1 THE RIGHT TO DIGNITY REX D. GLENSY * What is the right to dignity? Even though the role of human dignity within the framework of legal rules has attracted scholarly attention for some time, it is only relatively recently that courts in the United States have shown a similar interest in exploring the existence and scope of dignity rights. Unfortunately, those judicial opinions that have explicitly or implicitly evoked the idea of a right to dignity have done so in an ad hoc manner, without explaining the contours of dignity rights. This Article presents four possible meanings of the invocation of dignity rights in judicial opinions. It notes that each of these possibilities is founded in a very different theoretical understanding of dignity rights. The Article then concludes by exhorting courts to coalesce around one of these possibilities, so that a more secure legal foundation can be built for the development of dignity rights in the United States. I. INTRODUCTION II. USES OF DIGNITY A. The Idea of Dignity B. Legal Pronouncements United States Law Foreign Law International Law III. POSSIBLE APPROACHES TO HUMAN DIGNITY A. Substantive Legal Right The Positive Rights Approach B. Background Norm The Negative Rights Approach C. Heuristic The Proxy Approach D. Hortatory Language The Expressive Approach IV. CONCLUSION * Associate Professor, Drexel University College of Law.
2 66 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 I. INTRODUCTION Human dignity is a concept that has captured the attention of philosophers, scholars, and jurists alike. 1 Since the ancient era, thinkers from a wide variety of non legal disciplines have explored the notion of human dignity, its ramifications, and its effect on civilized society. 2 Even though American legal scholars have also participated in this discourse, with increased attention in recent times, the notion of the role of human dignity within law is still an underexplored topic. 3 The judiciary in the United States has similarly undertaken, from time to time, analyses that have touched upon the concept of dignity rights; however, these legal pronouncements have been quite dissatisfying, in that most of these allusions seem haphazard and lacking in theoretical grounding. 4 Moreover, the contexts of these references to human dignity are extremely varied, ranging, for example, from constitutional theory, to criminal law, free speech law, intellectual property law, and to entertainment law, and thus suffer from an inherent absence of coherence. What has therefore emerged from the domestic legal framework is a dense but very confused picture of the role and meaning of human dignity within the ambit of legal rights. 1. See, e.g., David A. Hyman, Does Technology Spell Trouble with a Capital T?: Human Dignity and Public Policy, 27 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol y 3, 3 (2003) (noting that human dignity has attracted considerable attention as a policy standard in a variety of differing fields such as bioethics, constitutional law, torts, and the internet). 2. But see Denise G. Réaume, Indignities: Making a Place for Dignity in Modern Legal Thought, 28 Queens L.J. 61, 62 (2002) (observing that dignity has attracted relatively little analysis as a concept, whether by legal scholars or philosophers ); see also John D. Castiglione, Human Dignity Under the Fourth Amendment, 2008 Wis. L. Rev. 655, 710 (indicating that the concept of human dignity has been underanalyzed ). 3. See George W. Harris, Dignity and Vulnerability 1 (1997). 4. See, e.g., Jordan J. Paust, Human Dignity as a Constitutional Right: A Jurisprudentially Based Inquiry into Criteria and Content, 27 How. L.J. 145, (1984) (noting the scattered nature of the use of the concept of human dignity by the U.S. Supreme Court); Vicki C. Jackson, Constitutional Dialogue and Human Dignity: States and Transnational Constitutional Discourse, 65 Mont. L. Rev. 15, 17, (2004) (describing U.S. constitutional jurisprudence as episodic and underdeveloped ). This criticism is not unique to the U.S. Supreme Court. See R. James Fyfe, Dignity as Theory: Competing Conceptions of Human Dignity at the Supreme Court of Canada, 70 Sask. L. Rev. 1, 8, 13 (2007) (characterizing the Canadian Supreme Court s use of dignity within its constitutional framework as unfocused and inconsistent and a haphazard amalgamation. ).
3 2011] The Right to Dignity 67 Nevertheless, given the increasing frequency with which courts and legal commentators in the United States are invoking or criticizing a notion of the right to dignity, and the fact that dignity is seemingly becoming a more vital and vibrant precept, 5 the time has arrived to explore what is meant by human dignity and, more significantly, whether and/or how this meaning can be imported into the domestic legal structure. Given this background, it is essential to bring some theoretical consistency to dignity rights, together with some perspective as to what the possible contours of these rights could be. This goal is normatively desirable because the [c]onceptual unity [of the law] is not only fulfilling in itself, however; it is also an instrument of legal development. 6 The task of creating some dependable parameters for the use of dignity rights has an added layer of importance, because it has been often remarked that the present use of dignity within a judicial opinion functions as a hollow rhetorical device and thus is worthy of little if any consequence. 7 A response to such accusations, therefore, seems appropriate. Dignity is admittedly [an] ethereal concept 8 which can mean many things 9 and therefore suffers from an inherent vagueness at its core. 10 In fact, [s]ince human dignity is a capacious concept, it is difficult to determine precisely what it means outside the context of a factual setting. 11 The basis of dignity can be said to lie in the autonomy of self and a self worth that is reflected in every 5. Paust, supra note 4, at Edward J. Bloustein, Privacy as an Aspect of Human Dignity: An Answer to Dean Prosser, 39 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 962, 1004 (1964). Others have noted this need for a consensus when it comes to figuring out the import of dignity within a legal framework. See, e.g., Ernst Benda, The Protection of Human Dignity (Article 1 of the Basic Law), 53 SMU L. Rev. 443, (2000) (asserting that the international community needs to reach an agreement concerning the meaning of dignity). 7. Fyfe, supra note 4, at Castiglione, supra note 2, at 662, 679 (indicating that the concept of human dignity is to some extent, inherently ethereal and applying it to Fourth Amendment law); see also Hyman, supra note 1, at 3 (characterizing human dignity as a slippery concept ). 9. R. George Wright, Dignity and Conflicts of Constitutional Values: The Case of Free Speech and Equal Protection, 43 San Diego L. Rev. 527, 528 (2006). 10. The European Court of Human Rights, which nonetheless uses dignity as a yardstick within its jurisprudence, noted that dignity is a particularly vague concept, and one subject to random interpretation. Siliadin v. France, (no /01), Eur. Ct. H.R. 30 (2005). 11. Edward Eberle, Human Dignity, Privacy, and Personality in German and American Constitutional Law, 1997 Utah L. Rev. 963, 975 (1997).
