Scope. Definitionn. Food for. Children) children. 12 months. up to the. the age of. or for. Plumpy Doz. 35% fat), 1 of 5 Ref: Page

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1 Page 1 of 5 Ref: RUSF_Storage Version: 2.0 Revised: 04/06/2010 Storage of RUFC Scope Defining optimal storage conditions for RUFC (Ready-to-Use Children) Food for Reference material Nutriset: Storage conditions & Change in product, March TIS Transport Information Services (http://www.tis-gdv.de) Definitionn RUFC or Ready-to-usee Food for Children (equivalent to RUSF or Ready-to- Use Supplementary Food), is a fat-based product, ready to eat, with low moisture content and low Aw rending the food less susceptible to contamination than product with higher moisture content and Aw. The food is intended to moderately malnourished peoplee (in general infant and young children. The term older infants means persons from the 6 th month and not more than 12 months of age. The term young children means persons from the age of 12 months up to the age of three years (36 months). Aw: measure without unit, evaluating the quantity of free water in a given product. Free water is bio-available for chemical reactions or for microorganisms possibly present in the given environment Plumpy Doz is a type of RUSF or RUFC produced by Nutriset, France. Product description RUFC (e.g. Plumpy Doz) is a nutritional supplement, usually called RUSF (Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food). It is a fat-based product (up to 35% fat), enriched in minerals and vitamins that suits 6-36 months of age children. The Page 1

2 product reduce incidence of acute malnutrition and enhances growth and motor development. Recommended daily rations are: 20.0 g / infant / day for 6 months 46.3 g / child / day for 6 months Recommended shelf-life under ideal condition s The products and their packing and packaging are tested and validated at NUTRISET at a storage temperature of 40 C. This temperature is the acceleration threshold of the degradation mechanisms and reactions. Storage between 30 and 40 C, althoughh not optimum, does not produce major deterioration of the product (Nutriset, 2006). The storage life of this type of foods is determined by the type and quantity of bacteria in the product, and the susceptibility of fat to get rancid ( oxidized). At normal storage and transport temperatures < 30 C, shelf life is at least 1 year (e.g. Plumpy Doz) or longer (e.g. Plumpy Nut is 2 years). However, it should be noted thatt their quality falls steadily during storage, this degradation primarily being manifested in eating quality. Inadequate storage at excessively high temperatures may cause foods not resistant to tropical conditions to deterioratee rapidly. Foods are packaged in cartons of corrugated board, often provided with metal strapping or adhesive tape. Cartons are often relatively weak, in particular when gray paperboard made from gray chip (waste paper) is used, which is very hygroscopic and susceptible to mold. Wet strength paperboard cartons are best. Corrugated board cartons are more susceptible to puncturing, moisture and water vapor condensation than cartons made of millboard. Corrugated board and millboard may be protected by impregnation with wax or coating with polyethylene. Equally crucial to the stability of the cartons is secure closure with a sufficiently tear-resistant adhesive strip or a clip. Strapping provides additional protection. To protect the cartons from moisture, it has proven advantageous to form relatively large cargo units and to heat-seal several cartons in transparent film withoutt the pallet. The cartons heat-sealed in this way have then to be secured to the pallet with an additional shrink film or with straps. Carton conditions Keep dry Top Keep away from heat (solar radiation) Page 2

3 Cargo handling It is also imperative that the goods be protected from moisture (rain, snow) during cargo handling and from excessively low and high temperatures, as the packaging (paperboard cartons) is extremely sensitive to moisture and loses stability. Both the cartons and the plastic jars are relatively sensitive to mechanical stresses. If the packages are handled improperly, e.g. thrown, there is a risk of damage (e.g. cartons may become battered or platic jars broken). The cargo should accordingly be handled with appropriate care. Stowage factor The stowage factor of Plumpy Doz is xxx Segregation Marker pen/oil crayon (preferred) Cargo securing Because of its considerable impact- and pressure-sensitivity, packages of this cargo must be secured in such a way that they are prevented from damaging each other. Spaces between packages or pallets must be filled, to prevent slippage or tipping. Risk factors and loss prevention 1. Temperature Foods require particular temperature (ideally < 30 C), humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions. At temperatures > 30 C, plastic jars may blow due to heating which results in thermal expansion, but also it will accelerate possible oxidation of the food. Long-term exposure to high temperatures may lead to: Separation of solid from oil phases, settling Oxidation (rancidity of the product) The additional moisture released as a result of leakage due to blowing aggravates wettening of cartons. 2. Humidity/Moisture The cartons must be protected from all forms of moisture (rain and condensation water) and from excessive humidity levels. Typical patterns of moisture damage to a cargo of RUFC foods are as follows: mold on and in cartons Page 3

4 crushed cartons, due to moisture penetration, leakage, total loss excessive water content in cartons, pallets and wooden dunnage temperature gradients within the cargo stack, leading to cargo condensation Mold appears after 5-15 days, if the water content is exceeded. Store aeration is therefore required. Stores should not be packed during precipitation. It is essential not to stow any wet or snow-covered cargo units in the warehouse. To reduce moisture content, it might be helpful to use packing paper lining (Kraft paper) around a stack of cartons. 3. Ventilation Good ventilation of the store is required; it will enable to decrease the temperature and moisture of the store, and then will ensure a better preservation of the product. 4. Biotic activity RUFC foods are products in which biochemical and microbial processes are low and which are isolated from the external environment, as they are in hermetically sealed packaging. 5. Odor RUFC foods do not cause odor-tainting, as they are enclosed in hermetically sealed packaging 6. Contamination RUSF foods do not normally cause contamination. However, other goods may be contaminated by leakage caused by breakages, in particular in the case of plastic jars. Rodents might chew the cartons and plastic packaging and not only provoking leakages but also can contaminate the food. RUFC foods should not be stowed in warehouse together with goods which cause contamination or produce large amounts of dust 7. Mechanical influences Cartons should not be thrown during handling, as there is a risk of their becoming battered. Mechanical stresses during cargo handling may, for example, destroy the adhesive strips or dent the carton walls and edges. Extreme stress may lead to breakage of the RUFC food containers, in particular plastic jars. Page 4

5 Leakage of RUFC results in total loss of the carton. If RUFC leaks out, the cartons become soft and the carton stacks may collapse. The packages must be secured appropriately so that they cannot tip from the stack 8. Toxicity / Hazards to health RUFC foods must not be stored in a warehouse together with toxic goods (foodstuffs legislation). If optimum storage conditions are not complied with for a relatively long period, depreciation occurs with respect to the plastic jar contents, which may sometimes present a serious hazard to health. 9. Shrinkage/Shortage Loss of volume may be caused by leakage or theft. To avert the risk of theft, we should prevent access to the store. The value of the good is often higher than any other goods transported, stored and distributed by WFP (about $ 3,000 / MT) 10. Insect infestation / Diseases No risk. Recommendations Ideally as low temperature (i.e. < 30 C) and moisture/humidity as possible, if not possible this procedures give some tips on how to proceed, what to watch to ensure the good storage of this type of goods. Ventilated stores Regular (weekly) control of the temperature, moisture of the store, presence of rodents or birds observation of leakages Immediate reconditioning of possible damaged cartons. ALL damaged products (i.e. Plumpy Doz should be discarded and not distributed). Possible use of kraft paper and/or plastic wrapping. In case of product deterioration (e.g. bad odor rancid, bad taste soapy, or other abnormalities) please contact immediately either Shane Prigge or Bertrand Salvignol for way to proceed. Page 5

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