developing right brain

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "developing right brain"


1 I Chapter 2 influences: The ;9:99G'1000. {. & Simnff, iew f research P. & Bailey, A. rirical findings.,rplay and psy- Psychlgy and Ref atinal traum a and the develping right brain The neurbilgy f brken attachment bnds Alln N. Schre s l cgnitin: 328. and individual (1996) Attachrst year f life.,n: Oxfrd Uniin securely and 'ic cnditins in attachment. In tnships (Vl. 5, ks. r f separatin- Psychiatry, 133'. g n attachment rsiveness amng 457-t477. vi.j. (1999) Disrsrs, cncmi- In J. Cassidy & clinical applicatn, G.G. et al r. rsick, R. (2008) r Cummings. c acids. Nature, Over the past tw decades I have integrated nging sc clinical data in rder t cnstruct regulatin thery, a ne mdel f the develpment, psychpathgenesis, and treatm self. Twards that end, in 2001 I edited an issue f the Inf Jurnal, and in it I ffered an article, 'The effects f early n right brain develpment, affect regulatin, and infant this chapter I build n that wrk and prvide very rece develpmental data that allw fr a deeper understandi lgical and bilgical effects f early relatinal trauma. will be n current studies f the early develping right br substrate f the human uncnscius and the site f the subcrtical regulatry centers. This interpersnal neur explicates the mechanisms by which attachment trauma the develpmental trajectry f the right brain/mind/bd curse f the lifespan. Als discussed is the etilgy f pa atin, the bttmline defense f all early-frming sev psychpathlgies. Pierre Janet (1889) defined pathlgica phbia f memries, expressed as excessive r inap respnses t thught r memries f 'ld traumas'. It is n 'ld traumas' specifically refer nt just t childhd tra relatinal trauma ccurring in infancy, the critical perid theretical perspective has direct clinical applicatins f treatment and preventin. Develpmental interpersnal neurbilgy secure attachment The essential task f the first year f human life is the c attachment bnd f emtinal cmmunicatin and inte between the infant and primary caregiver. There is nw agr ing hw t cmmunicate represents perhaps the mst im mental prcess t take place during infancy' (Papusek &

2 cnsciusly interactively regulated... has shi regulatin thery. Secure attachment depends nt n the mther's ps with the infant's cgnitin r behaviq but rathe infant's internal states f arusal, the energetic affective state. Thrugh nnverbal visual-facial, tac prsdic cmmunicatin, the caregiver and infan ture f the ther and mdify their behavir t fit creating a specifically fitted interactin. During cmmunicatins f mutual gaze, the attuned mth tempral patterning f her exgenus sensry st spntaneus expressins f endgenus rganism gent respnsivity, the mther appraises the nn infant's internal arusal and affective states, regu cates them back t the infant. T accmplish must successfully mdulate nnptimal high r stimulatin that wuld induce supra-heightened arusal in the infant. In rder t enter int this cmmunicatin, the m lgically attuned t the dynamic crescends and d bdily based internal states f autnmic nervu arusal. Indeed, the intersubjective dialgue betwe sist f signals prduced by the autnmic, inv bth parties. The attachment relatinship mediate emtin, wherein the mther c-regulates the infa ANS, and thereby its internal hmestatic state. A nervus system (frm the Latin vegetare, t anim respnsible fr the generatin f what Stern (1985 Research nw clearly demnstrates that the prim attuned and ptimally mirrring, that there are attunement in the dyad, ruptures f the attachm f attachment transactins leads t a regulatr autnmic hmestasis. In this pattern f in dyadic misattunement (Trnick, 1989) r 'disrup Lachmann, 1994), the 'gd-enugh' caregiver, wh

3 '). I li' lttilir:.tii.c1'- :. 1 : r';g.:ill',iit' itllcl'.lr:iii'c :',.:ic,lt,l\'..llcit ll'l'.l,cll,,lcili :,'li;:s i: illl ll:)'llclliily l'l):\(j!l<liljil,tl:,rl:lil :lri'trlitrl'lciii itl lliii':'': i:ll:r l.-'!,r(),titlert.a\:,!.,itllt>r'i:ir, S,,Cii:.iic:.:. i: r).'ii(i, i'c-c:l:lillls.rr:ti 'tllcllii-lll1' ll1^t,.u,s lltr: Citlti io tjco\'cl' lli.ilicl l'':1:-i, llo:',' Cclti:iilll l.ll,r. ii';;.ic; lll '.11,' llrc;t;,':i,r'i:-.s i::lil ili,illiltlc il:tllt':li0:'l)r ill il:cllll'!aili sjcil'';1-\'. n,',:t s:ct''i: liiiltcl"lartl li:itliittttsittri,- 1il: l'c!,ilrllioi,\',)1'-),1:, 91'Li':cc..\':lc,l.',::l\ 'irr'ir Ci)-C.'il,i.r it0)tii\c itloiislll l:il(1 illlc1'::cllvc,cilll,i t,i':l:!iltiir'.'li^.irr-i1li illio\l'ib:' i.r-' it-li:t:;itcc <ti C.l;ci,;tli S.'li'-1J1,.'.liiiiill. I ilc.c lliicciirclr' s,,'llci','l:zr,.i C\-rti-'t'tr.trtlJ,t: liiltgai'iti;,.:rt:.,,.l: Oi,lul)iic;c: (0\.\'iOCiil)" :t-tii:t-rtrio(tr:ri:.oi.: (C:tiaC.tttilii'.:illCS)^ lllit, ltcr-,tllt,l'.',1111. (COilisOl)" r'liric;1.::. Cl'riiCr:1 ilt,.trt',.iis1:;-.tcr', tll';ollll:i irl;l'.t-1.; ltllti io illl.:lll tlt;t'r'r:rl:'t..r {S-i.r,..' l';r'. '(;i).-: \'i.;:." i.-....,..'{;;):). )',r;;..:r..:'rl ',.r' 'i'- tltci,i:l:itrtl: Lli::Cll't,i:t.!-\rt.ti:altCJ:' ll:.\'c ei.cii.s ()i-'. iilc Clei;.tl;lillg '();11r'-iii:-rl tipcrii]lltilltri(t :)l'ltltiiii-y ll(ir-.'1lor.)ir,ri:ri (iii'].'f )rlrl:. v,'ilicil llla):l ll C---lli. - :-ir,' tir.._t,-. i.'1t,i.liii(/1 1':i'.,1.;' i jilc'.1\ity' (G',it.r:,ltl'..201)l)). l1:,.::. lllc crtlllll.t-'1,.:''',:-r',.::i..r 1r,.l,.l.L;i.,L i \'l; - L \'.'i:,-,:itr:' :t: 'r'1;i.l';1.,' '\: (':l'().:' ic;r\' :tft1\..jt,'n llc r',',:i:iii 1;.!t11tt;rt.t. (1cr:tll'.1^ r99'.: ll''l:clrlliili l,::;c,1i)1.'^.)'0:il') r\ ll:r'1.-. Jr)(r\ i':;'::rilic: Ll\\, s:,ilil()li i,i. illill;:'ll1 irllli liic ictll'i-'-t:tlti;i'tl- :',-,r'.1^1,titli1 (\l'li1..t{-';t.rtu-1, ":1,'cCi:; -.r.-'.1,.,',u l,; ll:'t'r::ci O.l blll::i cici''cltllltni-'tlt (ljc,l9:.i, r )3b li)09r).,\..::c-:-,lclri!silcili:5 i;l iric {ilsi I'c;: ir1',-t r'cc'.if-ir.:iulijit ir.)',t:i 5:ll.r ritir'.tc l:r lt'c:;.l:i:trt,lv i0. zl. iill(i rilr \ltlillr, Oi-.lta:LtJc()1ilc:ir 1t.,,-l()ll (l,lric^ir'l;',.:i,ji-:ii.^ l00il). rilis!rtrrilil. cstrjci:.lil r)1' \\llilrl illii'ii1. i: tl",l;l'ii:llcc tl - '','.'Li-,1. i :) r"'\ ':;'ci -llitgc 1 ti;;:l:.j.'..) :.i'' r'l:...l. l il'. r,; l:1i:rcrtiri.i,l : ''ri:'.ia,ilsillrl ;, i:ltie -"-l :i llli:i1' -'liil:lilcl i bl l:i;' Cir-'r;'tO111.'l-r :i'i t1it.t\ rt:.,,'-. ltctriti-'(l i.itrr \i-i:l!lj-i"il (C.1i.. SCilCit:. i9t-)t: 20i):lftl1)^.rt".,: :,tc lici:i':ri:rrlrrr.i., t,'i'lii'.1:i:hi,tcili i!'1il11ll-"iliils ir:c;..lirit ilil. lili' J:rr.l:cl i-tc lti'vi.t:: r.-'i'li lr.l,tcll:r)ljlli:ii slil:0 i \ilici\'. \.'. i.lli1 ( ll,ri li,'.r" r!lijlj ). iir(j trr;tii',.):ciclicj 1i'.ci'il\i,:tl. ll:iilicvli ll1!(i, (2(){)l i':r1: lllc i',t6i.rrr'i'i,t:ci;,.;i',s li:i tl Iiji-llilt:'f ill'l tci(,'-*ll-,liiilill -'1:"1lil1-rl'li tl,:', -'.i if.:.:,.'. r: ;:\)...,..;:l: (:L\ -',(rt).:j\":....:.t,i..'- 1;.i.t l.:. '.:r.; il:i6r'i itt;-';'i:cirtt;t:^ u';ticll Oilr'illsi\' C,lll ii'iill:)ijlll ',' i i-aa! 11:illllailll)'.Li1c :ltijtt li:lirii\'.,;rcls... i-:lil\'ilii:\'i:1,'i:ilcl, lrl.c tl';liliri irlc i::r:l:lli:;1;.llru; i:ii!; :rl:i111\lllllilea ;' iillliric cii,l. r- r:. "1'.ielll il;c.tit:.,: litc it.itrtlitt iilllillc -\\'sia;-l l-- \alilli:ij (i'il.rcv ci rri." igilil) tlllcl lltc cli''l\''.:'iiili

