12.4 Bellringer. Study the animal shown in figure 11 (page 284)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "12.4 Bellringer. Study the animal shown in figure 11 (page 284)"

Transcription

1 12.4 Bellringer Study the animal shown in figure 11 (page 284) List possible mechanisms that allow the arctic fox to change its fur color with changing seasons

2 12.4 Beyond Mendelian Heredity **Complex control of characters A horse with red hair mates with a horse with white hair, and their offspring has both red and white hair. How can this be? If characters are controlled by single genes with simple dominant and recessive alleles, the colt s hair should be on color or the other NOT ALWAYS! Most of the time, characters, such as hair color in horses, display more complex patterns of heredity than the simple dominant-recessive patterns discussed so far.

3 Characters influenced by several genes Polygenic inheritance when several genes influence a character Can be scattered along the same chromosome or located on different chromosomes entirely Determining the effect of these genes is difficult because of random fertilization and crossing-over Many different combinations appear Examples Eye color, height, weight, and hair and skin color All have degrees of intermediate between one extreme and the other

4

5

6 Intermediate characters Some organisms display a trait that is intermediate between the two parents Known as incomplete dominance SNAPDRAGONS When a red snapdragon is crossed with a white snapdragon, a pink snapdragon is produced **What if a plant breeder crossed a pink snapdragon with a white snapdragon?

7 Characters controlled by genes with three or more alleles Multiple alleles genes controlled by three or more alleles BLOOD TYPE Even for traits controlled by three or more genes, an individual can still only have two of the possible alleles for that gene

8 Characters with two forms displayed at the same time For some traits, two dominant alleles are expressed a the same time CODOMINANCE Different from incomplete dominance because both traits are displayed

9 Practice

10 Characters Influenced by the Environment Phenotype often depends on conditions in the environment HYDRANGEA Range in color from blue to pink Plants in acidic soil bloom blue, while those in neutral to basic soil will bloom pink flowers ARCTIC FOX Color is affected by temperature During summer, the fox produces enzymes that darken its coat to a reddish brown, enabling it to blend in During winter, the pigment-producing genes do not function because of the cold temps resulting in a white coat, enabling it to blend

11 **Environment, cont. More examples FUR COLOR IN SIAMESE CATS Influenced by temperature Fur on ears, nose, paws, and tail is darker than the rest of its body Has a genotype that results in dark fur at locations on its body that are cooler than the normal body temperature Darkened parts have a lower body temp than lighter parts HUMANS Height influenced by nutrition Color of skin exposure to sun Human personality aggression strongly influenced by environment Identical twins are often used to study environmental differences because their genes are identical to each other Downfall. Twins must be separated.

12 **Genetic Disorders In order to be normal a persons genes must encode and function precisely Sometimes they are damaged or copied incorrectly resulting in fault proteins Changes in genetic material are called mutations Rare because cells have efficient systems for correcting errors Many mutations are carried by recessive alleles in heterozygous individuals Two phenotypic ally normal people who are heterozygous could produce children who are homozygous recessive

13 Some Human Genetic Disorders

14 Genetic Disorders explained Sickle Cell Anemia The recessive allele that causes sickle-shaped blood cells, helps protect heterozygous individuals from malaria Malaria disease caused by protozoan in dirty water Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Most common fatal, hereditary, recessive disorder among Caucasians One in 25 Caucasians carry at least one copy of defective gene

15 Hemophilia Disorders, cont. More than a dozen genes code for genes involved in blood clotting Receive the defective gene from your mother, because it is located on the X chromosome Huntington s Disease (HD) First appears between ages Loss of muscle control, uncontrollable physical spasms, severe mental illness, and eventual death Most people don t know they have it until they have had children Unknowingly passed from generation to generation

16 Treating Genetic Disorders Most cannot be cured In some cases, can be treated if diagnosed early enough People with a family history of severe genetic disorders will often undergo genetic counseling to understand risks and probabilities

17 Gene Therapy Could soon allow scientists to correct recessive genetic disorders by replacing defective genes with copies of healthy ones Gene therapy The first and essential step to gene therapy is to isolate the gene

18 Mendel s Hypotheses The four hypotheses Mendel developed as a result of his experiments now make up the Mendelian theory of heredity the foundation of genetics. For each inherited trait, an individual has two copies of the gene one from each parent. There are alternative versions of genes. Today the different versions of a gene are called its alleles. When two different alleles occur together, one of them may be completely expressed, while the other may have no observable effect on the organism s appearance. When gametes are formed, the alleles for each gene in an individual separate independently of one another. Thus, gametes carry only one allele for each inherited trait. When gametes unite during fertilization, each gamete contributes one allele.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers.

