meiosis and heredity Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 meiosis and heredity Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is a. sexual reproduction requires an interaction between two individuals. b. there is a mixing of genetic information into a new combination in the next generation. c. it ensures a greater number of progeny. d. it keeps the number of chromosomes constant more effectively. e. it allows for the production and use of gametes. 2. reproduction generates more than does reproduction. a. Asexual; genetic diversity; sexual b. Sexual; genetic stability; asexual c. Sexual; genetic diversity; asexual d. Asexual; haploid cells; sexual e. Sexual; identical offspring; asexual 3. A homologous chromosome pair is best described as two chromosomes having a. the same genes in the same order but having different alleles. b. the same alleles of the same genes in the same order. c. different genes in the same order and possibly having different alleles of some genes. d. different alleles of the same genes arranged in a different order. e. an identical DNA sequence. 4. Sex chromosomes are a. completely different between the two sexes. b. partially homologous but also have unique regions. c. found only in males. d. unable to line up properly at the metaphase plate. e. completely homologous but always have different alleles. 5. The results of nondisjunction include a. a failure of spindle fibers to separate a homologous pair of chromosomes. b. a change in the status of a daughter cell from diploid to haploid. c. a change in the status of a daughter cell from haploid to diploid. d. one pole receiving neither member of a homologous pair of chromosomes. e. a gamete that cannot fuse with another gamete. 6. Meiosis results in the generation of a. four haploid cells. b. two diploid cells. c. two diploid cells and two haploid cells. d. four diploid cells. e. one haploid and three diploid cells. 7. The process of fertilization a. is random in the selection of which gametes fuse. b. is not random but selects for gametes with a greater number of paternal chromosomes. c. is not random but selects for gametes with a greater number of maternal chromosomes. d. is not a source of genetic variability in progeny. e. appears to be random in the selection of gametes to fuse, but only because we don't yet understand the forces at work.

2 Select the Exception 8. In the following list, pick the one that is not a source of genetic variability from meiosis and fertilization. a. recombination of homologous chromosomes b. segregation of chromosomes c. genes contained in the gametes that fuse to form a zygote d. recombination between sister chromatids e. physical arrangement of chromosomes along the metaphase plate in preparation for anaphase 9. Which of the following is not one of Mendel's three hypothesis to explain the results of his P, F 1 and F 2 crossed? a. Adult plants carry a pair of genes that will determine the inheritance of each allele. b. If an adult plant has two different alleles, one is dominant over the other. c. Adult plants always have traits that are governed by a single pair of alleles, but the number of possible alleles varies with each trait. d. The pairs of alleles separate in the formation of gametes so that each gamete gets one allele of the pair. 10. Which of the following is NOT subject to polygenic inheritance? a. human height b. human skin color c. dimples in humans d. seed color in wheat e. ear length in corn 11. If purple is dominant in pea plants, a cross between P generation purple and white plants will result in a. all purple flowers in the F1 generation. b. all white flowers in the F1 generation. c. all purple flowers in the F1 generation but a lighter purple than in the parents. d. mostly purple flowers in the P1 generation, with an occasional white flower. e. half of the plants having purple flowers, the other half having white flowers. 12. Mendel crossed true-breeding plants having yellow peas with plants having green peas. The resulting plant all had yellow peas. An F 1 cross resulted in of the plants having yellow peas and of the plants having green peas. What does this tell you about the alleles for color? a. yellow is usually the dominant color, but sometimes green can be dominant b. green is the dominant color c. yellow is the dominant color d. yellow is the recessive color e. the F 1 plants must have had some green peas that went unnoticed. 13. Which of the following is a dihybrid cross between two heterozygous indivisduals? a. RrMM Rrmm b. RRMM rrmm c. RrMm RrMm d. rrmm RRmm e. RrMm rrmm 14. Which of the following is a test cross? (y means the allele's identity is unknown) a. RyMM Rymm b. RRMM rrmm c. RyMy RyMy d. rrmm RRmm e. RyMy rrmm

