1 ORA ET LABORA: THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER Alba Serino Brown University, University of L Aquila The words Ora et Labora, pray and work, were the basic principles of the Rule of Saint Benedict, adopted in 1098 by Robert of Molesme in the foundation of a new monastic order, later known as the Cistercians. From the first five mother abbeys in the French region of Burgundy, the Cistercian monks founded new monasteries across Europe and gradually created a large monastic network that continued to expand up until the 15th century. Labor was an important aspect in this Order. By recovering the Rule of Saint Benedict, Robert's mission was to reestablish what he took to be the forgotten spiritual values of sacrifice and simplicity. This was possible by making the monks provide for their own living, through manual labor and farming activities. The life of a Cistercian monk was therefore divided between work and prayer, both essential for the fulfillment of his spiritual life. The labor activities of the monks were also relevant to the Order in more secular ways. The building activity of the Cistercian monks and their reclamation of land contributed to the transformation of the European landscape, from swamps and forests to fields and impressive architecture. 1 1 On the Cistercian Order see Duby, G. (1982). San Bernardo e l'arte cistercense, Torino; Comba, R. (1985). I cistercensi fra citta' e campagne nei secoli XII e XIII. Una sintesi mutevole di orientamenti economici e culturali nell'italia nord-occidentale in Studi Storici, Anno 26, No. 2, Economia monastica: I cistercensi e le campagne (Apr. -Jun., 1985), pp ; Vagni, M. (1993). L'organizzazione agricola dei Cistercensi nel Medioevo: l'esperienza di Casamari in Rivista Cistercense, X-2, Casamari, pp ; Righetti Tosti-Croce, M. (1993). Architettura per il lavoro. Dal caso cistercense a un caso cistercense: Chiaravalle di Fiastra, Rome; Pressouyre, L. (1994). L'Espace Cistercien. Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques; Rapetti, A. M. (1999). La formazione di una comunità cistercense. Istituzioni e strutture organizzative di Chiaravalle della Colomba tra XII e XIII secolo. Rome; Piccinni, G. (2006). El Modelo Cisterciense en su aplicacion italiana centro-septentrional: algunas ideas desde la historiografia in Cistercium. Revista Cisterciense, n , anno LVIII. ZAMORA, 45-61; Civantos, J.M.M. (2006). Il territorio stratificato: proposte dall'archaeologia del paesaggio in IV Congresso Nazionale di Archaeologia Medievale, San Galgano Abbey (September 26-30, 2006). Florence, 3-7; Addison, K. (2006). Changing places: the Cistercian settlement and rapid climate change in England in
2 2 I have underlined two reasons for the importance of studying the process of making in the Cistercian Order, one religious and one economic. In the present paper, I will suggest that Cistercian work and architecture should be seen as complementary and should not be studied separately. The monastic order has been celebrated for its architectural marvels; I would like to extend the discussion beyond the aesthetic dimensions of the architecture into a wider context that includes the economic and religious dimension and brings the focus onto work. In his work on Saint Bernard and Cistercian art in 1976, Georges Duby argued that the spirit of Cistercian architecture lay in the cathedral. 2 Minor architecture, however, such as granges, hospitals, bridges, mills, and dovecotes can give us new information on the activities of the monks, both of an economic and religious nature. Each of these structures, many of which survive in the modern landscape, contributed to and shaped the economic and spiritual aspects of the Cistercian landscape. Marvin Trachtenberg and Tim Ingold have both emphasized the process of making in the study of architecture. In Building-in-Time, Trachtenberg applies what he defines as a relativity theory of architecture and time to pre-modern architecture. What is useful for this study is his vision of architecture as a process, rather than a finished product. 3 Ingold takes this idea a step further and sees architecture not only as a making process, but also as a process of growth. In his view, the maker is a participant Locating Medieval Landscapes. Eds by Lees, A.C. and Overing, G. L, Pennsylvania University Press, pp Duby, op.cit. p Trachtenberg, M. (2010). Building-in-Time: from Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, IX-XXV.