Heredity. Sarah crosses a homozygous white flower and a homozygous purple flower. The cross results in all purple flowers. Heredity 1. Sarah is doing an experiment on pea plants. She is studying the color of the pea plants. Sarah has noticed that many pea plants have purple flowers and many have white flowers. Sarah crosses

More information

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes.

A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. 1 Biology Chapter 10 Study Guide Trait A trait is a variation of a particular character (e.g. color, height). Traits are passed from parents to offspring through genes. Genes Genes are located on chromosomes

More information

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance

Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Heredity - Patterns of Inheritance Genes and Alleles A. Genes 1. A sequence of nucleotides that codes for a special functional product a. Transfer RNA b. Enzyme c. Structural protein d. Pigments 2. Genes

More information

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple.

Complex Inheritance. Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Complex Inheritance Mendel observed monogenic traits and no linked genes It s not usually that simple. Other Types of Inheritance Incomplete Dominance The phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate

More information

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully

Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles. Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Human Blood Types: Codominance and Multiple Alleles Codominance: both alleles in the heterozygous genotype express themselves fully Multiple alleles: three or more alleles for a trait are found in the

More information

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel

11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel 11.1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Lesson Objectives Describe Mendel s studies and conclusions about inheritance. Describe what happens during segregation. Lesson Summary The Experiments of Gregor Mendel The

More information

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3

Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 Genetics 1 DEP 4053 Christine L. Ruva, Ph.D. Heredity and Prenatal Development: Chapter 3 PRINCIPLES OF HEREDITARY TRANSMISSION Genotype Phenotype Chromosomes: in the nucleus of the cell store and transmit

More information

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten

Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Heredity Grade Ten Ohio Standards Connection: Life Sciences Benchmark C Explain the genetic mechanisms and molecular basis of inheritance. Indicator 6 Explain that a unit of hereditary information is called a gene, and genes

More information

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6

Name: 4. A typical phenotypic ratio for a dihybrid cross is a) 9:1 b) 3:4 c) 9:3:3:1 d) 1:2:1:2:1 e) 6:3:3:6 Name: Multiple-choice section Choose the answer which best completes each of the following statements or answers the following questions and so make your tutor happy! 1. Which of the following conclusions

More information

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics

7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Life Science Chapter 7 Genetics of Organisms 7A The Origin of Modern Genetics Genetics the study of inheritance (the study of how traits are inherited through the interactions of alleles) Heredity: the

More information

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses

GENETIC CROSSES. Monohybrid Crosses GENETIC CROSSES Monohybrid Crosses Objectives Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype Explain the difference between homozygous and heterozygous Explain how probability is used to predict

More information

BioBoot Camp Genetics

BioBoot Camp Genetics BioBoot Camp Genetics BIO.B.1.2.1 Describe how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and/or conservation of genetic information DNA Replication is the process of DNA being copied before

More information

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes.

Genetic Mutations. Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Genetic Mutations Indicator 4.8: Compare the consequences of mutations in body cells with those in gametes. Agenda Warm UP: What is a mutation? Body cell? Gamete? Notes on Mutations Karyotype Web Activity

More information

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance

Incomplete Dominance and Codominance Name: Date: Period: Incomplete Dominance and Codominance 1. In Japanese four o'clock plants red (R) color is incompletely dominant over white (r) flowers, and the heterozygous condition (Rr) results in

More information

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1

Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 Genetics Copyright, 2009, by Dr. Scott Poethig, Dr. Ingrid Waldron, and Jennifer Doherty Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents in

More information

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance

Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Bio 100 Patterns of Inheritance 1 Chapter 9 Patterns of Inheritance Modern genetics began with Gregor Mendel s quantitative experiments with pea plants History of Heredity Blending theory of heredity -

More information

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino)

Genetics 1. Defective enzyme that does not make melanin. Very pale skin and hair color (albino) Genetics 1 We all know that children tend to resemble their parents. Parents and their children tend to have similar appearance because children inherit genes from their parents and these genes influence

More information

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics. Chapter 4 Human Heredity by Michael Cummings 2006 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning Chapter 4 Pedigree Analysis in Human Genetics Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Pigmentation Gene and Albinism Fig. 3.14 Two Genes Fig. 3.15 The Inheritance of Human Traits Difficulties Long generation time

More information

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide.