3 15. Which of the following shows an F 1 monohybrid cross between two heterozygous individuals? a. RrMM Rrmm b. RRMM rrmm c. Rr Rr d. rr RR e. Rr rr 16. The principle of independent assortment states that a. alleles on different homologous chromosomes are randomly sorted to individual gametes. b. genes on the same chromosome are not randomly sorted to different gametes. c. two alleles for a single trait are randomly sorted to individual gametes; there is no mention of chromosomes. d. genes for different traits are always sorted to gametes independently of each other. e. Both a and c 17. A parent has a genotype of RrYy. What is the probability of having a gamete with the RY genotype? a. 1/2 b. 1/4 c. 3/4 d. 1/8 e Your father is heterozygous for a recessive disorder. You know your mom has two "good" alleles. What is the probability that you will have the disorder? a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100% 19. Your father is heterozygous for sickle cell disease. You know your mom has two "good" alleles. What is the probability that you will have the disorder? a. 0% but you will have a 50% chance of passing the "bad" gene on to your children b. 0% and you don't need to worry about passing the "bad" allele on to your children c. 25% for you and 25% for your children d. 50% for you and 50% for your children e. 50% for you and 25% that you'll pass the "bad" allele on to your children 20. R is the dominant allele for a round pea, r is the recessive allele for a wrinkled pea. If you cross plants having round peas with plants having wrinkled peas, a. you will be able to determine if the round pea plant is homozygous or heterozygous. b. you are conducting a test cross. c. you are crossing two parental pea plants. d. the progeny plants will all have wrinkled peas. e. a and b only 21. Your mother has albinism, which is a recessive trait. You learn that your spouse's mother also has albinism. What are the odds that your first child will also have albinism? a. 1/4 b. 1/2 c. 3/4 d. 1 e. not enough information 22. The key difference between incomplete dominance and codominance is a. with incomplete dominance, the recessive allele cannot be detected; in codominance, the

4 expression of the recessive allele is apparent. b. with incomplete dominance it is possible to detect the expression of a recessive allele; in codominance, both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. c. with codominance it is possible to detect the expression of a recessive allele; in incomplete dominance, both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. d. with incomplete dominance, it is possible to detect the expression of the dominant allele; in codominance, both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype. 23. You cross a pink snapdragon (C R C W ) with a white snapdragon (C W C W ). What percentage of the progeny will be red? a. 0% b. 25% c. 50% d. 75% e. 100% 24. Your father has B blood. Your mother has O blood. You get tested and learn that your blood is also type O. What does this tell you? a. You were adopted and your parents didn't tell you. b. Your mother had a secret affair. c. Your father's genotype is I B i and your mother's genotype is ii. d. Your father's genotype is I B I B and your mother's genotype is ii. e. Your father's genotype is I A I B and your mother's genotype is ii. 25. The different alleles in human blood type are a demonstration of a. incomplete dominance. b. codominance. c. dominance and codominance. d. dominance and incomplete dominance. e. dominance, codominance, and incomplete dominance. 26. An example of an exception to the principle of independent assortment as resulting from genes being physically associated with each other on the same chromosome would be. a. freckles and dimples b. brown hair and mid digit hair c. blonde and blue eyes d. height and weight 27. Sex-linked genes are genes that are a. expressed differently based on the sex of an individual. b. linked to the sex determining gene. c. located on sex chromosomes. d. determinants of the sex of an individual. e. found exclusively in one sex or the other. 28. In humans, sex determination generally depends upon a. whether or not the X chromosome is present. b. the number of X chromosomes present. c. environment in the womb. d. whether or not the Y chromosome is present. e. all of these 29. An autosome is a. a chromosome that is part of a pair that is the same in both males and females. b. a structure for transport of genetic material to the cytoplasm. c. a chromosome with a group of genes involved in autoimmune disorders.