3 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 3 in a world of active materials. Thus, it is important for scholars to look at the makers engagement with the materials themselves while studying the process of making. 4 With the help of two different case studies, this paper will consider religious and secular aspects of labora in Cistercian culture. It will refer to two particular architectural structures: an outer court building, the so-called woolhouse of Fountains Abbey, and the Capello Bridge of the monastery of San Martino al Cimino. The Woolhouse of Fountains Abbey Fountains Abbey is located near the village of Aldfield in North Yorkshire, England. The Abbey was officially founded in 1132, by monks from the mother abbey of Clairvaux. According to Glyn Coppack s reconstruction, the whole area of the monastic complex was surrounded by a precinct wall and divided by the river Skell into two parts. The area to the south of the river, where the building identified as woolhouse was also located, was dedicated to agricultural and industrial processes. 5 Today, the structure of the twelfth century woolhouse is in ruins. 6 Glynn Coppack s excavations revealed the complex history of the building, which included at least six phases of construction. 7 Excavations also demonstrated that the original form of the structure was an aisled hall. In this first phase the structure was most likely a simple storehouse, and it continued to be used as such even after it acquired new functions. During its second building phase, about seventy years later, a 4 Ingold, T. (2013). Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture. London and New York: Routledge, Coppack, G. (1986). The Excavation of an Outer Court Building, Perhaps the Woolhouse, at Fountains Abbey, North Yorkshire in Medieval Archaeology, 30 (1986), pp ; see fig. 1 for the location of the woolhouse. 6 See fig Se fig. 3.
4 4 series of waterworks were added. 8 This led archaeologists to identify the building as the abbey s woolhouse, used for the storage and processing of the monastery's main product, wool. As a result of this identification, the structure is commonly referred to as the woolhouse. The woolhouse continued to be enlarged in its subsequent building phases and was finally transformed into a mill. Its development reflected the changes in the monastery, proving a close connection between the monastery itself and its surroundings. As the economy of Fountains Abbey developed, the woolhouse continued to evolve as well. 9 Looking now at the location of Fountains' woolhouse, one notices that the structure was part of the outer court buildings of Fountains Abbey. It was the main storage building of the monastic complex and, like the rest of the outer court buildings, constituted a direct link between the monastery and its estates outside the precinct wall. Each of Fountains' monastic barns, or granges, situated outside the precinct walls, had its own gate onto the outer court. 10 The woolhouse, together with the other outer court buildings, was therefore the main link between the monastery and the outside world. As such, the particular location of the building gave it an important role both from a spiritual and economic point of view. From the spiritual aspect, one must consider the Cistercian monks desire for isolation from the outside world. In fact, the Cistercian Order aimed to reestablish the 8 Outside of the western wall a culvert was added, together with a sluice to control the flow of water within the building. Other conduits and drain-pipes were found during the excavations on the eastern side of the woolhouse. Ibid. pp Ibid. pp Cistercian granges were structures created originally for the storage of agricultural products. These buildings were built at regular distances from the monastery and could be used as a network to manage its entire properties. With their peculiar triangular façade, granges distinguished themselves as an autonomous architectural type and could therefore constitute a sign of the Cistercian presence in the agricultural landscape. Righetti Tosti-Croce, M. (1993). Architettura per il lavoro. Dal caso cistercense a un caso cistercense: Chiaravalle di Fiastra. Rome: Viella.
5 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 5 myth of the desert, introduced by the founders of European monasticism. Their goal was to recover the concept of renunciation of the outside world and its temptations. 11 Working in the woolhouse constituted an important but also spiritually dangerous connection with the outside world. The function of the woolhouse could be seen also in connection to this spiritual problem: labor was a way to keep the monks connected to the real world and also resist its temptations; the labora, once again, was closely connected to the ora. By working in the building that linked the monastery to the world outside of the precinct walls, these two parts of the monk's life came together in the basic principle of ora et labora. Next, one must consider the role of labor in terms of the economic production of the monastery. The woolhouse at Fountains was the largest building within the outer court and the biggest storage building within the precinct. Coppack calculates the total height of the gable to have been meters. In this case, the woolhouse was much taller than the 3.5 meter high precinct wall, and could therefore be seen outside of the monastic enclosure. 12 This high visibility factor can be linked to the theories of the neomarxist anthropologist Norman Yoffee. In his study on the formation of primary estates, Yoffee suggests that the productive potential of a past community was increased not only by the creation of a surplus, but also by the institutionalization of that surplus. He uses the example of large or peculiar architecture of storage spaces to make this 11 The lack of isolation in several Cistercian monasteries across Europe, especially the communities established from the thirteenth century, has brought scholars to believe that the idea of establishing a desertum consisted in a more symbolic rather than real isolation. On the topic see Lekai, L.J. (1978). Ideals and Reality in early Cistercian Life and Legislation in Sommerfeldt, J.R., Cistercian ideals and reality, Michigan: Cistercian Publications; Pressouyre, L. (1994). L'Espace Cistercien. Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. 12 Coppack, op.cit., p. 84.