Cell Division. Use Target Reading Skills. This section explains how cells grow and divide. Cell Processes and Energy Name Date Class Cell Processes and Energy Guided Reading and Study Cell Division This section explains how cells grow and divide. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a

More information

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics

Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics. Chapter 12. Table of Contents. Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 2 Human Genetics Inheritance Patterns and Human Genetics Table of Contents Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Section 1 Chromosomes and Inheritance Objectives Distinguish between sex chromosomes and autosomes. Explain

More information

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t)

HEREDITY (B) In domestic cats, the gene for Tabby stripes (T) is dominant over the gene for no stripes (t) GENETIC CROSSES In minks, a single gene controls coat color. The allele for a brown (B) coat is dominant to the allele for silver-blue (b) coats. 1. A homozygous brown mink was crossed with a silverblue

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Name: Class: _ Date: _ Meiosis Quiz 1. (1 point) A kidney cell is an example of which type of cell? a. sex cell b. germ cell c. somatic cell d. haploid cell 2. (1 point) How many chromosomes are in a human

More information

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles.

C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. C1. A gene pool is all of the genes present in a particular population. Each type of gene within a gene pool may exist in one or more alleles. The prevalence of an allele within the gene pool is described

More information

Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea

Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea Name Period Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea If you have completed a first-year high school biology course, some of this chapter will serve as a review for the basic concepts of Mendelian genetics.

More information

Genetics for the Novice

Genetics for the Novice Genetics for the Novice by Carol Barbee Wait! Don't leave yet. I know that for many breeders any article with the word genetics in the title causes an immediate negative reaction. Either they quickly turn

More information

CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE

CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE SECTION 12-1 REVIEW CHROMOSOMES AND INHERITANCE VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. sex chromosome, autosome 2. germ-cell mutation, somatic-cell

More information

Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele.

Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele. Genetics Problems Name ANSWER KEY Problems 1-6: In tomato fruit, red flesh color is dominant over yellow flesh color, Use R for the Red allele and r for the yellow allele. 1. What would be the genotype

More information

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve

Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Title Chapter 16 How Populations Evolve Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Population Genetics A population is all of the members of a single species

More information

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9

Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Biology 1406 Exam 4 Notes Cell Division and Genetics Ch. 8, 9 Ch. 8 Cell Division Cells divide to produce new cells must pass genetic information to new cells - What process of DNA allows this? Two types

More information

Mendelian inheritance and the

Mendelian inheritance and the Mendelian inheritance and the most common genetic diseases Cornelia Schubert, MD, University of Goettingen, Dept. Human Genetics EUPRIM-Net course Genetics, Immunology and Breeding Mangement German Primate

More information

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele.

c. Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles separate and do not have an effect on another allele. Level Genetics Review KEY Describe the 3 laws that Gregor Mendel established after working with pea plants. a. Law of Dominance: states that the effect of a recessive allele is not observed when a dominant

More information

DNA Determines Your Appearance!

DNA Determines Your Appearance! DNA Determines Your Appearance! Summary DNA contains all the information needed to build your body. Did you know that your DNA determines things such as your eye color, hair color, height, and even the

More information

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Problems 1. The frequency of two alleles in a gene pool is 0.19 (A) and 0.81(a). Assume that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (a) Calculate the percentage of

More information

Coats and Genes Genetic Traits in Cattle

Coats and Genes Genetic Traits in Cattle Coats and Genes Genetic Traits in Cattle Objective The student will read about heredity and explore genetic traits in cattle. Background Agriculturists are pioneers in the study of genetics and heredity.

