1 Chapter 6 How Do Atoms Combine Together? Very little of matter on the surface of this planet is in the form of elements. The vast majority is in the form of compounds. But why do elements combine together? How do they combine together? As you will see in this chapter, there are two ways in which atoms can combine. 6.1 Background There is a simple experiment which helped chemists understand one of the ways in which atoms combined to form compounds. This is sometimes called the light-bulb experiment. An electrical circuit is constructed as shown in Figure 6.1. Figure 6.1 The equipment for the light-bulb experiment If the beaker contains pure water, the bulb does not glow the electrical circuit is not completed. If sugar is added to the water, the bulb still does not glow there is still no electricity flowing around the circuit. If salt is added to the water, the bulb glows brightly an electric current is flowing through the solution. Though both sugar and salt are compounds, in this experiment, they behave very differently. The way in which the atoms are held together in the two compounds must be fundamentally different. It was the Swedish scientist, Svante Arrhenius who proposed the answer in Those compounds that, when dissolved in water, cause an electric current to flow, have themselves been split apart to form charged particles. It is these free-moving charged particles that convey the electric current through the solution from one electrode to the other. Such compounds are called electrolytes. Those compounds which, when dissolved in water, do not cause a current to flow, must still exist in their molecular form. They are called non-electrolytes.
2 6.2 Ions This introduction to bonding will start with the compounds which are electrolytes. And for that, an explanation is needed as to why a compound would dissolve in water to give free-moving charged particles. The answer to this question was discovered by American chemist Gilbert Lewis and the German chemist, Walter Kossel. They proposed that the driving force behind the formation of ions is the tendency to reach a lower energy state. The most stable electron energy state is to be found for the noble gases, that is the elements with full outer energy levels of electrons. FORMATION OF AN ANION For an element with many outer electrons, the easier way to acquire a noble-gas configuration is to gain one or more electrons. For example, fluorine with seven outer electrons only needs to gain one to acquire the same electron configuration as that of neon. By adding an electron, there is now one more electron than protons, that is it is no longer a neutral atom, instead it has become a negatively-charged ion, known as an anion. The comparison between the neutral atom and the negative ion is illustrated below in Table 6.1. Table 6.1 Comparison of atomic structure for the formation of the fluorine anion Fluorine No. of protons No. of electrons Charge atom 9 9 (2 inner + 7 outer) 0 anion 9 10 (2 inner + 8 outer) 1 FORMATION OF A CATION For sodium, with one outer electron, it is easier to lose one electron and acquire the electron configuration of the preceding noble gas (neon) than to have to gain seven electrons to reach the electron configuration of argon. That is, by losing one electron, the inner layer of n = 2 now is the outermost layer. This positively-charged ion is known as a cation. The comparison between the neutral atom and the positive ion is illustrated below in Table 6.2.
3 Table 6.2 Comparison of atomic structure for the formation of the sodium cation Sodium No. of protons No. of electrons Charge atom (10 inner + 1 outer) 0 cation (10 inner + 0 outer) +1 OVERVIEW To summarize, atoms with one, two, or three electrons in their outer layer will lose those electrons to form positive ions and attain the electron configuration of the preceding noble gas. Those atoms with five, six, or seven electrons in their outer layer will gain electrons to form negative ions and attain the electron configuration of the following noble gas. These points are illustrated in Figure 6.2. As it is metals to the left of the Periodic Table (with few outer electrons) and nonmetals to the right of the Periodic Table (with closer to eight outer electrons), it is true to say that metal atoms lose electrons while nonmetal atoms gain electrons. Figure 6.2 The relationship of ions to the original neutral atom. 6.3 The Formation of Ionic Compounds The question then arises where the electrons come from or go to when positive and negative ions are formed. The answer is that the two processes have to occur simultaneously. One atom will lose electrons while another will gain those electrons. It is through the transfer of electrons that ionic compounds are formed. For example, sodium chloride (common salt) is formed when sodium atoms lose an electron and chlorine atoms gain an electron. This process can be depicted using the electron-dot symbols as follows. An arrow is used to indicate the direction of the process (always from left to right).