6 6 surplus evident. 13 Fountains' woolhouse can be seen as the architectural representation of a surplus of production. In this way, the goal of the Cistercian monks was to make the result of their labor visible and highlight their robust economic activity. So far, the observation of religious and economic characteristics of Fountains' woolhouse has highlighted two interesting factors considered by Cistercian monks in the making of a building: one spiritual, the defense from external temptations, and one secular, the display of economic resources. The Capello Bridge of San Martino al Cimino As previously mentioned, the Cistercian Order contributed significantly to the transformation of the medieval landscape. One of the ways that they contributed was their ability to reclaim uncultivated land. For example, it was not uncommon during the foundation of a Cistercian monastery for the monks to divert the course of a river to bring fresh water to the enclosure. Another example of the Cistercian talent in hydraulic engineering is the construction of bridges, such as the case of the Capello Bridge. The monastery of San Martino al Cimino is located at the top of the hill of the town of its namesake, a fraction of the city of Viterbo in the northern part of the Lazio region (Italy). The Cistercian history of the monastery started in 1150, when Pope Eugene III demanded to replace the existing Benedictine community at San Martino 13 Yoffee s neo-marxist theories make a second interesting point on the process of creation of political power, which can be well applied to the study of Cistercian communities: the religious elite of a past society, he explains, could own land, properties and employed dependents and ceremonial buildings could link different social units and their belief system. It is automatic to apply this category to Cistercian estates and to the distribution within their properties of ecclesiastic buildings. If one adopts the model described by Yoffee, the formation of the Cistercian identity in the medieval landscape could be definitely compared to the constitution of a political identity. Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States and Civilizations. Cambridge University Press, pp
7 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 7 with a Cistercian one coming from the monastery of Saint Sulpice in Savoia. 14 San Martino, after an initial period of struggle, gradually expanded its patrimony and reached the apex of its economic growth during the thirteenth century. It was in this period that the monks of the Cistercian community planned the construction of the Capello Bridge. Today, the bridge is in ruins and well hidden by the Cimina forest, about 2.5 kilometers from the monastery over the course of the Porchetta stream. 15 The ruins of the bridge are mentioned in early eighteenth century documents and can be identified in the 1641 map by Pietro Coretini, but unfortunately no mention has been yet found of this structure in medieval sources. 16 However, the building techniques suggest a date from the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 17 The position of the structure along a route connecting the ancient Roman road via Ciminia to the monastery of San Martino is a further hint on the date and authorship of the Capello Bridge. 18 The bridge was built by the Cistercians to connect their monastery to what had become at that time the main pilgrimage route to Rome, under the name of via Francigena. 19 The bridge ceased to be 14 Egidi, P. (1907). L Abbazia di San Martino al Cimino presso Viterbo. Roma: Officina Poligrafica Italiana, pp See fig Francocci, S., Rose, D. (1996). L Antica via Ciminia dell Etruria in Rivista di Topografia Antica, VI (1996), p. 71; Milioni, A. (2007). Carta Archeologica d Italia: Contributi. Viterbo 2, Viterbo: Universitá degli Studi della Tuscia, pp ; Serino, A. (2010). Il monastero cistercense di San Martino al Cimino. Analisi del territorio pertinente all abbazia nel Medioevo, masters thesis, Universitá degli Studi della Tuscia. 17 The segmental arch, the use of small blocks kept together by a large amount of mortar and the positioning of large blocks of stone right above the piers of the bridge were part of a common technique used for the construction of small medieval bridges in Italy. In addition, small bridges were rarely built in stone or brick along secondary routes before the thirteenth century. Patitucci Uggeri, S. (2002). La viabilitá di terra e d acqua nel Italia medievale in ed. Patitucci Uggeri, S. Quaderni di Archeologia Medievale IV. La viabilità medievale in Italia. Contributo alla carta archeologica medievale. Atti del V Seminario di Archeologia Medievale (Cassino, 2000), Firenze: All Insegna del Giglio, p.7; Stopani, R. (1992). La via Francigena. Una strada europea nell Italia del Medioevo, Firenze: Le Lettere, p Serino, op. cit., pp See fig. 5; It is necessary to specify that the so called via Francigena was a pilgrimage route connecting the north of Europe (England, France, Belgium, Germany) to Rome. It was used throughout the Middle Ages and constantly changed its path through the centuries, maintaining however its name. In the area of Viterbo, more precisely, the via Francigena had reused until the twelfth century the ancient