4 68 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 human being s right to individual self determination. 12 It is thus universal and uninfringeable by the state or private parties. 13 Consequently, the dignity of the human person as a basic ideal is so generally recognized as to require no independent support. 14 This suggests that there is agreement as to what dignity might mean at its core, despite the lack of consensus as to what the effect of this meaning might be, especially within the legal sphere. Without a certain specification of how the fostering of human dignity is to play out within a legal framework, we are left with an empty vessel of questionable utility. The centrality of dignity in a democratic society cannot be underestimated. 15 In fact, [h]uman dignity is... bound up with forms of governance, 16 and is a central feature in a significant amount of modern constitutional states. Indeed, democracy serve[s] as a core value of state formation because it accord[s] with fundamental notions of fair governance and [gives] expression to the values of human dignity and equality. 17 One of the key facets of twenty first century democracies is the primary importance they give to the protection of human rights. From this perspective, dignity is the expression of a basic value accepted in a broad sense by all peoples, 18 and thus constitutes the first cornerstone in the edifice of 12. In other words, [h]uman dignity means the specific value status of human beings derived from their humanity as such. Matthias Mahlmann, The Basic Law at 60 Human Dignity and the Culture of Republicanism, 11 German L.J. 9, 30 (2010); see also Avishai Margalit, The Decent Society (Naomi Goldblum trans., 1996) (stating that dignity inheres in personhood); Gerald L. Neuman, Human Dignity in United States Constitutional Law, in Zur Autonomie des Individuums 249, (Dieter Simon & Manfred Weiss eds., 2000) (same). 13. See, e.g., Figueroa Ferrer v. Commonwealth, 7 P.R. Offic. Trans. 278, 301 (1978) (opining that the notion of dignity is based on principles which aspire to universality ). 14. Oscar Schachter, Human Dignity as a Normative Concept, 77 Am. J. Int l L. 848, (1983). 15. See McNabb v. U.S., 318 U.S. 332, 343 (1943) (stating that in democratic society... respect for the dignity of man is central ). 16. Larry Catá Backer, Theocratic Constitutionalism: An Introduction to a New Global Legal Ordering, 16 Ind. J. Global Legal Stud. 85, 101 (2009). 17. Larry Catá Backer, God(s) Over Constitutions: International and Religious Transnational Constitutionalism in the 21 st Century, 27 Miss. C.L. Rev. 11, 57 (2008); see also Pope Benedict XVI, Address to the U.N. General Assembly (Apr. 18, 2008), available at t_xvi/speeches/2008/april/documents/hf_ben xvi_spe_ _un visit_en.html (referring to respect for the dignity of the person as one of the founding principles of the United Nations). 18. Schachter, supra note 14.
5 2011] The Right to Dignity human rights. 19 Therefore, there is a certain fundamental value to the notion of human dignity, which some would consider a pivotal right deeply rooted in any notion of justice, fairness, and a society based on basic rights. 20 Some nations and international organizations have elevated human dignity to the foundational right underpinning all other rights. 21 Other nations have paired dignity with other fundamental rights, such as liberty and equality, in their jurisprudential treatment. 22 But what about the United States? In America, there is some disagreement as to the importance of human dignity within the domestic legal framework. From the perspective of dignity as a constitutional value, some support its inclusion within the panoply of principles espoused by the foundational document, 23 while others do 19. Paolo G. Carozza, Subsidiarity as a Structural Principle of International Human Rights Law, 97 Am. J. Int l L. 38, 46 (2003). 20. Guy E. Carmi, Dignity The Enemy from Within: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis of Human Dignity as a Free Speech Justification, 9 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 957, 966 (2007) (comparing the central place of human dignity in European human rights discourse after World War II to rights discourse in the United States). 21. See, e.g., Eberle, supra note 11, at (noting that, among rights enumerated in the German Constitution, human dignity is inalienable and the essence of social guarantees); see generally D. Kretzmer & E. Klein, The concept of Human Dignity in Human Rights Discourse (2002) (underlining the centrality of human dignity within the contemporary international human rights conversation in the wake of World War II). 22. See Izhak Englard, Human Dignity: From Antiquity to Modern Israel s Constitutional Framework, 21 Cardozo L. Rev. 1903, 1925 (2000) (explaining how dignity is paired with the concept of liberty under Israel s Basic Law framework). See discussion infra Part III (discussing the interplay between dignity and other recognized rights). 23. See, e.g., Walter F. Murphy, An Ordering of Constitutional Values, 53 S. Cal. L. Rev. 703, 758 (1980) (specifying that [t]he fundamental value that constitutionalism protects is human dignity ); Ronald Dworkin, Freedom s Law 1 38 (1996) (explaining that the U.S. Constitution embodies the protection of abstract human values such as dignity); Maxine D. Goodman, Human Dignity in Supreme Court Constitutional Jurisprudence, 84 Neb. L. Rev. 740, 789 (2006) (advocating that the Supreme Court should expressly recognize human dignity as underlying certain constitutional rights); Maxine Eichner, Families, Human Dignity, and State Support for Caretaking: Why the United States Failure to Ameliorate the Work Family Conflict is a Dereliction of the Government s Basic Responsibilities, 88 N.C. L. Rev. 1593, 1596 (2010) (arguing that the respect for human dignity [is] at the root of the United States liberal democratic understanding of itself ).
