Glossary of Terms Language Arts/Writing Kindergarten-6 th Grade San Bernardino city Unified School District

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1 Glossary of Terms Language Arts/Writing Kindergarten-6 th Grade San Bernardino city Unified School District affix(es) A bound (nonwork) morpheme that changes the meaning or function of a root or stem to which it is attached. affixation The process of attaching a word part, such as a prefix or suffix to a base word, stem or root. alphabetic layer The first layer of word study instruction focusing on letters and sound-letter correspondence. alphabetic principle The assumption underlying an alphabetic writing system that each speech sound or phoneme of a language has its own distinctive graphic representations. assessment The use of multiple measures and the ongoing analysis of individual, small-group, and class progress in order to plan effective instruction and, when necessary, classroom interventions. Primary Kindergarten through Third Grade District uses assessments designed for each grade level Upper District uses Consortium on Reading Excellence (CORE) Assessments include: Oral Reading Inventory San Diego Quick Phonics Survey Phoneme Segmentation automaticity The ability to recognize a word (or series of words) in text effortlessly and rapidly. base word (root) A word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added. blind sort A word sort in which the pupil does not look at the word being sorted. center work/learning centers Work completed independently in prepared areas within a classroom. closed sorts Word sorts that classify words into predetermined categories. closed syllable A closed syllable ends with or is closed by a consonant sound.

2 concepts about print Insights about the ways in which print works. decodable texts Reading materials that provide and intermediate step between words in isolation and authentic literature. decoding A series of strategies used selectively by readers to recognize and read written words. description One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing. Its purpose is to provide a verbal picture of a character, event, setting and so forth. Derivational constancy spelling stage The last stage of spelling development in which spellers learn about derivational relationships preserved in the spelling words. encoding Transferring oral language into written language. environmental print Any print found in the physical environment, such as street signs, billboards, labels, business signs, etc. etymology The study of the origin and historical development of words. explicit instruction The intentional design and delivery of information by the teacher to the students. exposition One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing. Its purpose is to set forth or explain. expository text A traditional form of written composition that has as its primary purpose explanation of the communication of details, facts, and discipline-or-specific information. fluency The clear, easy and quick written or spoken expression of ideas; freedom from wordidentification problems that might hinder comprehension in silent reading or the expression of ideas in oral reading; automaticity.

3 genre A term used to classify literacy works, such as novel, mystery, historical fiction, biography, short story, poem. grammar The system of rules for the use of language; the study of the collection of specific spoken and written conventions that exist in a language. graphic organizer A visual representation of facts and concepts from a text and their relationships within an organized frame. independent practice The phase of instruction that occurs after skills and strategies have been explicitly taught and practiced under teacher direction or supervision. homographs Words that are spelled alike, have different pronunciations and different meanings. homophones Words that sound alike, are spelled differently, and have different meanings. informational text and materials Text that has as its primary purpose (typically found in the content areas) the communication of technical information about a specific topic, event, experience, or circumstance. instructional level A level of academic engagement in which instruction is comfortably matched to what an individual is able to grasp. interactive writing/shared writing A writing experience used to assist emergent readers in learning to read and write. With help from the teacher, students dictate sentences about a shared experience, such as a story, movie or event. The teacher stretches each word orally so that students can distinguish its sounds and letters as they use chart paper to write the letter while repeating the sound. After each word is completed, the teacher and students reread it. The students take turns writing letters to complete the words and sentences. The completed charts are posted on the wall so that the students can reread them or rely on them for standard spelling. learning centers/center work Work completed independently in prepared areas within a classroom. Letter Name spelling stage The second stage of spelling development in which students represent beginning, middle and ending sounds of words with phonetically accurate letter choices.

