used to implement distributed object requests - OO middleware are an extension of RPC middleware» Object-Oriented - Java/RMI - DCOM - OMG/CORBA 36

37 References» [EDO2000] Wolfgang Emmerich, Engineering Distributed Objects. Wiley, ISBN: » [PoliniThesis] Andrea Polini, Testing Component-based Software Systems, PhD Thesis, Scuola Superiore Sant Anna, year 2004, [Ivica] Ivica Crnkovic and Magnus Larsson (editors) Building Reliable Component-Based Software Systems, Artech House Publishers, ISBN , 37

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