6 70 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 not see it as a right to be protected. 24 It is, of course, undeniable that the word dignity does not appear even once in the Constitution. 25 For this reason, some have concluded that protecting people s dignity is quite alien to the American tradition, 26 and that its use is akin to that of the Trojan Horse, a benign exterior masking a horrific interior, in that the vague nature of dignity rights conceals troubling complications. 27 Therefore, these critics have argued that because [i]ntangibles such as the promotion of human dignity... are too nebulous for progress toward achieving them to be measured, they are best left alone. 28 Despite the exhortations by skeptics not to incorporate human dignity within the framework of American legal rules, such advice is going unheeded. Jurists at all levels state, federal, trial, and appellate are referencing the right to dignity in resolving disputes and announcing legal rules. Further, these references do not always involve constitutional values; sometimes the issue of human dignity arises in the context of private disputes involving common law or statutory rules. Therefore, it is important to stress that the concept of dignity in the United States should not be bound to the constitutional text. Because dignity rights eschew easy definitional formulations, this myopic focus in arguments made by advocates as well as critics of the role of dignity on the Constitution as the sole possible framework for dignity rights is unproductive. Any useful proposal for the application of dignity rights within the ambit of domestic law must certainly encompass all law, and not just that which stems from the Constitution. Nevertheless, prudence in the use of the term dignity should be counseled, given its extremely broad possible connotations, which, if left unharnessed, would inevitably lead to confusion, unpredictability, and weak reasoning. As noted by Christopher McCrudden in his seminal article on the role of dignity in human 24. See, e.g., James Q. Whitman, Human Dignity in Europe and the United States: The Social Foundations, in European and US Constitutionalism 95 (Georg Nolte ed., 2005) (elaborating on the basic weakness of dignity as a human right). 25. For further discussion of constitutional interpretation issues, see infra section II.B James Q. Whitman, The Two Western Cultures of Privacy: Dignity Versus Liberty, 113 Yale L.J. 1151, 1221 (2004). 27. See Peter Schneider, Die Menschenrechte in staalicher Ordnung, in Philosophie der Menschenrechte und der Grundrechte des Staatsbürgers 77, 83 (1964). 28. Richard A. Posner, The Problems of Jurisprudence 123 (1990).
7 2011] The Right to Dignity 71 rights law, there are several conceptions of dignity that one can choose from, but one cannot coherently hold all of these conceptions at the same time. 29 It follows that the concept of dignity within a legal framework acquits itself of no immediate... definitional parameters, which creates incentives for jurists to act instrumentally when bringing dignity into the framework of a legal decision, in order to advance their personal value judgments. 30 It is this perceived incoherence, as well as the fear that judges will have unchecked discretion under the dignity umbrella, that animates the critics argument. For this reason, this Article presents possible theories that would provide a unified network under which the concept of the right to dignity could flourish in the United States. In that light, Part II of this Article takes a brief look at what has been written about the concept of human dignity in conjunction with domestic and international references to the right to dignity. It also examines how this concept is used within the context of international law. This part demonstrates that the notion of human dignity does indeed form the basis of several legal doctrines, both domestically and around the world. However, the treatment of those rights that are traceable to human dignity is very uneven, and the different contexts in which this occurs leads to the conclusion that (with very few notable exceptions) no unified, coherent jurisprudence has been developed around this core concept. Part III then explores what the usage of dignity rights might signify within the confines of a contemporary American legal framework. It posits that at least four different options exist for what the right to dignity could mean in the United States, given the way in which courts throughout the country have thus far framed the contours of the right. Those four theories are as follows: (1) the positive rights approach, where dignity becomes an actionable substantive legal right; (2) the negative rights approach, where dignity functions as a background norm; (3) the proxy approach, where dignity is used as a heuristic for other enumerated rights; (4) and the expressive approach, where dignity is referred to dialogically. The Article concludes by noting that coalescence behind any one of these four possibilities is imperative, 29. Christopher McCrudden, Human Dignity and Judicial Interpretation of Human Rights, 19 Eur. J. Int l L. 655, 723 (2008). 30. Castiglione, supra note 2, at 697.