4 These ions fit side-by-side in the solid phase and they are attracted to each other by the fact the neighbours possess opposite charges. The electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charges is called an ionic bond and such a compound is called an ionic compound. The compound can be represented in a more compact form without the electron dots as: [Na] + [Cl]. The way in which these ions pack together is referred to as a crystal lattice (Figure 6.3). Figure 6.3 The arrangement of [Na] + and [Cl] ions in a crystal lattice. Figure 6.4 shows salt crystals. As the ratio of sodium and chlorine is one-to-one, a chemical formula can be written as NaCl. This simplest ratio is called the formula unit. A crystal of NaCl will contain an enormous number of these ions, but they will always be in the ratio of the formula unit, one [Na + ] to one [Cl ]. Figure 6.4 Crystals of salt To balance the number of electrons given up by the metal with the number of electrons required by the nonmetal, it is sometimes necessary to have other than a one-to-one ratio. An example is that of calcium (with two outer electrons) and chlorine (with seven outer electrons). So each
5 calcium atom needs to lose two electrons while each chlorine atom only needs to gain one. The solution is to use two chlorine atoms for each calcium atom, as can be seen below. The compound can be represented in a more compact form without the electron dots as: [Ca] 2+ 2[Cl]. The chemical formula of this compound will be CaCl 2, where the subscript two indicates the numbers of that ion in the formula unit (if there is no number, it is assumed to be one). The combining of aluminum and oxygen illustrates the most complicated case. As aluminum is in Group 13, it has three electrons in its outer layer it will need to lose all three to attain the same electron configuration as neon. Oxygen is in Group 16, it will need to gain two electrons to also gain the same electron configuration as neon. The only way all the electrons can be accounted for is if two aluminum atoms and three oxygen atoms combine together. The compound can be represented in a more compact form without the electron dots as: 2[Al] 3+ 3[O] 2. The chemical formula of this compound will be Al 2 O 3. After becoming familiar with the concept of the formation of ions, it is not necessary to write out the electron-dot structures each time. The following two example illustrate this. EXAMPLE 6.1 Determine the formula of the ionic compound formed between barium and sulfur. Answer Barium has two outer electrons (as it is in Group 2). To form an ion, these two outer electrons will be lost to give an empty outer electron layer. The cation formed will be: Ba 2+. Similarly, sulfur has six outer electrons. To form an ion, the atom will acquire two more electrons to give a full outer electron layer. The anion formed will be S 2. As the charges are the same but of opposite sign, Ba 2+ ions will combine with S 2 ions in a 1:1 ratio to form the compound BaS. EXAMPLE 6.2 Determine the formula of the ionic compound formed between lithium and nitrogen. Answer Lithium has one outer electron (as it is in Group 1). To form an ion, this outer electron will be lost to give an empty outer electron layer. The cation formed will be: Li +.
6 An atom of nitrogen has five outer electrons, three more are necessary to attain a full outer layer. The anion formed will be N 3. To balance the charges, three times as many lithium cations will be needed to balance the nitrogen anions and the formula will be Li 3 N. 6.4 The Formation of Covalent Compounds In the previous section, an explanation was proposed for the formation of compounds that are electrolytes. This concept stated that atoms could attain the more stable electron configuration of a noble gas by gaining or losing the electrons in the outer layer. But this does not explain the formation of compounds that are non-electrolytes. These compounds consist of combinations of non-metals or a combination of a semimetal and a nonmetal. Thus each of the constituent elements has at least a half-full outer electron layer. To give-and-take so many electrons would not be feasible. Instead, these atoms attain the next noble-gas electron configuration by sharing electrons. COVALENTLY-BONDED ELEMENTS As a first example, chlorine atoms have seven electrons in their outer layer. It is known that the element exists in nature as pairs of atoms. We can account for this observation by assuming that for each pair of chlorine atoms, one electron is shared by each, so that each atom now has a total of eight electrons and the same electron configuration as argon. This procedure is known as the formation of a covalent bond. The atoms are held together by the attraction of the positive nuclei of each atom towards the shared pair of electrons. The chemical formula would be written as Cl 2. Unlike the ionic bond which is shared throughout the crystal lattice, a covalent bond is shared between pairs of atoms. To distinguish the two types of bonding, the Cl 2 unit is called a molecule. Hydrogen is another element in which the atoms exist in pairs. As the maximum number of electrons in the first layer is two, a bond can be formed by sharing the single electron of each hydrogen atom. This sharing to give H 2 will result in each atom having two electrons the same as the noble gas, helium.