4 human infants'. ln subsequent neurpsychlgical lateralizatin in the secnd year flife, Schuetze and ;Attt ugt the infant brain was histrically reprted terms f cerebral lateralisatin until 2 years i ug., ev ln]ilutmg that lateralised functins are present much They fuiher bserve.lateralisatin i negative em,tr" ilgft, hemisphere in infants as yung as 12 mnt pmental enhancement f right hemisphere cntr.ipi.rrln that is evident by 2? mnth'i' Mtt recen (zl:tl2)cnclude,'earliermaturatinftherighthe by bth anatmical and imaging evidence'' - In my nging wrk I "-nlinu. t ffer data attachment mechinism is embedded in infant-care t-right-hemisphere affective transactins, and that bilgical mdel is supprted by a large!"91. :,.r.ui.r, (Schre, piq,'i,2003b, in press). with attachment cmmunicatins, it is nw establishe iin..upu.ity t efficiently prcess infrmatin fr input t the right (and nt ieit; tremisptrere <luring 2003). Develpmental neurscience dcuments tha the nset f a critical perid during which synaptic ping ccipital crtex are mdified by visual exp zbooi, infunts shw right hemispheric attivatin wh face'ltrrrri-mazyeretal',2002)'recentnear i.r.ur.n (perhaps the mst suitable f all neurscien thumaninfants)revealsthatspecificallythefive-m,prr.i. respnds t images f adult female- faces (Na et al.,2007). Clsertaninterpersnalface-t-faceperspect graphy GEG) study by Grssmann et al' (2007) ia intuni, presented wiih i-ug.t f a female face g enhanced gu*-u electrical actlvity ver right prefr cnclude ihat the brain mechanisms underlying ey tigt a"g."e f specializatin early in ntgeny, re n.l-irpi"r.. ther researchers have established th face-picessing areas fthe right hemisphere (Pelp In terms f tactile-gestural-attach-"nt "**unic