8 72 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 lest the use of dignity rights fall prey to the criticism that dignity can mean many things at best, and at worst means nothing. 31 II. USES OF DIGNITY It has been said that [d]ignity does not exist in the world, nor does it describe the world. 32 Nevertheless, human dignity is perhaps the premier value underlying the last two centuries of moral and political thought. 33 Indeed, dignity has carried an enormous amount of content, but different content for different people, so that it has been subjected to the vagaries of time and opinion. 34 As a starting point, dignity has been considered to be an elemental part of human personhood that defines man s essence as a unique and self determining being. 35 This means that, at a minimum, dignity means 31. Such accusation might take the form of characterizing dignity as an empty... vessel into which any variety of normative ingredients can be placed. Fyfe, supra note 4, at Id. at Hugo Adam Bedau, The Eighth Amendment, Human Dignity, and the Death Penalty, in The Constitution of Rights: Human Dignity and American Values 145, 145 (Michael J. Meyer & William A. Parent eds., Cornell Univ. Press 1992); see also Lorraine E. Weinrib, Human Dignity as a Rights Protecting Principle, 17 Nat l J. Const. L. 325, , 330 (2005) (describing dignity as being a central concept of human rights in the latter part of the twentieth century and noting that the concept of human dignity reconfigured the relationship between the individual and the state. ); Carl Friedrich, The Political Theory of the New Democratic Constitutions, 12 Rev. of Pol. 215, 217 (1950) (noting that the stress laid upon the dignity of man was of central importance to the post WWII constitutions). 34. McCrudden, supra note 29, at 678, 698 (also noting that human dignity is culturally relative, deeply contingent on local politics and values, resulting in significantly diverging, even conflicting, conceptions ). 35. Bloustein, supra note 6, at 971. This notion has been expressed by other scholars in slightly different ways. See, e.g., Yehoshua Arieli, On the Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Emergence of the Doctrine of Dignity of Man and His Rights, in D. Kretzmer & E. Klein, The Conept of Human Dignity in Human Rights Discourse 1, 12 (2002) (indicating that dignity is a central claim of modern man s autonomy and involves man s capacity to be lord of his fate and the shaper of his future. ); Charles Taylor, The Politics of Recognition, in Multiculturalism and The Politics of Recognition 25, 25 (Amy Gutmann ed., Princeton Univ. Press 1992) (expressing the notion that dignity inures in every human being as a result of self awareness); Margalit, supra note 12, at (claiming dignity as the ability of humans to make decisions about their own lives); Alan Gewirth, Human Dignity as the Basis of Rights, in The Constitution of Rights: Human Dignity and American Values 10, (Michael J. Meyer & William A. Parent eds., Cornell Univ. Press 1992) (grounding in dignity that worth, value, esteem, and deference are owed to all humans).
9 2011] The Right to Dignity 73 the [r]espect for the intrinsic worth of every person, which entails that individuals are not to be perceived or treated merely as... objects of the will of others. 36 Notwithstanding these characterizations of the meaning of human dignity, there is no accord as to what the import of these definitions might be, that is, what the content of dignity might involve. In fact, because there has been no systematic re elaboration on the concept of human dignity which has been able to command... at least widespread acceptance, this concept has been used to express underlying philosophical beliefs of quite different kinds for the purpose of reinforcing them with its powerful appeal. 37 These different philosophies constitute contrasting material, upon which it is very difficult to base a coherent legal theory that pertains to incorporating human dignity into legal doctrines and rules. Thus, agreement on this notion is a desirable goal, so that this concept can be referenced with substance and precision. A. The Idea of Dignity The notion that the concept of human dignity has a role to play in the formulation and interpretation of legal rules is receiving renewed attention. Several works have focused on the primacy of human dignity within legal discourse, and books and compilations of essays have been published on this topic. Thus, for example, Myres McDougal focused on human dignity as a basis for ordering human rights around the world under the aegis of international law. 38 Michael Meyer and W.A. Parent edited a compilation of essays, written by scholars including Martha Minow, Owen Fiss, and Louis Henkin, that devoted its attention to the place of dignity within the constitutional structuring of fundamental rights. 39 Additionally, David Luban has constructed a theoretical approach to legal ethics 36. Schachter, supra note 14, at 849; see also C. Edwin Baker, The Scope of the First Amendment Freedom of Speech, 25 UCLA L. Rev. 964, 992 (1978) (noting that dignity also entails that people s... definition... of themselves, must be respected, so that people are not treated as instrumentalities). 37. Giovanni Bognetti, The Concept of Human Dignity in European and US Constitutionalism, in European and US Constitutionalism 75, 90 (Georg Nolte ed., 2005). 38. See Myres S. McDougal et al., Human Rights and World Public Order (1980). 39. See The Constitution of Rights, Human Dignity and American Values (Michael J. Meyer & William A. Parent eds., Cornell Univ. Press 1992).
10 74 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 that focuses on human dignity. 40 Conferences and symposia have also been organized to discuss the merits and demerits of Law and Human Dignity, such as that presented by the Federalist Society in 2003 and reported in the Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy in the same year. 41 However, the idea that the law must accommodate human dignity is by no means novel. On the contrary, theories of human dignity have their origins in antiquity. Cicero believed that all human beings were endowed with dignitas, and that therefore all mankind is worthy of respect for the sole fact of its existence. 42 According to Cicero, this attribute was universal because human beings possessed superior minds, which gave them the capacity to think and be self aware. 43 However, Cicero s articulation of dignitas as an inherent quality was the minority view; the more common view was that dignitas was an acquired trait, an indication of high social or political status. 44 Hence, Roman dignity was a manifestation of personal authority which symbolized majesty, greatness... decorum, and moral qualities. 45 It was a characteristic typically ascribed to those in high office. 46 Apart from the theories of Cicero, dignity did not move from a feature of the privileged to an aspect intrinsic to everyone until the Renaissance. It was then that the notion of human dignity was characterized as being derived from a transcendent source, which originally was to be found in God. 47 Philosophers such as Giovanni Pico della Mirandola de coupled human dignity from social hierarchy and deemed that it was mankind s free will, a gift from God to all 40. See David Luban, Legal Ethics and Human Dignity 66 (2007) (arguing that upholding human dignity is what makes the practice of law worthwhile ). 41. See 27 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol y (2003) (featuring articles discussing dignity and its relationship to laws surrounding issues including technology, punishment, religion, social welfare, diversity and abortion). 42. Cicero, De Officiis I 30 (William McCartney ed., Edinburgh 1798) (1481). 43. Id. 44. See Englard, supra note 22, at 1904 ( In Rome, the original meaning of dignity (dignitas) referred to an acquired social and political status.... ) (italics in original). 45. Id. 46. See Hubert Cancik, Dignity of Man and Personal in Stoic Anthropology: Some Remarks on Cicero, De Officiis I , in D. Kretzmer & E. Klein, The Concept of Human Dignity in Human Rights Discourse 19, 19 (2002). Interestingly, this elitist definition of dignity was that used by the writers of The Federalist Papers. See infra note 66 and accompanying text. 47. See Mahlmann, supra note 12, at 18.
