A creation of a Mediterranean Empire. 753 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

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1 A creation of a Mediterranean Empire 753 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.

2 2.1 The development and Codification of religious and cultural traditions 2.2 The development of States and Empires 2.3 The emergence of trans regional networks of communication and exchange

3 1000 BCE First Settlement 507 BCE Establishment of the Republic 290 BCE defeat of tribes of Samnium giving Romans control of Italy BCE Wars against Carthage obtaining control of the western portion of the Med BCE Wars against Hellenistic kingdoms obtaining control of the eastern portion of the Med BCE Civil Wars and failure of the Republic CE Paul spreads Christianity in the eastern Med CE Third Century Crisis 312 Constantine ends persecution of the Christians with Edict of Milan 324 Constantine moves the capital to Constantinople

4 Legend has it Romulus founded Rome 753 BCE Palatine Hill occupied as early as 1000 BCE 600 BCE merging of several hilltop communities 2.2 Agriculture essential power measured by land owned Larger land owners/ wealthy families made up the Senate 2.2 Several kings between 753 and 507 BCE First being Romulus last tyrannical Tarquinius Superbus 2.2 Liberated in 507 BCE and installed the Res Publica 2.2 Public Possession or Republic

5 The power of Rome was in it Senate First an advisory council Increased its role in public policy and government Members brought land ownership, wealth and military experience together Self perpetuating committee members served for life

6 Conflict would arise between the Patricians or elite and the plebeians or majority Plebeians would refuse to work or fight Led to the creation of Tribunes, drawn from the lower class and could veto rulings from the Patricians Elite found ways to circumvent the tribunes by bringing them into the elite class

7 Basic unit of Roman society was the family Family unit made of several generations Oldest living male or paterfamilias had absolute authority Important male members of society possessed auctoritas a quality that elicited obedience from lower members of society

8 Played no public role Information pertains mainly to upper class Woman was thought to be like a child Was under the control of her paterfamilia until marriage when she would then be under control of her husbands paterfamilia Unable to own property or represent herself in legal proceedings Were less constrained than the Greeks Were able to gain greater economic freedom

9 Believed in invisible forces called numina that were pulsing energy that protected everything Made small offerings to these spirits to remain in good standing Some thought to have larger spheres depending on who they guarded Upon coming into contact with the Greeks fused the Greek culture with the Roman Culture: Zeus Jupiter.

10 500 BCE Rome is an insignificant city sate in Italy 300 years later it had conquered the western world Chief instrument was the army male citizens owning land were subject to service Roman army was more flexible than Greek, noted for their discipline and training When Rome conquered they would extend the privileges of Citizenship to their new subjects

11 Between 264 and 202 BCE fought two bloody wars ageist the Carthaginians for control of the Mediterranean Between 200 and 146 BCE Rome fought against the Hellenistic kingdoms Reluctant to leave troops in conquer lands Rome had trouble governing newly acquired territories BCE Julius Caesar led Rome on a conquest of the Gaul in Europe Due to lack of Cooperation in foreign provinces Rome installed their own government.

12 Expansion produced wealth that enriched the upper class While away at war small land owners took over the lands and investments creating latifundia or broad estates The decline of the small farm meant the shortage of men who own property which means Less men obligated to military service

13 Julius Caesar believed in a united Roman world battled the Gaul 58 to 52 BCE his victory gained him huge political prestige New found fame also gained him political enemies and the Senate ordered him to abandon his army Choose to march his army on Rome and attack his former ally Gnaeus Pompeius who had a superior army and the Senate Pompeius fled Rome taking his army and the Senate Caesar pursues Pompeius across the Adriatic and destroys the opposing army Caesar is now the master of Rome

14 Caesar transforms the Empire into a great common wealth Is betrayed by the Senate Et Tu Brute Marcus Brutus and Cassius Longius After prolonged civil war Augustus becomes ruler of Rome Roman Ruler called them selves Principate or First citizen to try to show they were first among equals Really just a dictator During Augustus time he wiped away the memories of the Republic

15 Judea comes under Roman rule 6 C.E. Jewish prophecy told of an anointed one that would come and deliver the Jews from the Romans It was thought the messiah was to be a great military leader Instead the messiah was a carpenter from Galilee and a teacher His teachings attracted the attention of Jewish authorities and he was put to death

16 Named Saul, A Jew from Tarsus initially persecuted the Christians (tax collector) After receiving a revelation on the rod to Damascus he becomes a Christian Between 45 and 58 C.E. spend his life spreading Christianity using his roman citizenship to travel among Syria-Palestine, Greece and Anatolia

17 Became increasing frustrated with the Jews refusal to accept Jesus Jew were appalled the decuples for failing to maintain traditional Jewish practices Discovering a spiritual hunger among many Gentiles, Paul re directs his efforts setting up Christian communities in the eastern portion of the Empire A Jewish uprising led to a reconquering of Judea by the Romans and this led to the destruction of many Judeo-Christian communities in Judea

18 Rome prospers for about 200 years During its Third Century it begins to diminish Frequent change in rulers contributed greatly to the crisis Rulers were either overthrown or killed Germanic tribesmen took advantage of the civil war to drive deep into roman territory Some cities built walls, some broke away

19 Taxes were raised to keep the army for protection Inflation Empire reverted to a barter economy Many moved from the cities to the country

20 Commoner who came to power rising through the ranks of the military Ruled 20 years and died in his bed Halted inflation by freezing prices Froze people into jobs requiring them to train their sons to take over Regulated the government spending Imposed death penalty to those who violated the economic rules

21 In Hellenistic communities Christians were greatly persecuted Won a battle key to his taking of Rome claimed he had a vision from the Christian God. Later Issued the Edict of Milan ending the religious persecution of the Christians Supported Christianity this was a huge event toward the legitimizing of Christianity Large numbers began to convert

22 The eastern portion of the empire had better with stood the Third Century Crisis than the west 324 Constantine transferred the capital of Rome to Byzantium renaming it Constantinople More Christians were in the East as well as more educated people Closer to the more threatened area of the eastern empire

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