8 8 used after the construction of a new road from Viterbo to San Martino towards the end of the seventeenth century, which crossed the Porchetta stream at a point further southeast through the use of a new bridge. 20 Once again, it is useful to look at factors of visibility in the making of a structure. For instance, were travelers aware in some way that the bridge was built by the monks of San Martino and not by a secular institution? Could travelers see the monastery from the bridge, and in this way feel less the trials of a long journey? An answer to these questions is offered by the presence of a quarry a few meters away from the bridge. 21 This quarry, used to build the structure, can be found to the south along the same river. Large blocks were cut and transported on water to the location of the bridge, where they were then manufactured into smaller blocks. The quarry, right along the path, could be seen by travelers continuing to San Martino from Viterbo. Located on the road that led from the via Francigena to the monastery of San Martino, the most frequent users of the bridge were pilgrims. This might have been a factor considered by the monks in their construction of Capello Bridge. Literary sources describe the thickness of the Cimina forest, in which the bridge is situated. 22 Today, the forest cuts off the view of the monastery, which stands forty-five minutes walking distance from the bridge. The walls of San Martino appear at the very last part of the walk. When I performed the hike from Capello Bridge to San Martino, I noticed my sense of relief at the site of the monastic route of the via Cassia and only from the half of the thirteenth century travelers started to prefer the eastern route of the via Ciminia to the western via Cassia. I am in this case referring to the thirteenth century via Francigena, which reused the ancient Roman route of the via Ciminia. For a reconstruction of the course of the via Francigena in the territory of Viterbo see Serino, op. cit., pp Dionisi, S., Esposito, A. (2001). Paesaggio e viabilitá nel Piano dei Bagni di Viterbo tra Medioevo e prima Etá moderna in ed. Fosi, I., Recchia, A.P. (2001). Fra centro e Periferia: strade, territorio, comunitá negli Anni Santi tfra Cinquecento e Settecento, Roma: Gangemi, pp See fig Livy, in the first century BCE wrote that Silva erat Ciminia magis tum invia atque horrenda quam nuper fuere Germanici saltus, nulli ad eam diem ne mercatorum quidem adita (Ab Urbe Condita, IX, 36).
9 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 9 walls. The relief must have been also part of the pilgrim's religious journey to the monastery. In this view, the sight of the quarry next to the Capello Bridge, emphasizing the process of the making of the bridge itself, constituted a first hint of the presence of the monastery, and anticipated the pilgrim s final relief. In the process of making the Capello Bridge the monks might have considered not only the symbolic value of the bridges sight lines in helping a pilgrim in his journey of penitence; they could have also been mindful of the bridge s potential to stand as a sign of their power and control over the landscape. Marjorie Boyer, in her study on medieval French bridges, stressed that the property of a bridge often determined the property of the territory around it. 23 The presence of the quarry, in this view, would reinforce the notion of property by highlighting the physical labor used for the construction of the bridge. The user of the bridge became aware not only of who owned the land, but also of the power of the monks to transform the appearance of that land through their engineering skills. The study of the Capello Bridge, in the religious and economic dimension, has underlined how factors of visibility can influence Cistercian making. Conclusion This study on the woolhouse of Fountains Abbey and the Capello Bridge of San Martino has underlined how labor was an important aspect in the life of the Cistercian monk. In fact, labora was used not only as an instrument to recover the lost Benedictine values of simplicity and sacrifice, but also to conduct advanced agricultural and building activities that signaled the dominance of Cistercians. The product of this Cistercian 23 Boyer, M. N. (1976). Medieval French Bridges. A History, Cambridge: Medieval Academy of America, p.6.
