# Technical Efficiency Analysis of Participation Banks that Operated Between 2005 and 2013 in Turkey

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3 According to Karsak ve İşcan [19], the most important innovation of DEA is its enabling measurements without requiring any prediction of predetermined presence of any analytical production function in environments in which multiple outputs are obtained from multiple inputs [20]. However all inputs and outputs should be non-negative and non-zero [21]. V. INPUT ORIENTED CCR MODEL AND LINEAR PROGRAMMING FORMULATION CCR model was initially introduced by Chames, Cooper and Rhodes in CCR model can be implemented both input and output oriented. Assume that there are b numbers of decision such as DMU1, DMU2 DMUb. Some common input and output items for each of these b DMUs are determined as follows: Numerical data are obtained for each of the input and output items and these data are positive for all DMUs. Selection of input, output items and DMUs, should be made in a way that they should reflect the analyst s interest and they should establish a cluster which will affect relative productivity. Units of the different inputs and outputs need not to be congruent. Units may differ in terms of number of personnel, amount of money spent, surface area and etc. In order to determine relative productivity of each DMUj within a sample cluster which is established by input and output data of b DMU, b optimization models should be solved. VI. IMPLEMANTATION Comparative measurements of DEA models and decision making units that have the same inputs and outputs could be made. Model is solved for each of the decision making unit. One of the results obtained from DEA models is relative efficiency value for each unit. As a result of linear programming, if the objective function is equal to 1(or 100%) it is considered efficient-productive. If the objective functions of the DMUs are not equal to 1 (or 100%) these DMUs should be made similar to efficient DMUs. In this way, inefficient ones are rendered efficient. With the assumption of that making changes in inputs are easier in practice, relative efficiency of participation banking between has been measured by using input oriented DEA method which is an productivity measurement method. Input variables determined to conduct efficiency measurement were as follows: total assets, funds deposited, number of personnel and profit share expenses; output variables were funds made available and profit share incomes. Input oriented DEA model. General efficiency view of the sector in the period between 2005 and 2013 is given in Table 1 according to input oriented DEA results. TABLE I EFFICIENCY SCORES Decision Making Units (Years) Efficiency Scores Benchmarking (Reference Set) ,5% 2008 (0,325) 2010 (0,021) ,9% 2007 (0,659) 2010 (1) 2012 (2) % % % % % % % 0 Potential improvement tables can be established as in Table-2 according to years which refer to decision making units in inefficient years 2005 and According to the analysis result, for the sector in order to achieve 100% efficiency in 2005; total assets and profit share expenses should be cut by 6,48%, expenses of deposited funds should be cut by 17% and number of personnel should be decreased by 32,99%; profit share incomes should be increased by 5,36%. When 2006, the last inefficient year was investigated for the sector; it was detected that the sector should cut the following variables: total assets and profit share expenses by 5.08%, deposited funds by10.94% and number of personnel by 14.09%. International Conference on Applied Science, Management and Technology 2014 (ICASMT 2014), Dubai, UAE Page 3

