Simpósio Internacional de Engenharia Automotiva SIMEA Engine Downsizing and CO 2 Emissions Reduction

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1 Simpósio Internacional de Engenharia Automotiva SIMEA 2008 Engine Downsizing and CO 2 Emissions Reduction Marcos Clemente Desenvolvimento Experimental e Computacional MAHLE Powertrain Brasil September 17 th, 2008

2 Engine Downsizing and CO2 Emissions Reduction Source of CO 2 Emissions Global CO 2 emissions [%] Total: 800 Gt/year Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions [%] Total: 29 Gt/year Vegetation Soil Industry Combustion of biomass 6 Trucks 5.5 Passenger cars 1 Combustion of biomass 41 Oceans 23 Domestic fuel & small consumers 25 Power plants 3 Air traffic 2 Other traffic 1 Ships on open sea Source: VDI, EU In Europe (2003): road transport ~20%, passenger cars ~12% 2

3 Engine Downsizing and CO2 Emissions Reduction Drive Concepts Conventional vehicle with ICE HEV with ICE HEV with range extender BEV Fuel Cell vehicle ICE - Internal Combustion Engine HEV - Hybrid Electric Vehicle BEV - Battery Electric Vehicle Combustion engine with clutch and gearbox Tank Differential Combustion engine with generator Battery Fuel Cell Electric engine 3

4 Engine Downsizing and CO2 Emissions Reduction Well-to-Wheel CO 2 Reduction Potential by Drive Train Gasoline ICE Gasoline DI ICE Gasoline DI ICE DA* (as MAHLE 3-Cyl. Technology Demonstrator) DI Direct Injection HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle ICE Internal Combustion Engine * Downsized and advanced ICE Diesel DI ICE Diesel DI ICE DA* Gasoline DI HEV Diesel DI HEV 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% CO 2 reduction potential in % compared with conventional gasoline ICE (well-to-wheel) 6

5 Engine Downsizing and CO2 Emissions Reduction Well-to-Wheel CO 2 Reduction Potential for Alternative Fuels and Drive Train Combinations Gasoline ICE Gasoline DI ICE DA Diesel DI ICE DA BEV Battery Electric Vehicle DI Direct Injection FT Fischer-Tropsch-Synthesis HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle ICE Internal Combustion Engine RME - Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester *DA downsized and advanced Diesel DI HEV RME Biodiesel FT Diesel DI HEV BEV (potential future 50/50 powerplant Mix) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% CO 2 reduction potential in % compared with conventional Gasoline ICE (well-to-wheel) Source: Adapted from World Business Council for Sustainable Development 7

6 Current MAHLE Product Portfolio Eco-Oil filter module Camshaft Valve guide Valve Valve seat ring Turbocharger Piston ring Piston with pin bore bushing Piston pin, Piston pin circlip Oil-mist separator with control valve Air-mass sensor Air filter module Purge valve Tappet (cam follower, rocker arm) Tumble flap Exhaust gas recirculation Intake manifold (charge air distribution) Blow-by induction Fuel filter Cylinder liner Connecting rod Bearing 8

7 MAHLE Group South America Integrated Solutions Who sees things in an integrated way understands better the causes and foresees the consequences and needs. 7

8 Tech Center Institutional Integrated Solutions TECH CENTER MML INTEGRATION WITH TECHNICAL/SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AEA ABNT SAE Engine comp Filters Piston/Valve train Scientific Services R&D-Global R&D-Local R&D / Cust. Proj. R&D-Global Customer proj. Rings Bearings Higher ring scuffing / spalling resistance Higher bearing oxidation / corrosion resistance Rings/ Bearings higher PCP 1 Mio km Oil Change Higher Temp. UNICAMP CONSICAE DEV. TOOLS MIT Oil CONS Alternative Fuels Emissions Flex Filter Ionic Filter Oil Mist sep. Oil Additivation Air Managem. Air Manag. Water Separ. Water Sensor Oil Mist Sep. C. Rail filter EGR/Cooler BIODIESEL OFFICIAL PROGRAM DIESEL QUALITY EURO 4 Product application Piston bowl Piston strength Valvetrain dynam. Valve timing Cylinder Liner Piston bowl Piston strength Valvetrain dynam. Valve timing Cylinder Head Cylinder Liner TECPARP SPECIALIST SYSTEM UPPSALA PLASMA SOURCE INTEGRAM NANO COATINGS Engine Dynos Num. Simulations Electronics and Instrument. Labs Metallurgy Metrology Chemical Service Sales EUROPEAN CONSORTIUM SELF-LUBRIC. COATINGS MPTBr Engineering Services OBD IDAA projects Engine mapping Combustion Dev. Sensors OBD IDAA projects Engine mapping Combustion Dev.. Sensors ELECMATEC MICROGRAVITY CASTING Engineering Services/Scientific Services/PL Opportunities INTEGRATION Management 10

9 MAHLE Group South America MAHLE Powertrain At the Tech Center in Jundiaí, MAHLE Powertrain integrates diversified, high technology resources, offering services and systemic solutions. Demonstration Engine 9

10 Downsizing together with turbocharging / higher specific output Concept Downsizing is achieved by the reduction of the engine displacement, increasing the specific loading on the engine For a gasoline engine, this leads to De-throttling, and hence Reduced fuel consumption. To compensate torque and power output, boosting is used to maintain the vehicle dynamics Reduced engine weight and friction further increase fuel efficiency. Reduced package size leads to further vehicle benefits. 13 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