11 2011] The Right to Dignity 75 without regard to rank, that was the root of the inherent dignity of individual humans. 48 Thomas Aquinas went further, asserting that the intrinsic dignity of humans is related to the fact that humans, being made in the image of God, reflect the values of the divine. 49 This impetus from theological thought did not confine these ideas to religion. Hugo Grotius, in contemplating the appropriate disposal of human remains on a battlefield, counseled that they should not be left for beasts to prey upon because the dignity of man demands burial. 50 Even to this day, [w]orld religions are important sources for the conception of human dignity. 51 The Second Vatican Council stated that human dignity, defined as being endowed with reason and free will, created the inherently human need to seek the truth and abide by it. Most importantly, conforming to the truth (which Vatican II understood as being primarily religious) flowed from a place of free religious choice, and could not be achieved from external coercion. 52 In this way, Vatican II translated a possibly nebulous religious postulate into a firm legal exhortation: that individuals be free from government infringement upon the freedom of religion on account of their inherent human dignity. Pope Benedict XVI has emphasized how this concept is to be translated into legal rules. He has expressed his skepticism that the modern state can fulfill the aspirations of persons, communities and entire peoples, and therefore noted that it is not well equipped to create a social order respectful of the dignity and rights of the person. 53 He further stated that the dignity of man is the locus of human rights, and these rights 48. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, De hominis dignitate, Heptaplus, De ente et uno, e scritti vari [On the Dignity of Man, On being the One, Heptaplus] (E. Garin ed., 1942), reprinted in Library of Liberal Arts 5 (Charles Glenn Wallis trans., The Bobbs Merrill Company, Inc., 1965); see also Vatican Council (2D: ), Declaration on Religious Freedom, reprinted in The Sixteen Documents of Vatican II 398 (Daughers of St. Paul, N.C.W.C. trans., St. Paul Eds., 1965) (pronouncing that human dignity follows from reason and free will ). 49. Thomas G. Weinandy, Aquinas on Doctrine 233 (2004) ( Aquinas maintains the God given dignity of individual persons.... ); see also Catechism of the Catholic Church 424 (2d ed. 1997) ( The dignity of the human person is rooted in his creation in the image and likeness of God.... ). 50. Hugo Grotius, De Jure Belli 250 (trans. A.C. Campbell, London 1814) (1625). 51. Mahlmann, supra note 12, at 14 (stating that central to the idea of human dignity are religious creation accounts wherein human beings are created in the likeness of God). 52. Vatican Council, supra note 48, at Benedict XVI, supra note 17, 10.
12 76 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 owe their source to a higher dimension based on the natural law inscribed on human hearts to which the law must yield. 54 This notion is similarly reflected in the Catholic Catechism, which teaches that man was created in God s image, and this is the fundamental reason for his dignity. 55 That the recognition of human dignity was, in part, driven by religious institutions does not mean that the concept of human dignity must, perforce, have religious dimensions. However, it is worth noting, from a historical perspective, that the notion that everyone is granted dignity, without regard to socioeconomic status, seems to have its origins in theological precepts. 56 Immanuel Kant, regarded as the father of the modern concept of dignity, 57 secularized this concept and presented it front and center as a normative legal ideal. He posited that individuals ought never to be treated instrumentally by the state because man regarded as a person... possesses... a dignity (an absolute inner worth) by which he exacts respect for himself from all other rational beings in the world. 58 In other words, humanity is an end in itself and bears no price. 59 This dignity is grounded in a concept of autonomy that holds at its core a valued moral center that is equal for everyone (men and women). 60 Thus, autonomy and the consequent dignity that it entails are primarily derived from sentience, or the ability of humans to form a reasoned thought. What Kant means is that human dignity does not have any equivalence and thus cannot be traded, substituted, or replaced. The legal application of Kantian thought is to use, as a baseline, the notion that individuals should always be protected from any instrumentalization by the state. While Kant was certainly fundamental to the shaping of European legal precepts and modern international law, it is arguable 54. Id Catechism of the Catholic Church, Part One: The Profession of Faith, Section 2: The Creeds, Ch. 1, Art. 1, , available at (internal citation omitted). 56. Cf. Michael J. Perry, Is the Idea of Human Rights Ineliminably Religious?, in Legal Rights: Historical Philosophical Perspectives 205, 209 (Thomas Kearns & Austin Sara eds., 1996). 57. See Bognetti, supra note 37, at 75, Gewirth, supra note 35, at Immanuel Kant, Grundlegung Zur Metaphysik der Sitten 434 (Akademie Ausgabe Bd. IV, 1911) (1785). 60. See id. at 435; see also Christina E. Wells, Reinvigorating Autonomy: Freedom and Responsibility in the Supreme Court s First Amendment Jurisprudence, 32 Harv. C.R. C.L. L. Rev. 159, 165 n.30 (1997) (describing Kantian notions of dignity and autonomy).