More information

Mendelian Genetics. I. Background

Mendelian Genetics. I. Background Mendelian Genetics Objectives 1. To understand the Principles of Segregation and Independent Assortment. 2. To understand how Mendel s principles can explain transmission of characters from one generation

More information

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction:

Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Questions for Cell Reproduction: Bio EOC Topics for Cell Reproduction: Asexual vs. sexual reproduction Mitosis steps, diagrams, purpose o Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis Meiosis steps, diagrams, purpose

More information

AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics

AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics AP Biology PowerPoint Notes Chapter 11 & 12 Patterns of Heredity and Human Genetics Mendelism and Genotype Genotype must be considered an integrated whole of all the genes because genes often work together

More information

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity

12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity 12.1 The Role of DNA in Heredity Only in the last 50 years have scientists understood the role of DNA in heredity. That understanding began with the discovery of DNA s structure. In 1952, Rosalind Franklin

More information

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations

Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations Name: Roksana Korbi AP Biology Chapter 21 Active Reading Guide The Evolution of Populations This chapter begins with the idea that we focused on as we closed Chapter 19: Individuals do not evolve! Populations

More information

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes.

The correct answer is c A. Answer a is incorrect. The white-eye gene must be recessive since heterozygous females have red eyes. 1. Why is the white-eye phenotype always observed in males carrying the white-eye allele? a. Because the trait is dominant b. Because the trait is recessive c. Because the allele is located on the X chromosome

More information

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012

CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Name: Class: Date: CCR Biology - Chapter 7 Practice Test - Summer 2012 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A person who has a disorder caused

More information

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS

INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS INTRODUCTION TO GENETICS USING TOBACCO (Nicotiana tabacum) SEEDLINGS By Dr. Susan Petro Based on a lab by Dr. Elaine Winshell Nicotiana tabacum Objectives To apply Mendel s Law of Segregation To use Punnett

More information

1 Mutation and Genetic Change

1 Mutation and Genetic Change CHAPTER 14 1 Mutation and Genetic Change SECTION Genes in Action KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What is the origin of genetic differences among organisms? What kinds

More information

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3

Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Genetics Module B, Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - An individual s characteristics are determines by factors that are passed from one parental generation to the next. - During gamete formation, the alleles for

More information

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses

Punnett Square: Monohybird Crosses Punnett Squares A Punnett square is a mathematical device used by geneticists to show combinations of gametes and to predict offspring ratios. There are a few fundamental concepts of Punnett squares that

More information

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare

Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research & Healthcare We Innovate Healthcare Genetic Testing in Research and Healthcare Human genetic testing is a growing science. It is used to study genes

More information

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program

Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Cystic Fibrosis Webquest Sarah Follenweider, The English High School 2009 Summer Research Internship Program Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and

More information

PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES

PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES PRACTICE PROBLEMS - PEDIGREES AND PROBABILITIES 1. Margaret has just learned that she has adult polycystic kidney disease. Her mother also has the disease, as did her maternal grandfather and his younger

More information

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck

II B. Gene Flow. II C. Assortative Mating. II D. Genetic Drift. II E. Natural Selection. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck I. What is Evolution? Agents of Evolutionary Change The Five Forces of Evolution and How We Measure Them A. First, remember that Evolution is a two-stage process: 1. Production and redistribution of variation

More information

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square

LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS. male (hat) female (hair bow) Skin color green or orange Eyes round or square Nose triangle or oval Teeth pointed or square Period Date LAB : PAPER PET GENETICS 1. Given the list of characteristics below, you will create an imaginary pet and then breed it to review the concepts of genetics. Your pet will have the following

More information

Honors Biology Practice Questions #1. Name. 6. Seastars have a diploid number of 24 chromosomes. The haploid number would be

Honors Biology Practice Questions #1. Name. 6. Seastars have a diploid number of 24 chromosomes. The haploid number would be Honors Biology Practice Questions #1 1. Donkeys have 68 chromosomes in each body cell. If a donkey cell undergoes meiosis, how many chromosomes should be in each gamete? A. 18 B. 34 C. 68 D. 132 2. A sperm

More information

GENETIC TRAITS IN HARRY POTTER DOMAIN 3-GENETICS

GENETIC TRAITS IN HARRY POTTER DOMAIN 3-GENETICS Learning Outcomes: Students will be able to: Define the basic genetic terms and concepts DNA, chromosome, gene, allele, homozygous, heterozygous, recessive and dominant genes, genotype, phenotype, and

More information

Baby Lab. Class Copy. Introduction

Baby Lab. Class Copy. Introduction Class Copy Baby Lab Introduction The traits on the following pages are believed to be inherited in the explained manner. Most of the traits, however, in this activity were created to illustrate how human

More information

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection

Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Chromosomes, Mapping, and the Meiosis Inheritance Connection Carl Correns 1900 Chapter 13 First suggests central role for chromosomes Rediscovery of Mendel s work Walter Sutton 1902 Chromosomal theory

More information

A and B are not absolutely linked. They could be far enough apart on the chromosome that they assort independently.