4 listening comprehension The act or ability of understanding what a speaker is saying and seizing the meaning. literary analysis The study or examination of a literary work or author. literary criticism The result of literary analysis: a judgment or evaluation of a work or a body of literature. Matthew effect The rich-get-richer, poor-get-poorer effect embedded in the educational process. The term is derived from Matthew s Gospel. meaning layer The third layer of English orthography including meaning units such as prefixes, suffixes, and word roots. medial The vowel sound in the middle of a word or syllables. metaphor A word or phrase that means one thing is used, through implication, refer to something else. morpheme A linguistic unit of relatively stable meaning that cannot be divided into smaller, meaningful parts; the smallest meaningful part of a word. morphology The study of the meaningful units in words, roots and word origins. narration One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing. Its purpose is to tell a story or give an account of something dealing with sequences of events and experiences. onset The onset of a single syllable or word is the initial consonant(s) sound. open sorts A type of picture or word sort in which categories for sorting are left open. open syllable An open syllable ends with a long vowel. orthography Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letter, characters, or symbols.

5 pattern Letter sequences that function as a unit and are related to a consistent category of sound. pattern layer The second layer or tier of English orthography in which patterns of letter sequences, rather than individual letters themselves, represent vowel sounds. persuasion One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing. Its purpose is to move a reader by argument or entreaty to a belief, position, or course of action. phoneme The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. phonemic awareness Refers to the ability to consciously separate individual sounds in a spoken language. phonemic awareness instruction Teaching awareness of words, syllables, and phonemes along a developmental continuum that includes rhyming, recognition and productions, isolation, blending, matching of phonemes, segmentation, and substitution. phonics A system of teaching reading and spelling that stressed basic sound-symbol relationships and their application in decoding words. Predictable text Reading material that support the prediction of certain features of text. prefix An affix that is attached to a base word or word root. Preliterate spelling stage The first stage of spelling development before letter-sound correspondences are learned and coordinated with printed word boundaries. prewriting The initial creative and planning stage of writing, prior to drafting, in which the writer formulates ideas, gathers information, and considers ways in which to organize a piece of writing. print-rich environment An environment in which students are provided many opportunities to interact with print and an abundance and variety of printed materials are available and accessible. prosody The musical qualities of language including intonation, expression, stress, and rhythm.

6 punctuation The appropriate use of standard marks, such as periods, commas, and semicolons, in writing and printing to separate words into sentences, clauses, and phrases to clarify meaning. reading comprehension The ability to apprehend meaning from print and understand text. retelling The paraphrasing of a story in a student s own words to check for comprehension. rimes A rime unit is composed of the vowel and any following. r-influenced vowels When an r colors the way the preceding vowel is pronounced. root word A synonym for base word. scaffold A form of support, i.e.: the familiar structures of oral language offer a form of support for beginning teacher. schema A reader s organized knowledge of the world that provides a basis for comprehending, learning, and remembering ideas in stories and texts. self-monitoring Students learn to monitor their own reading behaviors and use appropriate strategies to decode and comprehend text effectively. sentences Declarative a sentence that makes a statement Exclamatory a sentence that makes a vehement statement or conveys strong or sudden emotion Imperative a sentence that expresses a command or request Interrogative a sentence that asks a question or makes an inquiry sentence structure The formal pattern or group or words that make up a sentence, are grammatically dependent on one another, and convey an idea or message. simile Two unlike things are explicitly compared, usually with the word like or as. spelling A synonym for orthography; the construction of words with letters in a standard order.

7 spelling, temporary/invented An emergent writer s attempt to spell a word phonetically when the spelling is unknown. Support for temporary spelling should be combined with formal instruction in spelling to move students toward rapid growth in word recognition and correct spelling. standard spelling Correct spelling structured/guided practice A phrase of instruction that occurs after the teacher explicitly models, demonstrates, or introduces a skill or strategy. syllable juncture The fourth stage of spelling development, which coincides with intermediate reading. syllables Units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants. text difficulty Independent --- child can readily read independently with high comprehension, few problems with word identification, and an accuracy rate of percent. Instructional --- child can read successfully with instruction and support and an accuracy rate of percent. Frustration --- is the level of reading material a child can read with an accuracy rate of 89 percent or less. tracking The ability of fingerpoint read a text, demonstrating concept of word. vocabulary and concept development Instruction in the meaning of new words and concepts. Within Word Pattern spelling stage The third stage of spelling development that coincides with eth transitional period o literacy development. word attack (or word analysis) Refers to the process used to decode words. word play A child s manipulation of sounds and words for language exploration and practice or for pleasure.

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