7 In Table 6.3, the gaseous elements are shown. For the noble gases (Group 18), as they have full outer layers of electrons, the elements are monatomic, that is, they exist as free atoms. For hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and chlorine, the elements obtain a full set of electrons in their outer layer by pairing up and sharing electrons to enable each atom to have a share in eight electrons. These elements, then, form diatomic molecules. In the case of oxygen, in addition to forming a diatomic molecule, under certain conditions can form a triatomic molecule, O 3, commonly called ozone. Table 6.3 Formulas of the gaseous elements FORMATION OF COVALENT COMPOUNDS Up to now, the examples have been of the same element joining together. Molecules are similarly formed when different nonmetal elements combine. The first example is the combination of hydrogen and chlorine. Hydrogen requires one electron to complete its electron layer while chlorine also needs one electron to complete its eight. Hydrogen will then have the same electron configuration as helium and chlorine that of argon. The resulting chemical formula will be HCl. A second example will be that of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen, as before, needs one more electron. Oxygen, with six electrons in its outer level, needs two more. So, in an analogous manner to the ionic bonding, each oxygen atom will join with two hydrogen atoms. The resulting chemical formula will be H 2 O. A third example will be that of hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen needs one more electron. Nitrogen, with five electrons in its outer level, needs three more. In this case, three hydrogen
8 atoms will be needed to each share an electron with the nitrogen atom. The resulting chemical formula will be NH 3. It is the role of chemistry to explain the world around us. So we know the formula of compounds and it is the application of the noble-gas configuration concept that helps explain why the compound can exist. For example, carbon and oxygen combine to form a gas of formula CO 2. Each carbon atom has four electrons in its outer level and needs a share in four more. Each oxygen atom has six electrons in its outer level and needs two more. The only way of accomplishing this task is if the atoms share two electrons each, instead of the one in the previous examples. When four electrons are shared, chemists refer to this as a double bond, whereas in the earlier examples of sharing two electrons, they are called a single bond. The compound can be represented in a more compact form without the electron dots as: O=C=O. The resulting chemical formula will be CO 2. Just as the element hydrogen is found as H 2 and chlorine as Cl 2, so the element nitrogen exists in nature as the molecule N 2. As each nitrogen atom has five electrons, each needs a share in three more to attain the noble-gas configuration of neon. In the diagram below, the process is shown stepwise. The sharing of six electrons is called a triple bond. The compound can be represented in a more compact form without the electron dots as: N N. The resulting chemical formula will be N A Comparison of Ionic and Covalent Compounds The type of bonding has a crucial influence on the properties of a compound. In Chapter 2, Section 2.4, the kinetic-molecular theory of matter was described. That Theory explained the melting of a solid as resulting from the vibrations of the particles overcoming the attractions between neighbouring particles. For ionic compounds, the melting process requires the overcoming of the strong electrostatic attractions between the ions in the crystal lattice. Thus it is not surprising that ionic compounds
