WHAT IS THE BIG BANG THEORY

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1 MY SPACE BOOKLET

2 WHAT IS THE BIG BANG THEORY - A theory to explain the beginning of the universe - Everything started from a single point known as a singularity. - Matter in the universe began to clump forming galaxies - 14 billions years ago DESCRIBE THE GEOCENTRIC MODEL AND INCLUDE THE SCIENTISTS WHO DISCOVERED IT -Earth is the center of the universe -Ptolemy discovered it; Aristotle did further research - Ancient Greece believed it HELIOCENTRIC: Copernicus believed that the Sun was the center of the Solar System. Science believe this view point today. The sun in the center of the solar system but not the universe IN THE BEGINNING

3 Define Umbra: Dark part of the shadow during an eclipse Define Penumbra: Light part of the shadow during an eclipse Solar Eclipses: Occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and Sun Sun is blocked by the moon Draw a picture of a Solar Eclipse: Solar Eclipses only happen during the NEW MOON Define Lunar Eclipse: When the Earth blocks sunlight from directly shinning on the moon The moon passes through the Earth s shadow

4 Spring Tides: When the moon is at its full or new phases, the Earth has higher high dies and lower low tides than at other times. This happens two times a month Neap Tides Include how often they occur: During the first and last quarter These tides are not very high and not very low Neap Tide occurs twice a month

5 Waxing: when the lit part of the moon is growing bigger Waning: when the lit part of the moon is getting smaller Gibbous: when more than half of the moon is lit Crescent: when less than half of the moon is lit Quarter: when half of the moon is lit

6 3 FACTS ABOUT MERCURY This planet s year is only 88 Earth Days long -Planet is closest to the sun -very cold at night - very hot during the day -Rocky - no moons - most craters 3 FACTS ABOUT VENUS -This planet spins with retrograde motion -no moons -very hot - poisonous clouds - Bright in the sky - considered Earth s twin 3 FACTS ABOUT URANUS -gas giant - frozen gas with rocky core - 27 moons -faint ring system -very cold - orbits on its side 3 FACTS ABOUT NEPTUNE -This planet is known for the Great Dark Spot -gas giant - last planet - 14 moons - Faint ring system - very cold INNER PLANETS

7 3 FACTS ABOUT JUPITER - Largest planet in the solar - gas giant - great red spot - 67 moons - rotates faster than Earth 3 FACTS ABOUT SATURN -known for spectacular ring system - gas giant - 62 moons - low enough density to float in water 3 FACTS ABOUT URANUS -gas giant - frozen gas with rocky core - 27 moons -faint ring system -very cold - orbits on its side 3 FACTS ABOUT NEPTUNE -This planet is known for the Great Dark Spot -gas giant - last planet - 14 moons - Faint ring system - very cold OUTER PLANETS

8 Is Pluto a planet? Explain No. It s too small, mostly made ice. Crosses into Neptune s orbit Define Solar System: A system of planets or other bodies orbiting a star. Meteoroid: Rock in space Meteor: Rock burning up in the atmosphere Meteorite: Rock from space that impacts Earth Comets: Dirty snowballs in space Comets are masses of rocks and dust with centers measuring less than 10 miles in diameter cemented together by frozen gasses. Comets move in a cigar shaped orbit. What is a coma? Haze of gas and dust. Surrounds the nucleus (main body of the comet) Asteroids: Minor Planets or Planetoids Orbit between Mars and Jupiter is a belt of rocks and rubble. There are millions of asteroids orbiting the sun. SOLAR SYSTEM

9 Describe Spiral Galaxies: disks - thick center and flat arms -middle aged stars - nucleus made of black hole Our galaxy is a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way Describe Elliptical galaxies: -most common type - Contains the oldest stars - rounded - round to flattened sphere in shape old stars Describe Irregular Galaxies: least common type - no defined shape - lots of gas and dust - young stars Illustration of each type of galaxy: Caption/Explanation of Illustration: 3 types of galaxies GALAXY SHAPES

10 Definition of orbit: The perfect balance between the forward motion of a body in space and the pull of gravity on it from another body in space Gravity: The force of attraction between 2 bodies that have mass. It makes the stars and planets. Einstein (scientist) said gravity is what happens when space itself curves around a star or planet. As mass increases gravity increases. Inertia: Sir Isaac Newton s Law of Motion states that an object in motion will stay in motion or an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an outside force Describe the difference between rotation and revolution: Rotation: spinning on an axis Revolution: moving around another object

11 QUICK REVIEW Gravity is the force of attraction between two bodies that have mass Gravity pulls equally in every direction. What space object is often referred to as a dirty snow-ball? comet The Asteroid Belt is located between what two planets? Mars and Jupiter To see a TOTAL eclipse, what part of the shadow must you be in? umbra A lunar eclipse occurs when sunlight is blocked from reaching the moon. Lunar eclipses only occur during what moon phase? Full Moon What view of the universe puts the Sun at the center of the Solar System? Heliocentric The Big Bang Theory is the scientific explanation for the creation of everything in the universe The Moon s orbit around Earth is because of the balance between forward motion and gravity

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