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1 Ancient Egyptian Art Architecture, Painting and Sculpture The Visual Experience text pages Art in Focus text Walk Like an Egyptian

2 Ancient Egypt

3 Great Pyramids at Giza Old Kingdom Purpose: tomb for Pharaoh Building Material: limestone Completion time: decades Base: 750 ft per side Area: 13 acres Height: 480 ft The Kings Chamber was reached through the Grand Gallery and was ventilated by narrow shafts. The ascending corridor was then sealed by large stones and workmen escaped down a shaft and exited through the descending (geez-a)

4 Evolution of Egyptian burial tombs Mastaba Step Pyramid Dead-end passages and false burial chambers were added to confuse tomb robbers and enemies. When dead, the Pharaoh was expected to join other gods. The pyramids were designed to house and protect the body and treasures the king would take with him into the next life. To an Egyptian, the destruction of the body was the most horrible form of vengence. Pyramid

5 Hieroglyphics on the massive columns are carved in relief. In relief sculpture forms project from a background. High relief=forms stand out far. Low or bas relief= shallow carving. New Kingdom builders built temples commissioned by the pharaohs. Each pharaoh would dedicate the temple to their favorite god or gods. When the Pharaoh died the temple became a funeral chapel where people brought offerings for the pharaoh's ka. Temple of Amon at Karnak, Egypt

6 Mask of Tutankhamen 1352 B.C The Pharaohs body was mummified and placed in a sarcophagus (stone coffin). Mummies were often fitted with funerary masks so their ka could identify them. Dr. Zahi explains mummy recipe 3:06

7 The Great Sphinx Completed during which Kingdom: Old Kingdom Type of art: Sculpture Height: 65 Ft. Medium used: rock Depicts which pharaoh: Khafre (calf-ray) Meant to suggest: strength and courage 2600 B.C

8 Wedjat Eye Amulet 18th dynasty-tomb of King Tut To protect the king in the afterlife...to ward off evil. Vulture goddess, Nekhbet, protector of upper Egypt Eye of Horus-symbol of protection, royal power and good health snake goddess, Wadjet, protector of lower Egypt

9 Statuette of Hippopotamus Middle Kingdom 4 3/8"H x 7 7/8" L Media: faience a ceramic material made of ground quartz lotus flowers and the blue color of water suggest the hippo in it's natural environment, showing the Egyptians appreciation of the natural world. The hippo was one of the most feared animals to the ancient Egyptians, in this life and the next. They were a hazard to small fishing boats and were frequently encountered on the waterways. This hippo was one of a pair found in a burial tomb. Three of its four legs were broken to prevent it from harming the

10 Queen Temple of Nefertiti Ramses II 1257 B.C. solid 1360 B.C rock, each figure 60' Limestone 20" New Kingdom One of the most copied works of Egyptian art. Most well preserved, still has the color layer intact. Bust of Queen Nefertiti 1:33 be/czuydiraias smarthistory4:01 Construction took 20 years. Monument to himself and his wife Queen Nefertari, also to impress and intimidate the neighboring Nubian people. Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel 2:59

11 Nakht and his Wife 1425 B.C. Style of Ancient Egyptian Art 8:40 Larger=more important & stiff or rigid=high rank servants are smaller and in more natural positions Hieroglyphics-picture writing. included in paintings to help tell the story.

12 False Door Stela 1425 B.C. painting from the tomb of Nakht The priests ka was expected to pass through the door in search of offerings painted substitutes for servants are offering food and drink for the ka tomb walls were smoothed over with plaster and painted when dried. Images are drawn along horizontal lines, much like comic

13 Egyptian Parodies and memes

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