13 2011] The Right to Dignity 77 that his influence on the United States was less potent. Nevertheless, a notion of the dignity of humans and how it should impact the interaction of individuals and the state did occupy the thoughts of prominent thinkers at the dawn of the new republic. For example, Thomas Paine eloquently invoked the natural dignity of man as the reason to protect individual rights that transcend authoritative rule. 61 Paine s conception of dignity marked a distinct break from the British rule where dignity had more of an ancient Roman connotation and was reserved for the nobility or aristocracy. Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton shared Paine s views. 62 The idea of dignity does appear in The Federalist Papers, and seems initially to have a central position: the very first paper authored not coincidentally, by Hamilton urges the adoption of the new Constitution in order to ensure the liberty, dignity, and happiness of the citizenry. 63 Of course, two of these three values survive into the Preamble of the Constitution; dignity is left out. Following this Kantian usage of the term, the concept of dignity in The Federalist Papers then morphs into the ancient Roman connotation. 64 Although referred to slightly more than a dozen times, after the initial reference, the authors of The Federalist Papers then use the term to denote the status of an office holder or his inherent authority, implying that dignity is not an inherent attribute, but one that is acquired. 65 For example, the authors argue that there can be only one chief executive because if more than one was clothed with equal dignity and authority, it would lead to institutional 61. Thomas Paine, Rights of Man 41 (Gregory Claeys ed., Hackett Pubs. 1992) (1791). Thomas Paine s statement echoed that of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen that was put forward during the French Revolution. See Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen art. 6 (1789) (stating that [l]aw is the expression of the general will and that all citizens [are] equal. ). 62. See, e.g., Gregory Claeys, Introduction, in Thomas Paine, Rights of Man xvii (Gregory Claeys ed., Hackett Pubs. 1992) (1791) (noting Jefferson s general positive reception to Paine s views in The Rights of Man). Of course their purported belief did not quite translate into a governmental structure that followed through on this idea. Others, close to the time, have noted this incongruity. See, e.g., Simón Bolívar, Message to the Congress of Bolivia (May 25, 1826), in His Basic Thoughts (Manuel Pérez Villa ed., 1981) (calling slavery a shameless violation of human dignity. ). 63. The Federalist No. 1, at 4 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1999). 64. See Englard, supra note 22, at 1904; Cancik, supra note 46, at Of course, contrary to ancient Rome, the dignity of the office can be generally achieved through achievement rather than through birthright.
14 78 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 breakdown; they also advocate for life terms for the federal judiciary, so that the courts would not fall into hands less able and less well qualified to conduct [the role of judging] with utility and dignity. 66 Moreover, The Federalist Papers construe dignity as a facet of nationhood. The authors suggest that the ineffectiveness of the old system of government was in part due to the unlikelihood that state legislatures would respect the dignity of the Confederation. 67 Furthermore, they also advise that United States representatives bear in mind the dignity of their country in the eyes of other nations. 68 Thus, somewhere along the way, dignity as an inherent quality of individuals was lost to a view of dignity as an attribute acquired as a result of holding an official position. Regardless, it is significant that the turbulent times immediately preceding and following the American Revolution precipitated a process where human dignity played a visible role. The founding of the United States was not the only event that caused many of its participants to think about the role of human dignity in the shaping of a future society the aftermath of World War II also provoked such considerations. Hannah Arendt claimed that the horrors witnessed in the war called for giving human dignity a new guarantee... found only in a new political principle, in a new law on earth that would take into account the whole of humanity The Federalist No. 70, at 394 (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1999); The Federalist No. 78, at (Alexander Hamilton) (Clinton Rossiter, ed., 1999). 67. See The Federalist No. 46, at 264 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1999). The Supreme Court has recently cited dignity as an aspect of federalism. See Bond v. United States, 131 S.Ct. 2355, 2364 (2011) ( The allocation of powers in our federal system preserves the integrity, dignity, and residual sovereignty of the States. The federal balance is, in part, an end in itself, to ensure that States function as political entities in their own right. ). 68. The Federalist No. 58, at 327 (James Madison) (Clinton Rossiter ed., 1999). This notion of institutional dignity in the form of state sovereignty has formed the cornerstone of a theory of sovereignty based on dignity. See Judith Resnik & Julie Chi hye Suk, Adding Insult to Injury: Questioning the Role of Dignity in Conceptions of Sovereignty, 55 Stan. L. Rev. 1921, 1927, 1962 (2003) (positing that dignity is not solely an individual right, and that it has a role, albeit narrow, in state federal relations, and noting that the role dignity claims of institutions (similar to those alluded to in The Federalist Papers), have become more limited because of the rise of the notion of individual dignity). 69. Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism ix (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 1994) (1951). Others have taken up this refrain. See, e.g., Michael S. Pritchard, Human Dignity and Justice, 82 Ethics 299, (1972) ( [T]hose who try to formulate substantive principles of justice should reserve a prominent