9 are all solids at room temperature and require heating to very high temperatures to become liquid. For covalent compounds, the electron-sharing between atoms is also very strong. However, this sharing is within each molecule. Between neighbouring molecules are weak intermolecular attractions. The nature of these weak attractions is beyond the scope of this beginning chemistry text. However, the ramifications of these weak attractions between molecules are of major importance, for it means that little energy is needed to overcome the attractions in the solid phase, and in the liquid phase. So many covalent (molecular) compounds are liquids or even gases at room temperature. Even those covalent compounds that are solid at room temperature, such as sugar (sucrose), melt on gentle heating. Two examples are compared in Table 6.4. Table 6.4 A comparison of an ionic compound and a covalent (molecular) compound Compound NaCl HCl Type of bonding ionic covalent Representation [Na] + [Cl] H Cl Phase at room temperature solid gas 6.6 Polyatomic Ions It is possible to have two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds and to have a charge as an ion. Such mixed species are called polyatomic ions. To illustrate how such a polyatomic ion theoretically forms, the NH 3 molecule, constructed in Section 6.4 will be used. Around the nitrogen atom, there are three pairs of electrons that are involved in forming covalent bonds with the hydrogen atoms. Each of these pairs of electrons is called a bonding pair. In addition, there is one electron pair that is not involved in bonding. Those two electrons are known as a lone pair. It is known that one of the polyatomic ions has the formula of [NH 4 ] +. It can be imagined that a hydrogen cation that is, a hydrogen atom which has lost its one electron can attach itself to the lone pair. In this way, the nitrogen atom still has shares in eight electrons while the newly-acquired hydrogen atom shares both electrons formerly possessed by nitrogen alone. The [NH 4 ] + ion is actually the only common polyatomic cation. All the others are polyatomic anions. The construction of the [OH] polyatomic anion is the easiest to visualize. In Section 6.4, the combination of hydrogen atoms and oxygen atom to form H 2 O was shown. An oxygen atom needs a share in two more electrons, while a hydrogen atom needs a share in one additional
10 electron. If there is only one hydrogen atom available, then a second electron for the oxygen atom can be acquired from elsewhere such as from an alkali metal. The oxygen atom will then complete the eight for its outer level, but the combination has a total of ten electrons compared with nine protons resulting in a net charge of 1. The combination of a hydrogen atom, an oxygen atom, and an extra electron to give the [OH] polyatomic anion is shown below. Many polyatomic anions contain four or five atoms. A common example is the [SO 4 ] 2 ion. To imagine how this can be formed, the sulfur atom has six electrons, adding two more gives the [S] 2 ion. Each of the four oxygen atoms can then add to a lone pair of the anion to give: 6.7 Structural Formulas For covalently bonded molecules and polyatomic ions, lines instead of pairs of dots can be used to represent bonds. These representations are called structural formulas (or bond-line diagrams). As an example, would be represented as : The lone pairs of electrons are usually not represented. The only exception are the lone pairs on a central atom. Usually, they are not shown, for example, water would normally be represented as a structural formula as: However, we will see in the next Section that the lone pairs on a central atom play a key role in determining the shape of the molecule. For these circumstances, those lone pairs on the central atom would be shown, as below. Likewise, the [NH 4 ] + ion can be represented as both an electron-dot formula and as a structural formula. Even for the structural formula, the square brackets are necessary to indicate that it is a polyatomic ion, not a neutral molecule.