5 Ncyrb,lsr :1.,:1.11."'-t LC is 1 ri t: ri 1t r1 i^ lt I r1 ii d )- )1 ii Ii ri j- )-.) i.l rt ]S 7) <ici,-ilstlnics 'iutcliiiizcci systcm tl nclliiril imitatil' tltlcl ctrclitrle-:^ " u'arli,udvitutagc i'1itc lir:lil itctt-risithci* (Cilil'rl et al : Schlc^ 2 'lig'altitcn, 20t)1) iu iitc 1ir':;t f-cii'nrntirs i 1ilc rrra;'ali'cct thc llrtct'itii ailll.aluitcc f'tirc 1lt'si intilatirc gestllr';s". Sicraizlii ancl Wi! (i996) clcsc iiic cilccts f- tticit n tirc cil'eiti1.rit.rl,. t'ight heruisilltcrc. atrcl asselt thltt cl.rtinal iit'rpucl cli ittuch is r,-rr'rlc direct auti irnrnediatc if-itr.l. itlian u-1ci t6 titc lcli sirlc iiire bciy. Siuciic: i.lls (ir''mnsilatc titat sllllilillc 1:cs'Lnr'.'s lhai cx1'ri css lcciing sitil,cs cinnilrniclttccl rvititirt it Ci'itci ltc'.i ligii'. hcrnisithcrie sir''.tcii-trcs (Galllli:her' & I'r'ith. 2004). And tl.tii't'i ilci l'csculciicls 1t$'cniclrcl 1.hat cl:i,cliringi chikil'cn i'ci1, tt a 'rigitt hcn'risph rnii'iiilt!: rncclianislir intcl'1'acir.rg rvittr tirc irubic sysicm iltai'ce:srrr.rcaninl: 1'bsclvcci i ir,tiiaicd ctntin^ (Dllpi ctl ;t al (r). As tt' ai-lciitly ltisclic atiaclurrciri cinr.i.rr-ll.ticrttin:. i-lt'sciic l"lt'e i;!: ilt thlcc-r.iin"rir-ici iniari: activuics tirc rigiti tctitnt'<t1t:lt'ietiii l'c (llntac ci ai." 2006). ;\t ii ntn'lirs lhc vicc i'u rvtiriut's chilci-c1ir'-c :,1'rclch (i.t. rviiii smui'liut cra-r1:ciatcci ul'sciei1,) clicits a iight-iatelitli cvcl.rt-r'cirtcr.i plci'rtial (t:[{p) ( i'iriclri'c'. r11..?-003). Acclciing i l}t,'!:1c1 ailci ):lalic'a (2(X)l: 353): ihc ligiri ireitrisircre f'tirc ncrutc is activcl)'invivccl in i1-,c t.t.'r'cc1 1' sl'rcccil mclci;' ilild thc itlttriliitls 1' tit,.- viccs t' lrlilcl' s'.tlriltciiur,l ltc1t1i:. i-irc lrrc-spcech siitgc l'chi1d clcvelptt.tct'li is c itcielizeci by ilicl' <tf titc clescl'iptir,e zrtirl cn.ttiltai ctrtl.rt cii-ic nt1iit11' t iurtchanisrls lrcillr.lilg rvitirin litc iicnispitct'cs l pli ncipic i- t.tu-" citril l crutt-ttt tiicai i il..anri tll ihc lircl siclc t'thc uttachll'iclt clyitti. tcscilicitcrs nii' cicsciibc mtircr"s i.lir.rccssing capacitics: '.2\ nrurbct' i' litnciiits lcaiccl r-;itltii ri1:iri hcir.lisliiclc n'il' tgciircl-l llii tr.rtlitrirlg i- ll blibl'. As *,'.: ct-ittin a;rci lircc i-l'c;-.sing lire iighl iicilisnhclc ts alstt sttcciaiizc itilciitif itclccl.riictit. thc l;r'ccptin i ii.tttt.liin. ;.1'.',ctirirttr" liticl ill inlirnraiiri' (Ilunic &'lbcici"?.(\(\4: ),?, 23). -Ihis iighi iatcraiizcci s)'s1clu strcs a r'cilbtiiary l'trtrvctbal ai]'c tirciul LrcstLlrcs. arci plscly^ r'ight braiir siltnliis ttscri in lrll lltuchutcl.rt ct>rnl.r.rlinicutins (scc Schrc's inclel l'aficct r-cgt-iilttiri iig[t blairr clcr'clprnent iir Iiiiric 2.1). 'firc Lltput 1'tirc ligitl irctt.iisd 'lilc ciittiltitl i>t'ltil.r^. is a cttscitrs aliect.'l'hc highcsi ccilicls f licr"irisplicrc. csltcciaill' tirc l'bitlliriui (r'cn'tt'urcclial) crte\" iitc lct llri'ib1,^: allaciuitcill sysil-n.]" act as thr-.'['iiiil"s li. si ctnplcr. ailcct atrel s lcgriiatr'1' sysictil (Schr';, i99,i a. 2(X)3b; Sr,riijvau & Glaitn. 2 'Iilc i'gut:izatiil i'ricuriiitic aircl syiriiptic tcint"i.s iir tltc rbiilt' (1nc1 ui-ricl'il cir:llliluic) ciicx^ iuciticling iis cirneciiirs iltt liic iim s)'stcil. illc Llt'.ls dllniaticlilly,.;hl:pcei b1' earl1, t'cllttiltitl clncrtirli:i L'\pjl (Schi'c. 199,j: Ilel' ct ii1..2()03).

6 5 qj ii{f,;s s;eeea a ) E - CJ OJ -.E L 3.9p L T' d ( b, L I 6 E! E U all 6i E x.f. -> P-9c "E=bq.=U3U q I d 6l frc" 5AEgE L=^6 d dj:9 0 Y> H I 6!5gr ie; E + jgf6$ fr E = fr T5= B 9 O U O Y E>..(! = E[+E*I 6 $[e -a fi. 3 i:f",i,ifr 5 6e3r3rJE = H:B';'gs U... z a E- r.9- rbe9 +S +== E c O (l S d+ Esp p

7 i-lzya ^ x.,"-r. ''-, (lx 5;li-lhvr :-i^:.-o :'7::ii )-'-)l) -a.:oyo? S. a-)a tj A t.' 0 r-- ii., x i*"0 ;:i tr,) 60 ii*#fisg ifii li; ; r i'i! ;.:;-r : b ;E,: :-i ;-? 5 i' qrn;iie: *.q ;ir;33:";. B;yjg+3t;?,:t 7-;l ;r3fr! iq?:* r:e"c 4i ;t d'fi-2. l.{ q iig i uj 6,O-1 ' <t) ::ir :.. a ^ :- (4 ^c i.r < -'lii Q. P: '-- I ;;14?{;'i j' i i jief?;;hd';t:;iia 33-iai= rga.::i-- 'r? nx[si :diil-i-?^ii 5ag;;i if [rt3;r: ii jl{ n ie;; ir3 ll i.i n i" i;i: it"i,.'if = i :nlr :,;?,.t it=a'' ; :)

8 b U x = +"r tt, ee 9iEE EgE;iiE E;EE.E 9 -z bd 2.9 a :< > K9:E co LLd ii!r!c -ted 3b u E -tr'" >'L l-u :*cc f+e L 6,= a E;Ex 3i:g +;-E:9 tgle Fr F E! 55! OJ f 'tr U 6i - E x.5! c) E 0).g IXc) (, J>- Z + FT u 6e fr d E; u E >l 3 d '3J+ - '6qx u t ;he -u!5 F de >. rji.9p.= U z aduu 68S,. t-3ge +OudL *.> a= (];aqp* E8 &.v. L - - c) dd EE d.- B'i E 'tr'- t? 0.) >'E 9C :< OE 9) :p TE x -d -x I< c) c q) L OJ L 6