A and B are not absolutely linked. They could be far enough apart on the chromosome that they assort independently. Name Section 7.014 Problem Set 5 Please print out this problem set and record your answers on the printed copy. Answers to this problem set are to be turned in to the box outside 68-120 by 5:00pm on Friday

More information

Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting

Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting Lecture 38: DNA Fingerprinting (DNA technology) The most awesome and powerful tool acquired by man since the splitting of atoms - The Time Magazine (USA) Conventional fingerprint of an individual comes

More information

Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype.

Two copies of each autosomal gene affect phenotype. SECTION 7.1 CHROMOSOMES AND PHENOTYPE Study Guide KEY CONCEPT The chromosomes on which genes are located can affect the expression of traits. VOCABULARY carrier sex-linked gene X chromosome inactivation

More information

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger

The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger The Developing Person Through the Life Span 8e by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 3 Heredity and Environment PowerPoint Slides developed by Martin Wolfger and Michael James Ivy Tech Community College-Bloomington

More information

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2

Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Biology Final Exam Study Guide: Semester 2 Questions 1. Scientific method: What does each of these entail? Investigation and Experimentation Problem Hypothesis Methods Results/Data Discussion/Conclusion

More information

Influence of Sex on Genetics. Chapter Six

Influence of Sex on Genetics. Chapter Six Influence of Sex on Genetics Chapter Six Humans 23 Autosomes Chromosomal abnormalities very severe Often fatal All have at least one X Deletion of X chromosome is fatal Males = heterogametic sex XY Females

More information

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses

Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses GENETICS PROBLEM PACKET- Gifted NAME PER Phenotypes and Genotypes of Single Crosses Use these characteristics about plants to answer the following questions. Round seed is dominant over wrinkled seed Yellow

More information

LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab

LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab LAB 9: Genetics Take-Home Lab The science of genetics touches every aspect of our lives. Agriculture, industry, medicine, criminology, conservation, materials science and many other fields employ the concepts

More information

Ex) A tall green pea plant (TTGG) is crossed with a short white pea plant (ttgg). TT or Tt = tall tt = short GG or Gg = green gg = white

Ex) A tall green pea plant (TTGG) is crossed with a short white pea plant (ttgg). TT or Tt = tall tt = short GG or Gg = green gg = white Worksheet: Dihybrid Crosses U N I T 3 : G E N E T I C S STEP 1: Determine what kind of problem you are trying to solve. STEP 2: Determine letters you will use to specify traits. STEP 3: Determine parent

More information

Key Questions. How is evolution defined in genetic terms?

Key Questions. How is evolution defined in genetic terms? Getting Started Objectives 17.1.1 Define evolution in genetic terms. 17.1.2 Identify the main sources of genetic variation in a population. 17.1.3 State what determines the number of phenotypes for a trait.

More information

Variations on a Human Face Lab

Variations on a Human Face Lab Variations on a Human Face Lab Introduction: Have you ever wondered why everybody has a different appearance even if they are closely related? It is because of the large variety or characteristics that

More information

2 18. If a boy s father has haemophilia and his mother has one gene for haemophilia. What is the chance that the boy will inherit the disease? 1. 0% 2

2 18. If a boy s father has haemophilia and his mother has one gene for haemophilia. What is the chance that the boy will inherit the disease? 1. 0% 2 1 GENETICS 1. Mendel is considered to be lucky to discover the laws of inheritance because 1. He meticulously analyzed his data statistically 2. He maintained pedigree records of various generations he

More information

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders

Human Mendelian Disorders. Genetic Technology. What is Genetics? Genes are DNA 9/3/2008. Multifactorial Disorders Human genetics: Why? Human Genetics Introduction Determine genotypic basis of variant phenotypes to facilitate: Understanding biological basis of human genetic diversity Prenatal diagnosis Predictive testing