11 EXAMPLE 6.3 Determine the formula of the covalent compound formed between silicon and hydrogen. Then draw its structural formula. Answer An atom of silicon has four outer electrons. It will therefore need an additional four electrons to have a share in a total of eight electrons. A hydrogen atom has one electron and it needs to share one other to complete its layer. Thus four hydrogen atoms can provide one silicon atom with the required number of electrons. The formula of the compound will be SiH 4. The electron-dot structure is: 6.8 Shapes of Simple Molecules Up to now, the electron-dot diagrams of covalently-bonded molecules have been constructed. The two-dimensional electron-dot diagrams drawn above have no relevance to the possible threedimensional shape of the molecule. This Section will introduce the shapes of some simple molecules and discuss how the shapes can be explained. CARBON DIOXIDE The electron-dot diagram for carbon dioxide below shows the two double bonds around the central carbon atom. Conventionally, the diagram is drawn like this to make the molecule look symmetrical, nothing more. Chemists have experimentally determined the shape of the carbon dioxide molecule and it is linear with a O=C=O bond angle of 180. The shape of the molecule can be represented as a ball-and-stick model. Originally, these were indeed constructed of wooden balls and metal rods. Now, computer-generated images are more commonly used. Figure 6.5 shows the representation
12 for the carbon dioxide molecule. Chemists explain this shape in terms of the surrounding atoms preferring to be as far apart from each other as possible. Figure 6.5 The ball-and-stick model for the carbon dioxide molecule COLOUR CODING FOR MOLECULAR REPRESENTATIONS In Figure 6.5, the carbon atom is coloured grey-black and the oxygen atoms, red. There is a standard convention for the choice of colours in these molecular representations. The agreed standard colours for the most commonly used elements are listed in Table 6.5. Table 6.5 The standard colour-code for atoms in molecular models Element Bromine Carbon Chlorine Fluorine Hydrogen Iodine Nitrogen Oxygen Phosphorus Sulfur Colour Dark red Black (or Grey) Green Light green White Violet Blue Red Orange Yellow BORON TRIIODIDE Here is the electron-dot structure of boron triiodide. Unusually, there are only three electron pairs around the central boron atom. For convenience, the electron-dot structure is usually drawn with the bonds at 90 angles.
13 Applying the same principle that the surrounding atoms would prefer to be as far apart as possible, the boron triiodide molecule would be predicted to be planar with the three I B I bond angle of 120. This molecular shape is indeed what chemists find for boron triiodide. Figure 6.6 The ball-and-stick model for the boron triiodide molecule AMMONIA The next compound to be discussed is ammonia. In the previous Section, it was shown that the electron-dot structure is: From a comparison with the boron triiodide molecule, one might think that ammonia, too, would be planar. But it is not. The actual molecular shape is shown in Figure 6.7, with the hydrogen atoms bent down below the plane. The H N H bond angle is significantly less than 120. Figure 6.7 The ball-and-stick model for the ammonia molecule How can we explain this shape? The clue is given by the electron-dot structure. In addition to the three covalent bonds to the hydrogen atoms, the nitrogen atom possesses a lone pair. This lone pair occupies space as if it were another atom. Lone pairs cannot be seen, it is the way in which the H N bonds are pushed down that suggests the lone pair of electrons is there, doing
14 the pushing. We can represent the lone pair by an atom-shape with a pair of dots. So for ammonia, if we could see the lone pair, the molecule would look like Figure 6.8. Figure 6.8 The ball-and-stick model for the ammonia molecule showing how the presence of the invisible lone pair could result in the known shape of the molecule. WATER Finally, the water molecule will be considered. The electron-dot structure is shown below. Simplistically, one might think that the molecule would be linear, like carbon dioxide. However, after considering the shape of the ammonia molecule, it would be apparent that the two lone pairs will play a vital role in determining the structure. This is indeed the case, with the water molecule being in the shape of a vee (Figure 6.9). Figure 6.9 The ball-and-stick model for the water molecule If the two lone pairs are added to the molecular shape, then it becomes obvious why the H O H bond should be squished down.
15 Figure 6.10 The ball-and-stick model for the water molecule showing how the presence of the two invisible lone pairs could result in the known shape of the molecule. SPACE-FILLING MODELS Ball-and-stick models are very useful for representing the shape of a molecule. Nevertheless, atoms are not held together by molecular sticks. In fact, it is known that in covalently bonded molecules, the electron pairs shared by atoms bring the atoms in close proximity. For this reason, space-filling models have been devised which are about as close to reality as chemists can reach. The same colour-coding is used for these models as with the ball-and-stick models. As examples, the space-filling representations of ammonia and water are given below (Figure 6.11). (a) (b) Figure 6.11 The space-filling models of (a) ammonia and (b) water. 6.9 Where Next Having been introduced to the two types of bonding in compounds, the next step is to see how compounds are named. Just as there are two categories of bonding, so there are two corresponding types of naming.
CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity
7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams
CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose
Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties
Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,
Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron
Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain
Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the
ANSWER KEY Energy Levels, Electrons and IONIC Bonding It s all about the Give and Take! From American Chemical Society Middle School Chemistry Unit: Chapter 4 Content Statements: Distinguish the difference
Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.
Chapter 6 The Periodic Table Organizing the Periodic Table In a grocery store, the products are grouped according to similar characteristics. With a logical classification system, finding and comparing
Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular
Name: Date: 1. Which of the following best describes an atom? A. protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B. protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C. a core
5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those
Objectives Compare and contrast ionic bonds and covalent bonds. Describe various ways to represent molecules. Summarize what happens in a chemical reaction. Key Terms ionic bond ion covalent bond molecule
Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.
Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an
Chapter 5 TEST: The Periodic Table name HPS # date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The order of elements in the periodic table is based
SCPS Chemistry Worksheet Periodicity A. Periodic table 1. Which are metals? Circle your answers: C, Na, F, Cs, Ba, Ni Which metal in the list above has the most metallic character? Explain. Cesium as the
1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl
Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules
Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation
SETI 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and ovalent Bonds Key Terms octet rule ionic bond ionic compound covalent bond molecular compound single bond double bond triple bond bonding pair lone pair Lewis structure
Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons
Ionic Compounds Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds In your textbook, read about chemical bonds and formation of ions. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. chemical bond electrons
Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is
Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.
Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose
Grade 9 Science Unit: Atoms and Elements Topic 4: Periodic Table & Compounds Topic Using the Periodic Table Metals, Non- Metals & Metalloids I can Explain and identify the periods of the Periodic Table.
NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which
Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy
Unit 1 The Periodic Table: Periodic trends There are over one hundred different chemical elements. Some of these elements are familiar to you such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. Each one has
EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published
Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron
Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is
Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question
6.3 Figure 6.26 To build the Michael Lee-Chin Crystal at the Royal Ontario Museum, models were used at different stages to convey different types of information. Modelling Compounds The Michael Lee-Chin
CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain
Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared
Basic Chemistry Why do we study chemistry in a biology course? All living organisms are composed of chemicals. To understand life, we must understand the structure, function, and properties of the chemicals
Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living
BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in
SACE Stage 1 Chemistry - The Essentials 1. Structure and Properties of the Atom 1.1 Atoms: A simple definition of the atom is that it is the smallest particle that contains the properties of that element.
Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Page 1 of 26 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 2 The bonding types of the first twenty elements; metallic
Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the following ionic compounds in order of increasing lattice energy: NaF, CsI, and CaO. Analyze: From the formulas
Chemistry Periodic Table Name: Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Periodic Table Study Guide Directions: Please use this packet as practice and review. DO NOT try to answer these questions during presentations, take
Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the ionic compounds NaF, CsI, and CaO in order of increasing lattice energy. Analyze From the formulas for three
56 Chapter 5: Electron Configuration, Lewis Dot Structure, and Molecular Shape Electron configuration. The outermost electrons surrounding an atom (the valence electrons) are responsible for the number
Most of the matter around you and inside of you is in the form of compounds. For example, your body is about 80 percent water. You learned in the last unit that water, H 2 O, is made up of hydrogen and
Molecular Models & Lewis Dot Structures Objectives: 1. Draw Lewis structures for atoms, ions and simple molecules. 2. Use Lewis structures as a guide to construct three-dimensional models of small molecules.