9 L -t v x ; < -) -:, =-'a -=;.1 X 5:; i-i : m -: ii ;:ni3x=5': 6^= cfq;-;d) sil9. Y, ij y X ri x i, :. Y. i.-r:i- "'.. ic F t; :: eafl+i=ebi 3id[:ls*F,:t 2ta!3Ef ;"; Bnai'E';;S 3t '.e,;i -^lt =.+ 3;li:!i ;'86I'i Y(rvf,.--.ld:"re Y?.12d:j.( ^ -p- :r-i) ef+fr? ;tt)::v 7n;A'';5*;3 =: J.i -^'i-r ". - '; e:j is:16 'di-:t l, ','.,.'..+H69., qe ;iuf.,r i9xql K3;Q :: f,: S rl +i ;{:-<.: )j 5 l/= -.: X ll Y ',; ii,? '': ld:- c?)! ; \- Y-b fl i! 5 g 7. &.i 'i p - t-tc ) =- i l -IC nir. c -n Y:'.eY=:= -d'li-' v-]x - ;A':Q, -: a.' "_*r:ani;-ct:ei)t, ^' :! = O i^ ;': O Oc :- - 3;q;2:*. t-7::- r:r): x.r't:;(.-...,.i E I g'.;';-\-3 gs'j':9":-l i,a" :: I t a a 2!??*!.:;; j-()c' G;t1 x a "..1- i - q t;. tjl -.l ;-,,1 i:. r: r'; n{ii2;i-in'f <a }:t?t e;ag 9.=-?{. :. #i 7,'=.-.i af L'rtii iti: 4:St9 3tl i._l;- :.:7,_.-i. 2 ;- p : "''. Y, a ta '- '-l- tr d i.!- ii i"f lrl+: l!: i r,' ' :'=';.X.a ;'-:n =iti b-i.:li ; - i;=".i'ii ::),i ; ;- L 1b :- 2 3t: X in-; 'J d 1 l?'9 rj Y ir ;., ' (;! i. = I iur:a 1.ii ii+ ;3,--5 i rl 1;a l. 3 ': U n-- 3;;-= O =.4:.: i-i ^..3. 4! ".) ^ - 6 qi ir. A c.,'!, ; l.:,j. 9 ;-l Z,')*; c b. i-l_,,. i.i. a: -' ;:.: H { ;r l.:'5? :: i;',"x+' =lc -; 9 j:"^i - aa i*i'< f9.3..i&nr Y. 124 : :5.i.i:i;r-i. -::id.::,il-qr b,;3;f d':2 i ':]aelr;di < --l! ^..1 I r L 6 --! O 5d nl,j 7 ii7 7"i J::-^i1r',:.a ii s: 9i 'br c :J T-e!: d ;r a v t ^ =,;i4 iirl: ; i -al;9- '- ^ x:j\ s?.- ọ: 3 :r C.l

10 cncludes, 'ur results are in ag addressed the imprtance f the ri (Minagawa-Kawai et al., 2009: 289 At the end f the first yeaq rig implicit-prcedural memry, an which encdes strategies f affect individual thrugh interpersnal uncnscius 'prcedural expectati during stress (crtina & Litti. 20 experienced as left-brain cnsciu enced as subjective right-brain a ('gut feelings'). At all pints f are expressed nt in lcft-brain sec prcess cgnitins (Drpat,2001; S Attachment neurbilgy ptimal attachment cmmunicati central nervus system (cns) lim scial emtinal stimuli and the generates the smatic aspects f e grwth-faciliterting emtinal envir an internal system that can adap psychbilgical states (and therc gd-enugh mther ffers her se a separatin; she tends 1 respn emtinal expressins. She als a generated during c-shared play sta expansin lthe chiid's right-brain the develpmental principle that s against trauma-induced psychpath In cntrast t caregivers wh f neglectful caregiver nt nly plays affect in the child. Such caregivers envirnmental impingements, includ f relatinal trauma this carcgiv

11'ct1.l'iuic itltd/r ruljcctiiri: r;idnsc.; ict hct' iitittlti"t;!\i)1'ci:;iiis iil:s i:ncl, s',lc:s. ancl il'vicies ninin'vli ;' llirll'cilicilt.ttc :'clrtrllittll iiriiritl"s s'.uies 1'uvci'-liiuslil.<i..ltc iilclilcls c\iie1\te luve is i's iiir aiici uliisai (i.c.. tirc ieil'hiirir siili.r-iia'riir cj'itjli'ij:lttci/,'ihc v :ii;nlililil ct' negiccl). Aiicl 1nuli1,. blclliite sitc ttt.i'iclcs tt itll.i ei-lllii'^ sirc icltvcs l,lc illiirrli t ct'tciilt'; t:"'t-''t'ittci\':l'iics-sj'lti iiliclt:c 'l siaics iix' inli irclicis t'iiir.rc. -l itclc is ltw c\il'nsi\c evicicrrc; 'riilil sit'css is ii ciilicli lilc',l' :rtili scil:i intel'liciitis. cstrccilili)'ihc i-,rlilct cillici ittlciticiilt (Sirlcr 2007). Orci'riliitri iitc iir.cilirliie. tlresc l'c:calcirers:'cpli iitill cliltilt!: iili iii.' ;lti:tl;. ';- lt.':i ll.- :;l -iiirc. i'r't;; i'"ii ''rie. e,'itlt lu.i;titive. lincl silrlcci icss n,i:i'ttriir.litci llcriblliif iil il',lt'ilctiil: r','i chilcileli. l'itcy cr.rcittcie.'or'.'rlii1. sircsi' rcrill: i lr,; ll ii:cil'lirili il\\ji'. 11i:l'Ltiti i)lli'jltl.ilig riitciiccs scilusi)'lit(i, lcsitiis iir tt lttnc, i"rlic r:rtlrct chiici iuicluctin^(srlicl c: ir1.^ l0()'/:,16). Ilt rl icvi!-w i' i:r1r issucs ibi lnc-'iitci: *'li trllilrili: ji ctli llic Str'.':':, ci1'si'.'!'ililii irl a cirill.!ctscci u'itii blclcllinc lldl')llriii,t' ciisrclcis. \cri'tttlll.t lttt(i Siiv (200:;: 392) cncili(i.. 'C'ietil'1t'" ii:is Ltrttlr i'u'tl.lct.t llle vcl'1" il-ltg clit;rict'rc.; itiliit iu'r'cis f ill'rci' t ri1' l ius riisilcss. iicil il lllclc titc;i ii,t.i critct'icircc.-i 1' eltiil abi-is. ilircl rtti:tchluctti (ii5i'liilii(.)il,il icliitrlsiiin-r. cilll l)c ic-cltltcicci ii'i,ir ihcir' \'"'1i iilitlllis." { itis ie-cllcill.tclt', ccul's ill cirisries i'r'cilliinal il'auit.ul (Schi'. 2002" 2009u. 2009b" in t-lcss). iu'tcldi:;ciirliitl'1, ci,icicncc ;l-rciir,'lircs t iulilitt^s l.ts\cirbiil:ictii :'caciil i ii\rii) iiitct'irli:;cilii site:;st'rts c() i\i, scpliniie rg')il()1tsil i)'ns. iryp.'i ul,tsiti ltnci eii..scilrirlrrt. Ilc.:ltc,i36) cic:cl'rbc: ihc iititiul :iiiiic l'"'csr:aillillll: vciilitlsili )i ii:ii r;/!'(i ;:i itir-'ll :r'it'it:.,llil : ' l:lcir nc cscliaicsllc iini,:. lis iirc iirlli;rl billcis',tt lt it'l:itiic clisiies :eicl: 1. ir;t(i. iit 1i'i<;r;;,'1rr1u. l;r:lrii1,iiit'i\s t:ir. ['r ''' t.t::l::.]l arrl:,1i i.)lritc1.n" c\'cit itiricl'c\ii'jr,!c ciisil.css siqlliii lt't-:t tittr itlilll lrs t.riircl1'-tic!i1cc ircllci llvct'sitt" lttclti;lt: i)\\'ll\'... i sci'cii1'l nihci!:iir!r. i ()l' iti\ c thcr C\ir. ItO Iir'riic cullictii stlltc l iilcu'1. tirc ciiii<.i'l; sittlclctt itiiil'lii t-sitliiit' l i:'<i:caics ucli\'liilt i'iitc itriitrl'-": r'ililii ilr'trisi.rilcl.c (iil'l:t'iiel' ct tli. Iil-.. il ilriu. cvi,cs u s'"icirlcu i;rcicasc i'lirc s1,n'i'liiiic'lic i-rilt:tcit,'\ns. rc::tlling il cicr'll;cil lrclit'i l'itiu (crliei;lic :lcciie itlli lc.sitic. ill.rci icsi)iiiitin. l)is1i.c:s i.; "-r.i.t:'.'sscci iit ciyitrl-. lit :ic l'c.l lll i ilg. 'i itc iitiunt':. s'rtt'c i- "ll'iiitiic t'listt,':;,s^. l' le lli lcl'i,:. is illcciii s\,lltliltilclic i.i1'p;i ai'rii-tsul lilil i:, crlricss.:c1 iir incie ll.'.cci sjcl.aiitt t;i' il-iti1 r'ciciisinli il:cir' (Citi ) iirc 'Ll'uiir^:, s'rt'css ircti'ittr.rit lcsiliulcs :1'npalitciic caiccitiiilttiilc i:ctivil)' (iil',','ir ci iii