More information

Influences on Birth Defects

Influences on Birth Defects Influences on Birth Defects FACTS About 150,000 babies are born each year with birth defects. The parents of one out of every 28 babies receive the frightening news that their baby has a birth defect There

More information

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2

Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005. Lectures 1 2 Genetics Lecture Notes 7.03 2005 Lectures 1 2 Lecture 1 We will begin this course with the question: What is a gene? This question will take us four lectures to answer because there are actually several

More information

Terms: The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics and on PowerPoint Slides 2 and 3):

Terms: The following terms are presented in this lesson (shown in bold italics and on PowerPoint Slides 2 and 3): Unit B: Understanding Animal Reproduction Lesson 4: Understanding Genetics Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving the following objectives: 1. Explain

More information

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines

Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations. 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Chapter 16 Evolution of Populations 16.1 Genes and Variation Biology Mr. Hines Figure 1-21 Levels of Organization Section 1-3 Levels of organization Biosphere Ecosystem The part of Earth that contains

More information

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date

Summary. 16 1 Genes and Variation. 16 2 Evolution as Genetic Change. Name Class Date Chapter 16 Summary Evolution of Populations 16 1 Genes and Variation Darwin s original ideas can now be understood in genetic terms. Beginning with variation, we now know that traits are controlled by

More information

MCAS Biology. Review Packet

MCAS Biology. Review Packet MCAS Biology Review Packet 1 Name Class Date 1. Define organic. THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE 2. All living things are made up of 6 essential elements: SPONCH. Name the six elements of life. S N P C O H 3. Elements

More information

Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics and Extensions

Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics and Extensions Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics and Extensions Short answer (show your work or thinking to get partial credit): 1. In peas, tall is dominant over dwarf. If a plant homozygous for tall is crossed

More information

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on

Chapter 3. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline 9/11/10. Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter 3 Heredity and Evolu4on Chapter Outline The Cell DNA Structure and Function Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis The Genetic Principles Discovered by Mendel Mendelian Inheritance in Humans Misconceptions

More information

Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet

Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet Mutations & DNA Technology Worksheet Name Section A: Mutations Mutations are changes in DNA. Somatic mutations occur in non-reproductive cells and won't be passed onto offspring. Mutations that occur in

More information

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes

CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE. Section B: Sex Chromosomes CHAPTER 15 THE CHROMOSOMAL BASIS OF INHERITANCE Section B: Sex Chromosomes 1. The chromosomal basis of sex varies with the organism 2. Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance 1. The chromosomal

More information

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2)

LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) LAB 11 Natural Selection (version 2) Overview In this laboratory you will demonstrate the process of evolution by natural selection by carrying out a predator/prey simulation. Through this exercise you

More information

Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics: Beyond Pea Plants

Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics: Beyond Pea Plants Bio 102 Practice Problems Mendelian Genetics: Beyond Pea Plants Short answer (show your work or thinking to get partial credit): 1. In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color (R) is incompletely dominant

More information

Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila

Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila Mendelian Genetics in Drosophila Lab objectives: 1) To familiarize you with an important research model organism,! Drosophila melanogaster. 2) Introduce you to normal "wild type" and various mutant phenotypes.

More information

Mendelian Inheritance & Probability

Mendelian Inheritance & Probability Mendelian Inheritance & Probability (CHAPTER 2- Brooker Text) January 31 & Feb 2, 2006 BIO 184 Dr. Tom Peavy Problem Solving TtYy x ttyy What is the expected phenotypic ratio among offspring? Tt RR x Tt

More information

Genetics Table Simplified

Genetics Table Simplified Genetics Table Simplified Parent s Names: and Kid s Name: Sex: Chr. # Gender Male Female Chr. # Trait Homozy. D. Heterozy. Homozy. R. X, Y XY XX 21 Freckles on Cheeks Present Present Absent Trait Homozy.