11 MAHLE engine concept for advanced downsizing Main objectives Selected displacement (V H = 1.2 l) to suit 1,600 kg vehicle application Advanced approach for 50 % downsizing (V H = 1.2 l comparing to a 2.4 l N/A engine displacement) Demonstrate fuel economy improvement of approx. 30 % in the NEDC (1,600 kg vehicle) over comparative N/A engines EU 5 compliance Flexible technology concept Engine family concept approach for further options Performance at Full Load Single turbo: Torque Maximum at n = 2,500-3,000 rpm M d = 210 Nm (p me = 22 bar) Power Output Maximum at n = 6,000 rpm P max = 90 kw (P max /V H = 75 kw/l) Twin turbo: Torque at n = 1,000 rpm M d = 153 Nm (p me = 16 bar) Maximum at n = 2,500-3,000 rpm M d = 286 Nm (p me = 30 bar) Power Output Maximum at n = 6,500 rpm P max = 144 kw (P max /V H = 120 kw/l) Fuel Consumption at Part Load Optimum b e = 235 g/kwh at n = 2000 rpm / p me = 4 bar b e < 295 g/kwh 14 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

12 Engine design Cylinder head Main objectives Cooling of the central GDI package to ensure thermal robustness of the package and low knock sensitivity Integration of an optimum combustion chamber Protect for future additional technologies 15 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

13 Engine design Cylinder head Key features Aluminum cast cylinder head with cam ladder (COSCAST process enabling small wall thickness combined with complex geometry low weight, good cooling) Fully machined intake port and combustion chamber with provision for high & medium tumble inlet port designs Optimum combustion chamber (achieved by geometry and cooling) Central piezo DI (option to assess solenoid injector) High heat rejection with cross flow water jacket (enhanced cooling) Optimized water jacket (enhanced cooling) for consistent heat rejection along cylinder head and sufficient cooling in the critical area between and around injector tip & spark plug 16 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

14 Engine design Cylinder head gasket Main objectives High load capability with low bore distortion for low friction System integration with engine cooling concept Key features Multi layer steel gasket Integrated water temperature sensor giving rapid feed back of cooling requirements to electric water pump 17 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

15 Engine design Cylinder block and bottom end Main objectives Low weight combined with high stiffness Good control of the thermal management Prerequisite for good friction behaviour by low bore distortion Key features Aluminium sand cast crankcase (closed deck for high stiffness) (COSCAST process enabling small wall thickness combined with complex geometry) Nikasil parent bore (good heat transfer) Split cooling system for head & block (enhanced thermal management) Through bolting system for cylinder head and block (low bore distortion) Piston cooling with novel feed via separate non filtered oil channel direct from oil pump control gallery Aluminium bedplate thick walled bearing shells to avoid bearing inserts integrated baffle 18 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

16 Engine design Power cell and crankshaft Key features Steel crankshaft Big end bearing thermally sprayed to achieve high load capability at low cost Technology with thick wall main bearings to reduce the temperature effects on bearing clearance Connecting Rod Small End Analysis safety factors Forged light weight aluminium piston Piston ring pack (3 Rings) (future option for specific low friction piston ring pack) DLC coated piston pin for improved load carrying capability Forged connecting rods Initial Design Final Design 19 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

17 Engine design Valve train Key features DOHC valvetrain (hydraulic valve lash adjustment) with 4 valves/cylinder Valve diameters optimized for specific power output Cam phasers for intake and exhaust VVT Roller finger followers for low friction Low weight assembled camshaft including innovative integrated oil separation Lightweight valves for enhanced dynamics and low friction and optimized valve tribology (P/M valve seats and guides) Analysis (GT Valve train) and dynamic verification of the valve train for engine speed > 7,000 rpm 20 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

18 Engine design Intake system Main objectives Reduction of intake system volume for transient response improvement Low weight and high compactness Key features Integrated intake system with complete air path Air filter element in latest fleece micro fibre material Triple throttle assembly for good transient response and low flow losses Mass air flow meter integrated into the air cleaner assembly Low volume air cleaner assembly with additional NVH measures Plastic intake manifold with EGR and breather gas distribution behind flange 21 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

19 Engine design Single turbocharger Main objective Achieve reduced full load performance targets and good transient response with alternative single turbo solution for lower system cost Key features Single turbocharger with variable turbine geometry (VTG) based on standard Diesel specification (VTG materials) Water cooled exhaust manifold for reduced gas entry temperature and reduced requirement for heat shielding; short gas path for rapid catalyst light off Turbine opposite a runner (additional pulse charging effect) Short pipe run for compressor (minimization of the air path) 22 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

20 Engine development WOT performance Different (single) turbochargers have been tested and will be tested Target values for max. torque and power output were achieved At 1500 rpm and above, torque is limited by preignition At 1500 rpm and below, turbine energy is limiting the available boost BMEP [bar] Ultimate Target BW-K03 Turbo Garret GT15 Turbo 12 Next step is to reduce turbo size even further when a preignition solution is found Engine Speed [rpm] 23 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

21 Engine development Part load fuel consumption First compression ratio [9.25:1] evaluated Inlet Cam, Exh Cam, Fuel Pressure, SOI and Spark optimisation carried out. Status: 2000 rpm, 2bar BMEP Actual = 403 g/kwh Target = 365 g/kwh 2000 rpm, 4bar BMEP Actual = 304 g/kwh Target = 295 g/kwh Best BSFC Actual = 248 g/kwh Target = 235 g/kwh Further thermodynamic, mechanical and breathing optimisation will improve these Fuel cons. at 2000, 2bar [g/kwh] Range of Specific Fuel Consumption (MPT data and Literature) Latest Test Data 2000 rpm,2 bar Target Engine Displacement [cm3] Latest Test Data 2000 rpm,4 bar Target 24 Advanced Downsizing MAHLE engine concept Engine design Engine development Summary and outlook

22 Grupo MAHLE América do Sul Nós transformamos idéias em produtos e necessidades em soluções. Obrigado! 22

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