12 which the child disengages frm stimuli in the extern infants are bserved t be 'staring ff int space with and Weinberg(1997:66) nte that: when infants' attempts fail t repair the intera pstural cntrl, withdraw, and self-cmfrt. Th iund even with this shrt disruptin f the mu and break in intersubjectivity. The infant's react withdrawal f Harlw's islated mnkey r f th bserved by BwlbY and SPitz. winnictt (1958) hlds that a particular failure envirnment causes a discntinuity in the baby's ne Kestenberg (1985) refers t dead spts in the infant an peratinal definitin f dissciatin's restrictin The child's dissciatin in the midst f terrr invlv cmpliance and restricted affect. This parasympat cnservatin-withdrawal ccurs in helpless and hp in which the individual becmes inhibited and striv rder t becme 'unseen' (Schre, 1994,2003a,200 chic trauma and 'emtinal surrender', Anna Freud als referred t helplessness, defined as a state f'dis lessness' that the rganism experiences in the traum f metablic shutdwn and cardiac deceleratin is a cess that is used thrughut the lifespan. In cns stressed individual passively disengages in rder't fster survival by lhe risky psture f feigning de wunds and restitutin f depleted resurces by im 213). This parasympathetic mechanism mediates the (Baiach, pet; f dissciatin. If early trauma is catastrphe' (Bin, 1962), then dissciatin is a'deta able situatin' (Mlln, 1996), 'the escape when ther 1997),'a last resrt defensive strategy' (Dixn, 1998 The neurbilgy f dissciative hyparusal is hyperarusal. tn ihis passive state f pain-num.nig..tut piates are elevated. The drsal vagal c medulla is activated, which decreases bld pres and heart rate - despite increases in circulating a

13 3i ititiil.s\'1111)il1il'jiic i:,()tisill is ll tlli'l'ir''ri i-nt:iltr.l:r:r,ittiitcit';ilt:is iir ijlc i l:c; r-'i ii I i\\,':l silir 01 i,''i-,,'ir--r t\'',ar):l l' i \illi c\, i"cx.i!'illa ullli i{-)ilili lil'i i:'l I i',\ith0,r3lt velti:l ioilc ;s clciill;rl ::l', "iit.l ll:-r)()il11i r.ri'illlliiriilrl j' ll.-llllclcl il,ilrl.lcl.l.l ll1. iile ;-.llr.lls1'li.llllil,lutic 1.1!i.\ ()illi :\'].]ll ( F.itil. ci iii.. :9!15). i '..' l:litxi,itrili:itit":l.cl5'..,rr,,':ttl: l,\l-lr-,:,:ilriic\.'r'ri-ll s\'5ici1ls. ti:ciai'l cic"ctt-ll'l:l 'liritlilillillil:11 t):"sillili: \ciliiii-\lil'iiis\':r:u;llil"iii:c:iiici:i:silillbi!r''ll:r'c-rlil''''' COittilllalti :OC:lli trticlac'ritlll: liil'.i :ic:iia il.ii e'lllll1li tl'lil'::f io'ls liii iil; ti:liif1 '.tt COillillt'.:\iCil.C riiiir lltcilli er;llc':',t)li- r11'-111;7'i1'trll: ilrl(i 1)'sllll'"i' O:: '.i:.-,,iil-, itl: :ii irl..'l"l\ tl" -lt:;'l'l': ;' '' :ii' ' ')' \': r iri\" '\: ';: "1 i^r-'titrt.l:l ill()r(), lltil';w.'\ ')! til ' 1"11' r'1'11' tltr\'il r'"':"rtl';c' ei:\':'\ ''i:"'' iltc;t.l s()ciiti sir!15\. :iuilciiliillll lilr:l:i;iiizllil()il eicliiil :cirllliilr:' ll;l<i 'llcrll:3 ir;ll:l,ictis (l)r,.l1its. 1997).,\: tll..lslti i6 iilc 1llili1ll':liiilll \'11'!11'li \'llr-:lli ci-ltltic\,i,li cit. l':tttidirl rciltlllila ciii(illlc l;ilr':'l i''r lil:ici cil!llir'llir1--il' : 'l( Cit.*rgligCllc.ti,,.,,i',l.i'.ilc:OCiili Ci,ril'tl:li'i:lill^ 1'lC tioi.tlil lillliil C()i-'i;llJ;r'COiL' i:'iit-ii.:: ic i,'\jl'a.'iiloilolllli s'illics ll:-tci llliiy l"' l:tl e:'-t"ir'l:':i::'r':'' tl1' ''Ciilre(i '"ri,:1]i:lilizlliit,'l'.'" :,ilci: i]s L'\':'clrrc 1'liii" (X)igc:' 1t)9'l: 7:)'.illili I itctc ts 1iO\\,iirti'rj,'1r1rlr1i )\'1,]-Oiliileli{j li.r1 \irti: \) It-1''l 'lul'r iit l-rl:llli'c-t:s ll.i.,ir,.iri eitrr::r.tailcrj'i ri'l1il iilc il\rtr;)ill Cll\';i()ilillJili i::lti il 'rigil i;rcl i'' cil'-!r'\' r,r.riiiizlttiitilult'l i:iili,rlliiil. *'rllc illc ;lrti'll:'1'tllpeliliii(l c():ri)rle!-'i (:"1\" tli-.l.:ltttltt,;ittllli il'i)i'l iilc Ci,:i tilli \-l1l1ii-o'il1lf il'' l:r'll ii'iiiiz'l:l icrr'" ieyci:' rli' ii.[cililii cltjlli\' (]i{ccrciitii. 2(X)3). i-1lc i1.lllr,l:l.izari i'liliili's jtl(i(icrl :\'i1'ci' lt'rn ililili-,'llli1'1i) -\\'lrllllliil':lie ll)'rl''r'il'i::' i i i<ln-cilcli.i)'-r)iii'l::r\'iili):lllrctic rri-'.'ccilt;ittit l. t'ci1ct:'rcti '-l i)i;r::;^(1997: '15)clll:lllciciiz;'ltlil 0i': lltc -ri:riti;,t lttl(i lll;litl il'liilsiii;l ll'tlil liil l.:11-ii-"(lcissiiii:"r'lt";91''i)l s1'1"iiii' r:llils iccili'ilili i't-tl::;siic s)'l-!11-'aiilciic i:cii\'ilii()il ic ill': llltlril-:;0ilcliiiv c;i- *,:ir]lir. 11n1-billzcti :ill',,: lllil.,lici;i;l1r t1cll,1l i:ss()eiill'cli'"rir1: illl: ciltll' Yi:!rill ci Il)ll\. '-.;11ii,,.';1. trr, '..1,,1 1. t)s;': 1r;'1-r;l'lit'c,:t:;;11 :ciitll' itl iljll)le -sit c-s-r: i'r1,'i5) clc;cl'lil;s'iirc sni'.cil irl'l :i\'illllili'lrliic l)i if ii:l) illirlli ilct ic lli.' I rili'()t'scd I 10'i Ji')-'1 :C)s :l' I t i ltt,q,itc,t li-oi1 llitriu-l1, lo ilrc CililliOll:Ci :'.':illoil:;") i: illc s''illlce 'rr'l evliiititli.0lt Oi'iirt- il-,tl--ncilil,: tiltng''i'i.t: ira ljili. ellt'l''<''i 'lu l.'toicicci l' r,rciliicti. Wiiir 11rc n.,r..1-,ii,rtt i'iililti ii':i',llc.srlc,ts i:l'.i-c!l:c': iall-sif ilcir\,,-) (iii1l:lci^ ilc silil..ild!1':l.i ii'