10 10 architectural making was also used to demonstrate economic power. The outer court buildings at Fountains were not only spaces used for storage and labor activities; other factors were considered by monks in the construction of these buildings, such as their position in relation to the monastery and the surrounding estates and also their visibility. Similarly, other types of minor architecture were deployed in multiple ways to communicate both ora and labora to the community. For instance, the Capello Bridge, was not only a structure to cross a river, it provided evidence of the monks skills in hydraulic technology and possession of the land, and it could also be seen as a sign of spiritual motivation for the pilgrim during the process of pilgrimage. In the study of this structure, one should consider factors of intentionality, such as the visibility of the quarry used to build it, to prove the ownership and power of its monastic creators. These religious and economic factors should not be considered separately from the architecture itself. The building techniques used by Cistercians are essential to understand factors of intentionality. It is also important to look at architecture as a process, rather than a singular finished product. Considering Cistercian structures in the whole process of their making from planning to construction provides a better understanding of both their symbolic and physical value. Additionally, it is useful to look at the finished product of this making as an active participant. In this way, the structures act both as products of the monks, but also as actors that produce their own effects: the outer court building could act to intimidate outsiders with its imposing height, while the bridge could produce relief for weary travelers. Cistercian work and architecture should be seen as complementary and should therefore not be studied separately. For example, the impressively tall woolhouse and
11 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 11 the clever positioning of the bridge relative to the quarry are uniquely Cistercian architectural achievements, which should not be overlooked for the sake of spiritual considerations. By looking at both the physical object and its possible symbolic meaning, this study s approach can provide a better understanding of Cistercian culture and architecture, which brought about a significant transformation of the medieval European landscape thanks to its complex spirituality, divided equally between work and prayer.
12 12 Images Figure 1. Plan of Fountains Abbey (after Coppack 1986).
13 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 13 Figure 2. The ruins of the woolhouse of Fountains Abbey.
14 14 Figure 3. Reconstruction of the building phases of Fountain Abbey's woolhouse by Glyn Coppack (after Coppack 1986).
15 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 15 Figure 4. Ruins of Capello Bridge seen from north (photograph by Alba Serino).
16 16 Figure 5. Road network connecting the monastery of San Martino to the city of Viterbo. On the left is the reconstruction of the via Cassia route while on the right is the via Ciminia, known in the thirteenth century as via Francigena (after Serino 2010).
17 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 17 Figure 6. Quarry located a few meters from Capello Bridge along the Porchetta stream (photograph by Alba Serino).
18 18 Bibliography Addison, K. (2006). Changing places: the Cistercian settlement and rapid climate change in England in Locating Medieval Landscapes. Edited by Lees, A.C. and Overing, G. L. Pennsylvania University Press, pp Boyer, M. N. (1976). Medieval French Bridges. A History. Cambridge: Medieval Academy of America. Civantos, J.M.M. (2006). Il territorio stratificato: proposte dall'archaeologia del paesaggio in IV Congresso Nazionale di Archaeologia Medievale, San Galgano Abbey (September 26-30, 2006). Florence, 3-7. Comba, R. (1985). I cistercensi fra citta' e campagne nei secoli XII e XIII. Una sintesi mutevole di orientamenti economici e culturali nell'italia nord-occidentale in Studi Storici, Anno 26, No. 2, Economia monastica: I cistercensi e le campagne (Apr. - Jun., 1985), pp Coppack, G. (1986). The Excavation of an Outer Court Building, Perhaps the Woolhouse, at Fountains Abbey, North Yorkshire in Medieval Archaeology, 30 (1986), pp Dionisi, S., Esposito, A. (2001). Paesaggio e viabilitá nel Piano dei Bagni di Viterbo tra Medioevo e prima Etá moderna in ed. Fosi, I., Recchia, A.P. (2001). Fra centro e Periferia: strade, territorio, comunitá negli Anni Santi tfra Cinquecento e Settecento, Roma: Gangemi, pp Duby, G. (1982). San Bernardo e l'arte cistercense. Torino. Egidi, P. (1907). L Abbazia di San Martino al Cimino presso Viterbo. Roma: Officina Poligrafica Italiana. Francocci, S., Rose, D. (1996). L Antica via Ciminia dell Etruria in Rivista di Topografia Antica, VI (1996). Ingold, T. (2013). Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture. London and New York: Routledge. Lekai, L.J. (1978). Ideals and Reality in early Cistercian Life and Legislation in Sommerfeldt, J.R., Cistercian ideals and reality. Michigan: Cistercian Publications. Milioni, A. (2007). Carta Archeologica d Italia: Contributi. Viterbo 2, Viterbo: Universitá degli Studi della Tuscia.