4 Output 2006 İnput İnput 2005 Output International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering TABLE II POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENT TABLES Factors Realized Objective Total Assets Funds Deposited Number of personnel Profit share expenses Funds made available Profit share incomes Total Assets Funds Deposited Number of personnel Profit share expenses Funds made available Profit share incomes VII. CONCLUSION Potential Improvements (%) -6,48-17,00-32,99-6,48 5,36-5,08-10,94-14,09-5,08 Intense competition and globalization require sectors and companies in sectors to operate most efficiently and force them to determine which factors they should take into consideration. Participation banking has started to develop with an increase in both its size of assets and deposited funds in recent years. In this study, it was aimed to identify the general status of the sector by taking general data of 4 participation banks into consideration and measuring the efficiencies of these banks between 2005 and 2013 with the help data envelopment analysis. According to the results of the analysis, the banks were detected not to operate efficiently and their potential improvement tables were created. Examining these tables, some indicators that were determined to be cut on average were as following: ratio of size of assets by 5.78 %, ratio of deposited funds by 13,97%, ratio of number of personnel by 23,54% and profit sharing expenditures by 5,78%. In case these cuts were done, it was observed that increases especially in accounting profits and in technical profits as well would occur. Participation banks have contributed variety and depth to the sector. Political and economic instability was the main reason that participation banking could not reach to desired level in terms of volume or size until Considering developments in the world, global instabilities emerged in Surpluses in Asia and partly Europe despite increasing budget deficits of the USA were at the base of this instability [22]. Especially global instabilities and increase in the level of indebtedness were observed as a result of fluctuation in May It is thought that the result of negative impacts of these developments have reflected on the result of the analysis. REFERENCES [1] Kettell, B., Case Studies in Islamic Banking and Finance. 2011: John Wiley & Sons. [2] Özulucan, A., Deran,A., Katılım Bankacılığı İle Geleneksel Bankaların Bankacılık Hizmetleri ve Muhasebe Uygulamaları Açısından Karşılaştırılması. Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 2009: p [3] Tunç, H., Katılım Bankacılığı Felsefesi, Teorisi ve Türkiye Uygulaması. 2010, İstanbul: Nesil Yayınları. [4] TKBB, Dünyada ve Türkiye'de Faizsiz Bankacılık. 2005, Türkiye Katılım Bankaları Birliği. [5] Aslan, H., Alternatif Bir Yatırım ve Finansman Aracı Olarak Sukuk : Yapısı, İşleyişi ve Türkiye Piyasası İçin Öneriler, in Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İşletme Anabilim Dalı Finansal Piyasalar ve Yatırım Yönetimi Bilim Dalı. 2012, Marmara Üniversitesi: İstanbul. [6] Özsoy, İ., Yabanlı, A., Yeni Gelişmeler Işığında Türkiye'de Faizsiz Finans ve Katılım Bankacılığı. Turcomoney [7] Kaya, R., Türk Bankacılık Sisteminde Katılım Bankalarının Tercih Nedenleri ve Bir Araştırma, in Bankacılık Anabilim Dalı. 2013, Marmara Üniversitesi: Bankacılık ve Sigortacılık Enstitüsü. [8] Doğan, M., Katılım ve Geleneksel Bankaların Finansal Performanslarının Karşılaştırılması : Türkiye Örneği. Muhasebe ve Finansman Dergisi, 2013: p [9] Küçükaksoy, İ., Önal, S., Türk Bankacılık Sektöründe Faaliyet Gösteren Bankaların Etkinliklerinin Veri Zarflama Analizi Yöntemi İle Ölçülmesi : Yılları Uygulaması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Ekonometri ve İstatistik Dergisi, 2013: p [10] Yayar, R., Baykara, H., TOPSIS Yöntemi ile Katılım Bankalarının Etkinliği ve Verimliliği Üzerine Bir Uygulama. Business and Economics Research Journal, 2012: p [11] Dağ, S., Türkiye'deki Katılım ve Mevduat Bankalarının Etkinliklerinin Veri Zarflama Analizi Yöntemiyle Karşılaştırılması, in Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İktisat Anabilim Dalı. 2011, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Kütahya. [12] Halme, M., Korhonen, P., Restricting weights in value efficiency analysis. European Journal of Operational Research, 2000: p [13] Beasly, J.A. Data Envelopment Analysis. 2000; Available from: [14] Aydemir, Z., Bölgesel Rekabet Edebilirlik Kapsamında İllerin Kaynak Kullanım Görece Verimlilikleri: Veri Zarflama Analizi Uygulaması. DPT Yayınları, [15] Ulucan, A., İSO 500 Şirketlerinin Etkinliklerinin Ölçülmesinde Veri Zarflama Analizi Yaklaşımı: Farklı Girdi Çıktı Bileşenleri ve Ölçeğe Göre Getiri Yaklaşımları ile Değerlendirmeler. Ankara Üniversitesi, Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi, (2): p International Conference on Applied Science, Management and Technology 2014 (ICASMT 2014), Dubai, UAE Page 4

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