14 Slmn's (1986) classic study f attachmen a new attachment categry. Type D, an in pattern that ccurs in 80,X, f maltreated inf assciated with prenatal and/r pstnatal (Espinsa ct al ). Hesse and Main (199 tin and disrientatin is phentypically si and Slmn (1936) cnclude that Type D and that their disrganizatin and disrien alarmed by the parent. Because infants i alarmecl, these authrs assert that frighten irreslvablc bind wherein they cannt appr tin, r flee. These infants are utterly unabl t actively cpe with their frightening paren Main and Slmn detail the uniquely b Type D infants in the Strange Situatin pr brief (frequently nly s) but signif behavir. At such times, Type D infants may pattern such as 'backing' twards the paren face. Main and Slmn (1986: I l7) nte th The impressin in each case was that ap ally being inhibited and held back thr aviclant tendencies. In mst cases, ficiently'ver-rde' avidance t perm ity. Thus, cntradictry patterns were inhibited. Maltreated infants cxhibit apprehensin, c state during the Strange Situatin. Main a the child's entrance int a dissciated state: One infant hunched her upper bd mther's call, then brke int extrava excited fbrward mvemcnt. Her bray distress-face withut a new intake frward. Then suddenly she became sil

15 ngtli)' lrncnt blrrin n anci citi,-'tl cntecl rnrl is ic LlSe tntt',t- NIuin faltcc lnt i..: u'hcn in iur rtlenatc 11)' h-lcl 1ii1'cc1 nizcri avil lcj t ttitiu- )n ()l' sui'- xinrtiaii1' l'ts t' cribc I ircr' lh au ancl Lche ci 'fhcsc bclurvlis alc lli l'cstrictccl i thc iliilnt's iirtct'ac'rins n'l ltiiicr'. Irrcic;ci. tirc intcn:,i',1' i tirc lleb1''s ci1'slcltiiilicci afl'cclir c.t licu hci3hicncci u'hcir thc illl:r1 is.irsccl i tirc uciciccl :,ti,:-.s iiliiiii.itilitil-i)jisit. Ai l: stirilrg"'r':,';l'.r'.rirc... tu' inilirls nrveci li., ltv Lrili ll-rihet'ilncl s'r.r'ani:cr-1 iircc lirc iiali: uirillct"lcitncci iil'chcati.l iire ri'lli 1b;' scvcl'ui sccncls. ii.iiirg blicir in allirli'.lli icnr". I hc:c in crltibit 'bchavil'ai stiiillg" thai is. 'cl:rzcri' ir..iravi;' ur.ii-l crcllcsst-ti bchuviral ntanil-cstutins t'ciissciililu. Onc iiriitnt 'irccllrrtt iiti' lt ltr crccssit,cly s'.i11. stuling ini :;ac"' a\ iirugir ciirirlcicll iii i-eir:ltc scil-. cnviliuncnt. ilnti paicni". Anillci' situ'eci 'a ciltz,--ii 1l:cilll ltrlitca... ucclllltinlc b1'll siiliill: i'lril 'b<lf nvt'ncnt^ iii.ici s,l'tctit',tcs u ini: 1'linbs u'iricli i'racl becir in rntin". Yci unihcr''icii lacc-citt'lt 1'li iu ir clclrrcsscci il():tillc 1-rlil itr srir::r'.rti'r^ stiliinri lill bciy lttvci Gr-rcrtcircl'uncl I--cl'nlinian (200i)licr an ullilt-l ciisirc,ss sc:l1e tltitl tls thc siistainecl x,itircl'ar-,'iii that is u:sciatecl with ciisr!ri:nizecl attitcll 'l'iris u'itircilarval statc is crirr.essccl ir llz:en" ubseut iitcirii c:'irr'.':sirt In'icianc.' l'c1'c- cutaci. iininbiiiil,. abscrrcc i'r'caiiziitit-r. iiltsct l'clutirrli i ctiicr',.. lind tirc implcssiu iirai thc chiicl is itlt1'nci lcacit. Dissciatin in iiriirnts hus uls becr.r stuciieci u'ith ihc Stiii-l:acc lticc ait c\ltcf ilncitlul palucligur i-1r'iiumatic ncgiecl. Iir tiris 1-rt'ccciiit'c. liic is crir:;ccl 1 a scvcrc rclitiillitl sii'c:;st': ihc tlihcr n'iaitttliil.t: c]'c c ri'iih ihc initini^'irr.ri,ihe silclclcllf inhibits ull vcalizli'ritt auci susitct cmiinaliy cxltlcssivc f acial cxprc:siirs ai.t<l iresturcs. tr'iris sevcic iniri l nrtr'ei'itiil crnmi.u.ricatin anci iulcl'uctivc afteci icgirluiitr tl'i!tgt ir.iiiiui incr'..asc 1- inlcluctir'e bchll'il lir.rci ultrsll ilr ihc ilfuitt.,,\cc t-il'iticl; (200,i). tire iiilirni's cntuslr.i iiurl iiitriiilncss rtl lltc bic cnuectic'xi is accrtrilrnicri b1'tirc itica tllat'ihis is iiilca'.cling^. i'iiis li iir'ien-silicuiiir is ullin'urteiy 1'lli','cc1 bi' bdii;, c11lii'l-.c. iss i- ir cniil. r.,'i'rirci-iau,ai. rriizc livl'rsil" sac! iircial elprcssil. linti :;t11'-.ccti'. bchlivir'. Furthclilrc^ tiris bcirai'il is uccmi.xrniccl by a 'clisslpiltin i'thc llt siaic 1'cusciusr.rcss^ aiicl u cilrinisirnrclit L scil'-rlranizing altiliiic lcllcct 'clisrqunizaiirr f iiranl' 1- ihe lrvct' 1n'cl ns;'cirbiigical sricir as nciiiblic s),stcrrs'. l{cciiil that ciissciutin. li ii5'ltl.t.tctablic irirs irccr.r ciciinccl in thc Amcr'icun Psychilltlic As;ciiitin^s.1)ragri,st Stt lislitttl,l'luirtrul as 'ii ciist'udtiir. irt tiic tisitall,r' irttcgl'atctl lirncti cctr.rscit-rsncss' anci ricscl'iireri as "il iritcctivc aciii.'itiin i-aiieicel sta cirscitisncss in icactin t vcl'rvirclr"iriuri 1'rs1'clligiclii initil.)iil" ([- sicir" i99(r). llnicil (200.i) sugllcsts tha'l influrts tvlt nll'c.l iris'r ciir"nic bi,--alis i' enlicctins!-xiribit ur-i 'crtt'ctircly i-iliiirigtcltl sla clltilal apuiliy. I.trc ecluutcs this siute li'rth Spitz's cllcci)l l'lisltit anci I{r.nanilii.r ctlirliaus ri'li liiii t srtxi arrrl clcvcitl. Stich iniituls r-ri1 il aclpi a ct'rr.nrrtuiricutin stylc i'"stay rnvit1,. cln'i cnncct". l-hi: clstaltcc is u vcly r'aiiv-ir.riiriil'rg" yct alrcacil,chi'iiic. nrthigical clis:ttc