More information

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15

Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Biology 1406 - Notes for exam 5 - Population genetics Ch 13, 14, 15 Species - group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring; genetically similar 13.7, 14.2 Population

More information

Saffiyah Y. Manboard Biology Instructor Seagull Alternative High School Saffiyah.manboard@browardschools.com

Saffiyah Y. Manboard Biology Instructor Seagull Alternative High School Saffiyah.manboard@browardschools.com The Effect of Discovery Learning through Biotechnology on the Knowledge and Perception of Sickle Cell Anemia and It s Genetics on Lower Income Students Saffiyah Y. Manboard Biology Instructor Seagull Alternative

More information

Cat caryotype (38 chromosomes)

Cat caryotype (38 chromosomes) CAT GENETICS Cat caryotype (38 chromosomes) D Dense pigment d dilute pigment L short hair dominant l long hair monohybrid dihybrid Cat Genetics and Mosaicism The Calico phenotype reflects transcriptional

More information

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Genetic Technology. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Genetic Technology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. An application of using DNA technology to help environmental scientists

More information

Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University

Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University Inheritance of Color And The Polled Trait Dr. R. R. Schalles, Dept. of Animal Sciences and Industry Kansas State University Introduction All functions of an animal are controlled by the enzymes (and other

More information

Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation

Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation Bio 102 Practice Problems Genetic Code and Mutation Multiple choice: Unless otherwise directed, circle the one best answer: 1. Beadle and Tatum mutagenized Neurospora to find strains that required arginine

More information

If you crossed a homozygous, black guinea pig with a white guinea pig, what would be the phenotype(s)

If you crossed a homozygous, black guinea pig with a white guinea pig, what would be the phenotype(s) Biological Principles Name: In guinea pigs, black hair (B) is dominant to white hair (b). Homozygous black guinea pig White guinea pig Heterozygous black guinea pig Genotype Phenotype Why is there no heterozygous

More information

Biology and Society, Exam II

Biology and Society, Exam II iology and Society, Exam II Name There are 50 multiple choice questions. Answer A for true, for false. Write your NAME on the scantron and above, and ID NUMER in the identification number blank on the

More information

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15

Allele Frequencies: Changing. Chapter 15 Allele Frequencies: Changing Chapter 15 Changing Allele Frequencies 1. Mutation introduces new alleles into population 2. Natural Selection specific alleles are more likely to be passed down because they

More information

B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses

B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses B2 5 Inheritrance Genetic Crosses 65 minutes 65 marks Page of 55 Q. A woman gives birth to triplets. Two of the triplets are boys and the third is a girl. The triplets developed from two egg cells released

More information

Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits

Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits Genetics Part 1: Inheritance of Traits Genetics is the study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring. Offspring usually show some traits of each parent. For a long time, scientists did not understand

More information

Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002

Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002 Population Genetics and Multifactorial Inheritance 2002 Consanguinity Genetic drift Founder effect Selection Mutation rate Polymorphism Balanced polymorphism Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

More information

The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans

The Making of the Fittest: Natural Selection in Humans OVERVIEW MENDELIN GENETIC, PROBBILITY, PEDIGREE, ND CHI-QURE TTITIC This classroom lesson uses the information presented in the short film The Making of the Fittest: Natural election in Humans (http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/making-fittest-natural-selection-humans)

More information

STUDENT ID NUMBER, LAST NAME,

STUDENT ID NUMBER, LAST NAME, EBIO 1210: General Biology 1 Name Exam 3 June 25, 2013 To receive credit for this exam, you MUST bubble in your STUDENT ID NUMBER, LAST NAME, and FIRST NAME No. 2 pencils only You may keep this exam to

More information

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions

Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Evolution (18%) 11 Items Sample Test Prep Questions Grade 7 (Evolution) 3.a Students know both genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and diversity of organisms. (pg. 109 Science

More information

Patient Information. for Childhood

Patient Information. for Childhood Patient Information Genetic Testing for Childhood Hearing Loss Introduction This document describes the most common genetic cause of childhood hearing loss and explains the role of genetic testing. Childhood

More information

HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS

HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS HOW TO SOLVE GENETICS PROBLEMS 1. Read the problem. 2. Determine what traits are dominant and which are recessive. Often you must marshal background knowledge to do this which may not be explicitly mentioned

More information

17. A testcross A.is used to determine if an organism that is displaying a recessive trait is heterozygous or homozygous for that trait. B.

17. A testcross A.is used to determine if an organism that is displaying a recessive trait is heterozygous or homozygous for that trait. B. ch04 Student: 1. Which of the following does not inactivate an X chromosome? A. Mammals B. Drosophila C. C. elegans D. Humans 2. Who originally identified a highly condensed structure in the interphase

More information