22.214.171.124 Period 3 elements 173 minutes 169 marks Page 1 of 17 Q1. (a) Explain why certain elements in the Periodic Table are classified as p-block elements. Illustrate your answer with an example of a p-block
324 Chapter 6 Electronic Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 6.5 Periodic Variations in Element Properties By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe and explain the observed trends
Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what
. ATOMIC STRUCTURE FUNDAMENTALS LEARNING OBJECTIVES To review the basics concepts of atomic structure that have direct relevance to the fundamental concepts of organic chemistry. This material is essential
1. The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing A) atomic mass B) atomic number C) molar mass D) oxidation number 2. Which list of elements consists of a metal, a metalloid, and
Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic
Chapter 6: The Periodic Table Study Guide I. General organization of table A. Modern periodic table 1. Increasing atomic number B. 3 major blocks 1. Metals a. Mostly solids at room temperature b. Conduct
Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding
Material: laboratory display of the elements and a wall periodic table is required. Objective: To learn the use of periodic table for writing electron configuration of elements. INTRODUCTION Basic building
Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching
Name Block Date Ch 17 Atomic Nature of Matter Notes Mrs. Peck atoms- the smallest particle of an element that can be identified with that element are the building blocks of matter consists of protons and
Atoms and Molecules Preparation Grade Level: 5-8 Group Size: 20-30 Time: 60 90 Minutes Presenters: 2-4 Objectives This lesson will enable students to: Describe how atoms are the building blocks of matter
Atom X A Z A mass number (= number of protons (electrons) + number of neutrons) Z atomic number (= number of protons = number of electrons) Almost all of the mass of an atom is in its nucleus; almost all
The Periodic Table Organizing the Elements A few elements, such as gold and copper, have been known for thousands of years - since ancient times Yet, only about 13 had been identified by the year 1700.
Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules & Life What Are Atoms? An atom are the smallest unit of matter. Atoms are composed of Electrons = negatively charged particles. Neutrons = particles with no charge (neutral).
Introduction to Chemistry Chapter 5 1 Atoms, Molecules, Formulas, and Subatomic Particles The Atom: The smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element building
Question 4.1: Explain the formation of a chemical bond. A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species. Various theories
In the previous section, you learned how and why atoms form chemical bonds with one another. You also know that atoms combine in certain ratios with other atoms. These ratios determine the chemical formula
Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 1. Which of the following is a unit of pressure? A. newton-meters per second
Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions
UNIT (2) ATOMS AND ELEMENTS 2.1 Elements An element is a fundamental substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances. Each element is represented by an abbreviation called
S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 1.Group I elements do not occur free (native state) in the nature because a. They are unstable b. Their compounds with other elements are highly
6 CEMICAL NAMES AND FORMULAS SECTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO CEMICAL BONDING (pages 133 137) This section explains how to distinguish between ionic and molecular compounds. It also defines cation and anion
Chemistry 100 Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 2 Atoms Classifications of Matter: Elements An Element is a substance (for example,
Why? The chemical properties of an element are based on the number of electrons in the outer shell of its atoms. We use Lewis dot structures to map these valence electrons in order to identify stable electron
Unit 2 Periodic Behavior and Ionic Bonding 6.1 Organizing the Elements I. The Periodic Law A. The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers B. Elements
Part I: Principal Energy Levels and Sublevels As you already know, all atoms are made of subatomic particles, including protons, neutrons, and electrons. Positive protons and neutral neutrons are found
Ohio Standards Connection: Physical Sciences Benchmark A Describe that matter is made of minute particles called atoms and atoms are comprised of even smaller components. Explain the structure and properties
Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence
Trends of the Periodic Table Diary Trends are patterns of behaviors that atoms on the periodic table of elements follow. Trends hold true most of the time, but there are exceptions, or blips, where the
Session-1 CHEMICAL BONDING 1.1 INTRODUCTION; Atoms of most elements (except noble gases) are not able to exist independently. A group of two or more atoms known as molecules have independent existence.
Modeling Molecules 40- to 2 50-minute sessions ACTIVITY OVERVIEW 17 M OD E L I N G Students continue their exploration of the organization of atoms and molecules as they use models to investigate atoms,
OpenStax-CNX module: m38133 1 The Periodic Table - Grade 10 [CAPS] Free High School Science Texts Project This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
8]VeiZg ( COMPOUNDS Introduction Compounds are formed when different elements react chemically. This chemical interaction involves the outermost electrons of the atoms of each element. To understand the
CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the