16 in a hunting psture; expsure f canine tth a grwls directed at infant'. Thus, during the tra with an aggressive expressin n the mther's fa sive face and the assciated alteratins in the in ibly imprinted int limbic circuits. Main and Slmn (1986) dcument that Typ a secnd kind f disturbing maternal behavi fear terrr. This ccurs when the mther wit thugh the infant were frightening. Indeed, studi Type D infants exhibits dissciated, trancelike, a research underscres a link between frightening atin, and disrganized inlant attachment (Schu wrk, Hesse and Main (2006: 320) bserve tha dissciative state, a fear alarm state is triggered i entrance int the dissciative state is expresse pletely "freezes" with eyes unmving, half-lidded parent addresses infant in an "altered" tne wit devicing'. In describing the mther as she sub nte (321): Here the parent appears t have becme c r even [un]aware f, the external surrund verbal behavir f their infant... we remained seated in an immbilized and unc hand in the air, blankly staring int space f In an early histry f traumatic attachment the t frequently expsed t a massively misattun triggers and des nt repair lng-lasting intens grwth-inhibiting envirnment f relatinal traum lnged levels f negative affect assciated with hyperarusal and hyparusal. And s fr self-pr restricts its vert expressins f an attachment The child thus significantly reduces the ut emtin-prcessing, limbic-autnmic attachm stressed, defensive functins are rapidly initiated

Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ

Both coloured overlays and coloured lenses can improve reading fluency, but their optimal chromaticities differ ELSEVIER Ophthal. Physil. Opt. Vl. 19, N. 4, pp. 279-285, 1999 0 1999 The Cllege f Optmetrists. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain 0275-5408/99 $20.00 + 0.00

More information

A Call for Clarity: Open Questions on the Scope of FDA Regulation of mhealth. A whitepaper prepared by the mhealth Regulatory Coalition

A Call for Clarity: Open Questions on the Scope of FDA Regulation of mhealth. A whitepaper prepared by the mhealth Regulatory Coalition A Call fr Clarity: Open Questins n the Scpe f FDA Regulatin f mhealth A whitepaper prepared by the mhealth Regulatry Calitin December 22, 2010 Authrs Bradley Merrill Thmpsn Epstein, Becker & Green P.C.

More information

Better Care, Better Health, Lower Costs M U L T I - Y E A R A C T I O N P L A N

Better Care, Better Health, Lower Costs M U L T I - Y E A R A C T I O N P L A N A Plan t Transfrm the Empire State s Medicaid Prgram Better Care, Better Health, Lwer Csts M U L T I - Y E A R A C T I O N P L A N TABLE OF CONTENTS Intrductin... page 3 Health System Redesign in New Yrk:

More information

The Capacity Development Results Framework. A strategic and results-oriented approach to learning for capacity development

The Capacity Development Results Framework. A strategic and results-oriented approach to learning for capacity development The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk A strategic and results-riented apprach t learning fr capacity develpment The Capacity Develpment Results Framewrk A strategic and results-riented apprach t learning

More information

No Unsafe Lift. Workbook

No Unsafe Lift. Workbook N Unsafe Lift Wrkbk Cver and Sectin Break image prvided curtesy f Arj Canada Inc. Table Of Cntents Purpse f this wrkbk... 2 Hw t use this wrkbk...3 SECTION ONE A Brief Review f the Literature...5 SECTION

More information

newsletter Codes of conduct have become RRN Codes of Conduct: Who Needs Them? In this issue...

newsletter Codes of conduct have become RRN Codes of Conduct: Who Needs Them? In this issue... Number 13 March 1999 R ELIEF AND R EHABILITATION NETWORK 13 RRN newsletter Imprving aid plicy and practice in cmplex plitical emergencies In this issue... Articles... 1 Cdes f Cnduct: Wh Needs Them?...

More information

How to use Moodle 2.7. Teacher s Manual for the world s most popular LMS. Jaswinder Singh

How to use Moodle 2.7. Teacher s Manual for the world s most popular LMS. Jaswinder Singh Teacher s Manual fr the wrld s mst ppular LMS Jaswinder Singh Hw t Use Mdle 2.7 2 Hw t use Mdle 2.7, 1 st Editin Teacher s Manual fr the wrld s mst ppular LMS Jaswinder Singh 3 This bk is dedicated t my

More information

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide Andrew Nixon February 2002 Campus Sustainability Assessment Review Project Telephone: (616) 387-5626

More information


THE INTERNATIONAL <IR> FRAMEWORK THE INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK ABOUT THE IIRC The Internatinal Integrated Reprting Cuncil (IIRC) is a glbal calitin f regulatrs, investrs, cmpanies, standard setters, the accunting prfessin and NGOs.