19 THE PROCESS OF MAKING IN THE CISTERCIAN ORDER 19 Patitucci Uggeri, S. (2002). La viabilitá di terra e d acqua nel Italia medievale in ed. Patitucci Uggeru, S. Quaderni di Archeologia Medievale IV. La viabilità medievale in Italia. Contributo alla carta archeologica medievale. Atti del V Seminario di Archeologia Medievale (Cassino, 2000), Firenze: All Insegna del Giglio. Piccinni, G. (2006). El Modelo Cisterciense en su aplicacion italiana centroseptentrional: algunas ideas desde la historiografia in Cistercium. Revista Cisterciense, n , anno LVIII. ZAMORA, Pressouyre, L. (1994). L'Espace Cistercien. Paris: Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques. Rapetti, A. M. (1999). La formazione di una comunità cistercense. Istituzioni e strutture organizzative di Chiaravalle della Colomba tra XII e XIII secolo. Rome. Righetti Tosti-Croce, M. (1993). Architettura per il lavoro. Dal caso cistercense a un caso cistercense: Chiaravalle di Fiastra, Rome: Viella. Serino, A. (2010). Il monastero cistercense di San Martino al Cimino. Analisi del territorio pertinente all abbazia nel Medioevo, Masters thesis, Universitá degli Studi della Tuscia. Stopani, R. (1992). La via Francigena. Una strada europea nell Italia del Medioevo, Firenze: Le Lettere. Trachtenberg, M. (2010). Building-in-Time: from Giotto to Alberti and Modern Oblivion. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, IX-XXV. Vagni, M. (1993). L'organizzazione agricola dei Cistercensi nel Medioevo: l'esperienza di Casamari in Rivista Cistercense, X-2, Casamari, pp Yoffee, N. (2005). Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States and Civilizations. Cambridge University Press.
Canterbury World Heritage Site (Canterbury Cathedral, St Augustine's Abbey, and St Martin's Church) Brief synthesis United Kingdom Statement of Outstanding Universal Value (SOUV) St Martin s Church, the
2G 1136-9647 ABITARE 0001-3218 ABITARE LA TERRA 1592-8608 ADVANCED MATERIALS RESEARCH 1662-8985 ADVANCED MATERIALS RESEARCH 1022-6680 AIDEA 0019-1299 AION 1720-1721 ALMANACCO DI CASABELLA AMERICAN JOURNAL
Storia urbana Rules for Publications Authors should keep to the following rules for publications: 1) Articles should be sent e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org 2) Articles must be accompanied by a disclaimer
Chiara Berichillo THE SMALL CENTRE OF PIEGARO AND ITS ANCIENT LINKS WITH GLASS PRODUCTION The small village of Piegaro, of medieval origins, rises among the green hills of Umbria in the western part of
La Porta delle Meraviglie We offer great travel recommendations for your trip through one of the most beautiful and captivating places in Italy: The Abruzzo Region La Porta delle Meraviglie offices are
A SHORT HISTORY OF CHURCH BUILDING From its beginning, a critical part of Christianity has been the gathering of people worshipping together. By virtue of this activity, the place where they worship has
Good Practice presentation Enhancement and pedestrian safety of Via Francigena Lazio Region The location of the Via Francigena in Lazio Region. Its route connects the territory of Proceno, at the northern
MAINTENANCE IN HISTORICAL GARDENS: THE CASE OF THE CASTLE IN FOSDINOVO TUSCANY ITALY Authors: Virginia Neri¹; Greta Parri¹; Claudia Parisi¹ Affiliations: 1 - Università degli Studi di Firenze Many historical
CHAPTER 3 Section 4 European Kingdoms and Feudalism Germanic states emerged in the former Western Roman Empire and created a new European civilization. European Kingdoms and Feudalism (cont.) By 500 A.D.,
An Integrated Information System for Archaeological Data Management: Latest Developments Vittorio Fronza, Alessandra Nardini and Marco Valenti LIAAM (Laboratorio di Informatica Applicata all Archeologia