15 2011] The Right to Dignity 79 Jacques Maritain, the modern Aquinas, adopted Arendt s exhortation, and thus relied heavily upon the concept of human dignity in his philosophy and political thinking, placing the concept front and center in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), of which he was a primary drafter. 70 Thus, the protection of the human dignity of all individuals was elevated above all other considerations as a focal point for remedying the colossal failures of all previous structures, which had been derelict in protecting this basic characteristic of human beings during World War II. Social, political, and legal developments subsequent to the initial response to World War II have caused scholars and academics to delve deeper into the analysis of the appropriate role for human dignity within a legal framework. Oscar Schachter explains that respect for dignity could be given additional substance by reference to its psychological significance. 71 The effect of this definition, according to Schachter, is rather broad: high priority should be accorded to individual choices and beliefs, and any infringement of these in a way that demeans, degrades, or humiliates the individual or a group or community to which that individual is affiliated should be prohibited. 72 Schachter s contours for the legal role of dignity rights are arguably Kantian, as he notes that dignity includes recognition of a distinct personal identity, reflecting individual autonomy and responsibility. 73 Notwithstanding his urgings, Schachter acknowledges that the far reaching implications of his theory had not yet been given substantial specific content, and thus he offered a list of twelve modes of conduct that he considered to be both denigrating to the dignity of individuals and incompatible with the basic ideas of the inherent dignity and worth of human persons. 74 place for human dignity. If this is not done, the distinctively moral aspects of justice will be absent; and the claims of justice will be at best legalistic and at worst arbitrary. ). 70. See, e.g., Jacques Maritain, Man and the State 64, , 143 (1951) ( The first axiom and precept in democracy is to trust the people... while putting yourself at the service of their human dignity.); Universal Declaration of Human Rights, G.A. Res. 217A, at 71, U.N. GAOR, 3d Sess., U.N. Doc. A/810 (Dec. 12, 1948) [hereinafter UDHR] ( All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. ). 71. Schachter, supra note 14, at Id. at ( The use of coercion, physical or psychological, to change personal beliefs is as striking an affront to the dignity of the person as physical abuse or mental torture. ). 73. Id. at Id. at
16 80 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 The import of this list is that all violations, whether by an official act or statement by the government, or by private actors, should be included within the legal architecture that protects dignity rights. 75 Though Schachter argues for explicit legal protection of dignity rights from a practical standpoint, he also acknowledges that the idea of dignity reflects sociohistorical conceptions of basic rights and freedoms, not that it generated them. 76 This is an important summation, because even though Schachter gives credit to the Aquinian notion that rights, such as dignity, are not derived from the state or any other external authority, 77 he grounds the notion of the right to dignity in historical fact, thus attempting to marry dignity rights with a more positive notion of the source of rights. This reframing of dignity rights as something more than mere natural rights is a common refrain among those who call for a role for human dignity in law. Thus, advocates for the promotion of a general right to dignity navigate between the attractive, but frowned upon, notion that this right is derived from a natural source and the less attractive, but more accepted, idea that the right to dignity is rooted in positive law. Therefore, contemporary scholars have stated that human dignity encompasses both the empowerment of the individual s autonomy as well as the constraint of the state to impinge on that autonomy. 78 In that vein, they argue that human dignity is not an abstract concept, 79 but a right with a substantive body of law already devoted to it. They similarly attach the right to dignity to other rights that might appear to have a more substantive 75. See id. at 852 (including conduct from demeaning the status, beliefs, or origins of people, to denying them educational opportunities as negatively impacting the dignity of individuals). 76. Id. at Id. 78. See D. Byleveld & R. Brownsword, Human Dignity in Bioethics and Biolaw 1 (2001) (introducing two opposing conceptions of human dignity, one based on empowerment which treats human rights as founded on the intrinsic dignity of humans, and the other based on constraint, which takes a duty driven approach to human rights). Some have challenged the general orthodoxy that dignity is a one way ratchet that trends solely towards autonomy. Eichner, supra note 23, at 1617 ( A more appropriate theory [of defining dignity] would conceptualize citizens as existing somewhere on a spectrum between complete autonomy and complete dependence, with their exact position changing over the course of their lives and depending on their individual situation. ). 79. Paolo G. Carozza, Human Dignity and Judicial Interpretation of Human Rights: A Reply, 19 Eur. J. Int l L. 931, 931 (2008).
17 2011] The Right to Dignity 81 root, such as the right to work, which, perforce, encompasses the dignity of work. 80 Contemporary commentators have been active in promoting dignity rights in the international human rights discourse, even though, as elsewhere, the conversation seems to suffer from a lack of agreement on a common point of reference. For example, Christopher McCrudden argues, there is no common substantive conception of dignity, although there appears to be an acceptance of the concept of dignity. 81 He goes on to state that, beyond a certain minimal collective understanding of what constitutes the right to dignity, opinions on the matter diverge to the point where they do not provide a universally principled basis for judicial decision making. 82 He notes that the recognition of dignity has become context specific, varying from issue to issue, and from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, resulting in widely divergent opinions. 83 Nevertheless, McCrudden does not advocate abrogating dignity from the human rights discourse, but rather, he sees its value as a concept that can channel particular methods of human rights adjudication. 84 It is not clear what concept of dignity has percolated within the American legal collective psyche, both as recounted by commentators and as utilized in judicial opinions and legislative hearings. In the United States, dignity seems to be more about self confidence, where to treat everybody with dignity means to help them and to respect them but not to undermine their self confidence. 85 Nevertheless, several commentators have offered thoughts as to the interaction of the idea of human dignity with various aspects of the Constitution and other sources of American law. Some, for example, see dignity as the fundamental value of the Constitution, and thus imply that its meaning should be infused within the interpretation of all relevant provisions. 86 For example, it 80. See Amy L. Wax, Social Welfare, Human Dignity, and the Puzzle of What We Owe Each Other, 27 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol y 121, 135 (2003). 81. McCrudden, supra note 29, at Id. at Id. at See generally McCrudden, supra note W. Cole Durham, Eine Grundsätzliche Bewertung Aus Amerikanischer Sicht, in Deutschland und sein Grundgesetz 63 (1993). 86. Murphy, supra note 23, at 758; see also Goodman, supra note 23, at (noting that the Supreme Court has repeatedly recognized human dignity as giving meaning to constitutional rights, and advocating for the consistent recognition of the value in the application of existing constitutional standards).