More information

Farmland Values - Then and Now

Farmland Values - Then and Now Farmland Values - Then and w / Je r me E. Jhnsn acre fr US-48 a nd $455 in r th Dak ta. The 199 1 aver ages are $682 a n acre fr the US-48 and $3 68 in r th Da kta. This si mpl e descriptin fails t spea

More information


MEASURING AND/OR ESTIMATING SOCIAL VALUE CREATION: Insights Into Eight Integrated Cost Approaches MEASURING AND/OR ESTIMATING SOCIAL VALUE CREATION: Insights Int Eight Integrated Cst Appraches Prepared fr Bill & Melinda Gates Fundatin Impact Planning and Imprvement Prepared by Melinda T. Tuan P.O.

More information

IMD. Finding the Way: A Discussion of the Swedish Migrant Integration System

IMD. Finding the Way: A Discussion of the Swedish Migrant Integration System Finding the Way: A Discussin f the Swedish Migrant Integratin System Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish migrant integratin system OECD 2014 1 July 2014 Finding the way: A discussin f the Swedish

More information



More information

How to Write Program Objectives/Outcomes

How to Write Program Objectives/Outcomes Hw t Write Prgram Objectives/Outcmes Objectives Gals and Objectives are similar in that they describe the intended purpses and expected results f teaching activities and establish the fundatin fr assessment.

More information

An Introduction to Statistical Learning

An Introduction to Statistical Learning Springer Texts in Statistics Gareth James Daniela Witten Trevr Hastie Rbert Tibshirani An Intrductin t Statistical Learning with Applicatins in R Springer Texts in Statistics 103 Series Editrs: G. Casella

More information

The Dozenal Society of America

The Dozenal Society of America The Dozenal Society of America Multiplication Tables of Various Bases by Michael Thomas De Vlieger Ever wonder what multiplication tables might look like in alternative bases? The dsa Updated 6 February

More information

Introduction ii. Section 1: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 1

Introduction ii. Section 1: Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems 1 What s n the MCAT 2015 Exam? What s n the MCAT 2015 Exam? www.aamc.rg/mcat2015exam Table f Cntents Intrductin Page Number ii Sectin 1: Bilgical and Bichemical Fundatins f Living Systems 1 Sectin 2: Chemical

More information

RISING TO THE CHALLENGE. Re-Envisioning Public Libraries

RISING TO THE CHALLENGE. Re-Envisioning Public Libraries RISING TO THE CHALLENGE Re-Envisining Public Libraries RISING TO THE CHALLENGE Re-Envisining Public Libraries A reprt f the Aspen Institute Dialgue n Public Libraries by Amy K. Garmer Directr Aspen Institute

More information

Guidelines for Outbreak Prevention, Control and Management in Supportive Living and Home Living Sites

Guidelines for Outbreak Prevention, Control and Management in Supportive Living and Home Living Sites Ppulatin, Public and Abriginal Health Guidelines fr Outbreak Preventin, Cntrl and Management in Supprtive Living and Hme Living Sites (Applicable t Ldges, Retirement Residences & Designated Supprtive Living

More information


SECURITY GUIDANCE FOR CRITICAL AREAS OF FOCUS IN CLOUD COMPUTING V3.0 SECURITY GUIDANCE FOR CRITICAL AREAS OF FOCUS IN CLOUD COMPUTING V3.0 INTRODUCTION The guidance prvided herein is the third versin f the Clud Security Alliance dcument, Security Guidance fr Critical Areas

More information

Across a wide variety of fields, data are

Across a wide variety of fields, data are Frm Data Mining t Knwledge Discvery in Databases Usama Fayyad, Gregry Piatetsky-Shapir, and Padhraic Smyth Data mining and knwledge discvery in databases have been attracting a significant amunt f research,

More information

The Elements of Statistical Learning

The Elements of Statistical Learning Springer Series in Statistics Trevr Hastie Rbert Tibshirani Jerme Friedman The Elements f Statistical Learning Data Mining, Inference, and Predictin Secnd Editin This is page v Printer: paque this T ur

More information

The Synchronization of Periodic Routing Messages

The Synchronization of Periodic Routing Messages The Synchrnizatin f Peridic Ruting Messages Sally Flyd and Van Jacbsn, Lawrence Berkeley Labratry, One Cycltrn Rad, Berkeley CA 9470, flyd@eelblgv, van@eelblgv T appear in the April 994 IEEE/ACM Transactins

More information

Smallholder Oil Palm Production Systems in Indonesia: Lessons from the NESP Ophir Project. Idsert Jelsma, Ken Giller and Thomas Fairhurst

Smallholder Oil Palm Production Systems in Indonesia: Lessons from the NESP Ophir Project. Idsert Jelsma, Ken Giller and Thomas Fairhurst Smallhlder Oil Palm Prductin Systems in Indnesia: Lessns frm the NESP Ophir Prject Idsert Jelsma, Ken Giller and Thmas Fairhurst Plant Prductin Systems, Plant Sciences Grup, Wageningen University, Wageningen

More information


CHAPTER 2 ELK POINT CARBONATE RESERVOIRS CHAPTER 2 ELK PONT CARBONATE RESERVORS N.L. Andersn, Dept. f Gelgical Sciences, Ohi University; RJ. Brwn, (Crdinatr), Dept. f Gelgy & Gephysics, University f Calgary; D.J. Gendzwill, Dept. f Gelgical Sciences,

More information

Report for the Food Standards Agency. Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Report for the Food Standards Agency. Nutrition and Public Health Intervention Research Unit London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Cmparisn f cmpsitin (nutrients and ther substances) f rganically and cnventinally prduced fdstuffs: a systematic review f the available literature Reprt fr the Fd Standards Agency Nutritin and Public Health

More information

European Investment Bank. Guide to Procurement

European Investment Bank. Guide to Procurement GUIDE TO PROCUREMENT fr prjects financed by the EIB Updated versin f June 2011 TABLE OF CONTENTS Intrductin 1. General Aspects...4 1.1. The Bank s Plicy... 4 1.2. Eligibility f Cntractrs and Suppliers

More information

LIFE AFTER STUDY. International students settlement experiences in New Zealand DOL11566 NOV 10

LIFE AFTER STUDY. International students settlement experiences in New Zealand DOL11566 NOV 10 2010 LIFE AFTER STUDY Internatinal students settlement experiences in New Zealand DOL11566 NOV 10 Authrs Angie Wilkinsn, Statistics New Zealand Paul Merwd, Department f Labur Anne-Marie Masgret, Department

More information