5 d. a region of the DNA that is self-replicating. e. a cellular body involved in autoimmune disorders. 30. An individual who is a carrier of a genetically inherited disease a. has the disease, and any of their offspring will have the disease. b. does not have the disease but must have a parent with the disease. c. does not have the disease but may have offspring with the disease. d. has the disease and must have a parent with the disease. e. does not have the disease but must have a parent with the disease and may have offspring with the disease. 31. A woman with normal blood clotting mates with a man who has hemophilia. Their first child is a boy who has hemophilia. Tests show that the father and son both have the same form of hemophilia, that it is X-linked, and that the boy has normal genetic inheritance. You can predict that if the couple produces more children together, then the odds are that a. all of the children will have hemophilia. b. half of the boys and none of the girls will have hemophilia. c. none of the rest of children should have hemophilia. d. all of the boys and half of the girls will have hemophilia. e. half of the boys and half of the girls will have hemophilia. 32. Nondisjuction refers to a. failure of homologous pairs to separate during meiosis. b. improper pairing of nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis. c. failure of sister chromatids to pair during mitosis. d. failure of homologous pairs or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis. e. failure of homologous pairs to separate during mitosis. 33. Which genetic condition is revealed in the karyotype display shown in the figure above? a. Turner syndrome b. Down syndrome c. cri-du-chat d. Triple-X syndrome e. Klinefelter syndrome

6 34. Examine the pedigree in the figure above, where individuals that have the genetic condition being tested are marked with filled squares or circles. Which of the following inheritance patterns is most likely correct for this condition? a. autosomal dominant b. X-linked recessive c. X-linked dominant d. cytoplasmic inheritance e. autosomal recessive 35. Examine the pedigree in the figure above, where individuals that have the genetic condition being tested are marked with filled squares or circles. Which of the following inheritance patterns is most likely correct for this condition? a. autosomal dominant b. X-linked recessive c. X-linked dominant d. cytoplasmic inheritance e. autosomal recessive

7 meiosis and heredity Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy TOP: 11.0 WHY IT MATTERS 2. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.0 WHY IT MATTERS 3. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.1 THE MECHANISMS OF MEIOSIS 4. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.1 THE MECHANISMS OF MEIOSIS 5. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.1 THE MECHANISMS OF MEIOSIS 6. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.1 THE MECHANISMS OF MEIOSIS 7. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 11.2 MECHANISMS THAT GENERATE GENETIC VARIABILITY 8. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Section 11.2 OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension MSC: Select the Exception 9. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Section 12.1 OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge MSC: Select the Exception 10. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy REF: Section 12.2 OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge MSC: Select the Exception 11. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 12. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 13. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 14. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 15. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 16. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Easy OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 17. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application 18. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application 19. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application 20. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application 21. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application

8 22. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 12.2 LATER MODIFICATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO MENDEL'S HYPOTHESIS 23. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application TOP: 12.2 LATER MODIFICATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO MENDEL'S HYPOTHESIS 24. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Difficult OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Bloom's Taxonomy: Application TOP: 12.2 LATER MODIFICATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO MENDEL'S HYPOTHESIS 25. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 12.2 LATER MODIFICATIONS AND ADDITIONS TO MENDEL'S HYPOTHESIS 26. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate TOP: 13.1 GENETIC LINKAGE AND RECOMBINATION 27. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Easy 28. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Easy 29. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Easy 30. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge 31. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application 32. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge TOP: 13.3 CHROMOSOMAL ALTERATIONS THAT AFFECT INHERITANCE 33. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Figure OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application TOP: 13.3 CHROMOSOMAL ALTERATIONS THAT AFFECT INHERITANCE 34. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Section 13.2 Section 13.4 OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application MSC: Integrative Multiple Choice 35. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Moderate REF: Section 13.2 Section 13.4 OBJ: Bloom's Taxonomy: Application MSC: Integrative Multiple Choice

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