18 82 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 has been stated that the values of equality and dignity animate the moral foundation of the Constitution. 87 Others, however, counsel either against its use in its entirety, or advocate for a more circumspect attitude because of the consequences that the successful assertion of dignity rights might have upon other valuable rights. For example, commentators have warned that the legal recognition of dignity rights might complicate our understanding of free speech rights. 88 In this vein, the contours of the right to dignity are deemed not to add anything to the free speech discourse. Indeed, [s]peaking about dignity... appears not to take us very far in thinking about the protection of freedom of speech. 89 Within the context of free speech, it is the dignity of the speaker, regardless of the objectionable content of her speech, that gets suppressed if proscriptions are made on such speech on the grounds of protecting the dignity of the target of that speech. 90 Moreover, the dignity of the listener is also diminished by a condescending notion that the state knows better than the individual what she should and should not be able to hear. 91 Thus, the role of the right to dignity within the context of free speech has serious consequences. 87. See Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously (1977); see also Ronald Dworkin, The Coming Battles over Free Speech, N.Y. Rev. Books, June 11, 1992, at 56 [hereinafter The Coming Battles] (discussing, as one justification for free speech, the idea that speech is valuable because it is essential in a just political society, for government to treat its adult members as responsible moral agents. ). 88. See Carmi, supra note 20, at 958 (challenging the use of human dignity as an independent justification for free speech, and arguing that the nexus between free speech and human dignity should be construed as inherently contentious. ); see also Frederick Schauer, Speaking of Dignity, in The Constitution of Rights, Human Dignity and American Values 178, 179 (Meyer & Parent eds., 1992) (arguing that the right to freedom of speech should not be thought of as the instantiation of a more general right to dignity, that freedom of speech is different from most individual rights, and that as a result the values will often collide. ). 89. Schauer, supra note 88, at 179, See Kent Greenawalt, Free Speech Justifications, 89 Colum. L. Rev. 119, 153 (1989) (discussing dignity as a justification for free speech based on the idea that suppression is a kind of contempt for citizens that is objectionable independent of its consequences. ). 91. The Coming Battles, supra note 87, at 57; see also Schauer, supra note 88, at 179 (noting that the conflation of dignity and speech... is mistaken, for although speaking is sometimes a manifestation of the dignity of the speaker, speech is also often the instrument through... which the dignity of others is deprived. ).
19 2011] The Right to Dignity 83 On the other end of the spectrum, commentators have also urged for a role for the protection of human dignity as a way of shoring up the protections already enshrined within the Constitution, or else as a way of better framing certain common law or statutory rights. Thus, in the area of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, advocates counsel that courts should examine whether the accused governmental action is offensive to the targeted individual s inherent dignity. 92 Under this reading, the right to dignity guards against degradation or humiliation by the state from a psychological, rather than physical, standpoint. Likewise, both the procedural and substantive due process clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment have been identified as capturing a dignity interest. 93 Outside the constitutional realm, some have noted the relevance of dignity within the context of torts such as the misappropriation of the right to publicity and intentional infliction of emotional distress. 94 For others, the idea of dignity, as the fundamental commitment of the modern democratic state, supports the position that the state has affirmative obligations to provide certain services to its citizens, such as supporting the family care needs of individuals. 95 What should be of great interest to civil libertarians who tend to oppose the use of the right to dignity is that the inherent worth of the human person may be all that one has left, the only thing untouchable by power. 96 It thus might act as the final bulwark against an ever intruding state. Critics attack the assertion of a transcendent truth about the meaning of dignity by positing that [t]he subjectivity of human dignity as a policy standard is compounded by the variability between 92. See generally Castiglione, supra note 2, at 655 (explaining that the current benchmark of Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, being to guard against privacy violations, is insufficient to protect citizens from violations of their dignity because privacy and dignity encompass different interests, the latter of which goes much deeper than the former); see also Lawrence E. Rothstein, Privacy or Dignity?: Electronic Monitoring in the Workplace, 19 N.Y.L. Sch. J. Int l & Comp. L. 379, 383 (2000) ( The concept of human dignity is a social one that promotes a humane and civilized life. The protection of human dignity allows a broader scope of action [than privacy does] against treating people in intrusive ways. ). 93. See Wright, supra note 9, at See generally Roberta Rosenthal Kwall, A Perspective on Human Dignity, The First Amendment, and the Right of Publicity, 50 B.C. L. Rev (2009) (arguing that the existence of dignity harms should impact the analysis in cases involving the misappropriation of the right of publicity); Réaume, supra note 2 (proposing that dignity, as a legally protected interest, be the basis for expanding tort law in Canada to include emotional distress claims). 95. See Eichner, supra note Carozza, supra note 79, at 938.
20 84 COLUMBIA HUMAN RIGHTS LAW REVIEW [43:65 first and third party assessments of dignity, and therefore it is not an effective policy tool. 97 In other words, dignity is characterized as merely a pretty concept that varies according to the eye of the beholder. A further accusation under this framework is that the third party assessment of dignity is privileged over the first party one, as external values are imposed onto the individual, even though that individual might not accord with the state s particular interpretation of dignity. 98 However, these critics make overblown claims that the adoption of dignity as a policy standard to be protected and enforced through law would certainly require designating the following as threats to human dignity: microwave popcorn and Twinkies, on the ground that they lead to obesity, as well as pagers and cell phones, on the ground that they isolate human beings and force them into working all the time. 99 The problem with these assertions is that no notion of dignity is needed to restrict or prohibit the aforementioned threats. In other words, whether society decides to adopt food standards to guard against an obese population is dignity neutral. Therefore, these attacks offer nothing on either side of the argument, as they primarily assert that dignity rights will impact issues that have nothing to do with the concept. When boiled down to its essence, modern scholarship is deeply divided as to the propriety and practicality of integrating the protection of human dignity within a functioning legal system. On one side, there are those who believe the task to be hopeless because [a]ssessments of human dignity are quite subjective, with considerable variation temporally, chronologically, geographically, and culturally. 100 On the other side are those who posit that [t]he idea of human beings as ends in themselves forms the foundation for the unfolding of human dignity as a workable legal concept. 101 The reality is that the truth probably lies closer to the latter statement, as other nations have been perfectly able to subsume the protection of dignity rights within their systems without triggering the parade of horrors identified in the paragraph above. 97. Hyman, supra note 1, at 8, Id. at 10. Hyman also looks to behavioral economics, finding two additional reasons to be skeptical about the importation of dignity standards into legal doctrines. See id. at See id. at Id. at Mahlmann, supra note 12, at 30.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Preamble Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice
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