Two-Year Post-Professional Degree (Path A) MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN & URBANISM (MADU) With a Concentration in Classical Architecture ARCH 61011 Introduction to Architectural Representation 0 TOTAL
At the Maxim we suggest you to follow these car itineraries. We decline any responsabilities for fines and for changes in the street assets. Please bear in mind that we highly recommend you take exit Firenze
Archaeology and the Tablet PC Introduction The Tablet PC 1 is a mobile computer of small dimensions with a screen that you can interact with by using an optical pen, which has digital ink that can be then
Andrea Pedeferri Curriculum Vitae Personal Data 3601 Greenway apt 811 21218 Baltimore, MD USA +1 443 850 0092 email@example.com http://departments.columbian.gwu.edu/philosophy/people/172 Areas of Specializations
JOHN CABOT UNIVERSITY ARCH 500 ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATION AND METHODOLOGY Roman Archaeology in Italy between the 3rd century BC and the 6th century AD. Instructor: Prof. Inge L. Hansen / Alberese Archaeological
Interreg III B MEDOCC Extramet Project Hérault - 6th, 7th July 2006 Extramet project in Piemonte The pilot project in the Chierese Best Practices Arch. Mariella Olivier Extramet partnership Piemonte The
NICOLA AMENDOLA CURRICULUM VITAE PERSONAL E-mail: Web Site: Office: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.economia.uniroma2.it/amendola.htm Dipartimento di Economia e Istituzioni Università di Roma Tor
The solar towers of Chankillo Amelia Carolina Sparavigna Department of Applied Science and Technology Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino, Italy An ancient solar observatory is composed
What roles did the Church and monasteries play in the spread of Christianity in Medieval Europe? 7.37 Examine the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by
UNTIL MARCH 12, 2011 MAXXI Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo Via Guido Reni, 4A ROMA www.fondazionemaxxi.it Brussels June-August 2010 Scale models and original drawings Images from the exhibitions
Doerr, Martin and Apostolis Sarris (eds) 2003. The Digital Heritage of Archaeology. CAA2002. Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Proceedings of the 30th CAA Conference, Heraklion,
STRATFORD CAMPUS, UNIVERSITY OF EAST LONDON ARCHAEOLOGICAL DESKTOP STUDY TQ3945 8475 By Jo Udall Project Manager, Mark Turner 1/6/96 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
THE ART OF FLORENCE BY GLENN M. ANDRES JOHN M. HUNISAK A. RICHARD TURNER Principal photography by TAKASHI OKAMURA A R T A B R A S A Division of Abbeville Publishing Group NEW YORK LONDON PARIS CONTENTS
www.ifla2016.com email@example.com Città di Torino Host city AIAPP Associazione Italiana Architettura del Paesaggio Il Presidente Nazionale Anna Letizia Monti firstname.lastname@example.org Segreteria Via San Niccolò
CONSERVATION REPORT for the FOUNTAIN IN THE GARDEN between VIALE TIZIANO and VIA FLAMINIA 1 Historical background The fountain is located in the garden between viale Tiziano and via Flaminia, in the neighborhood
University of Massachusetts - Amherst ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst The People of the Standing Stone: The Oneida Nation From the Revolution Through the Era of Removal University of Massachusetts Press: Supplemental
Domenico Ventura - Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Place and Date of birth Flöhrsheim/a.m. (Germany); 02/06/1974 Civil state Married Nationality Italian Residence Via Reggio Campi 132 Terretis 89060 Reggios
FIGHTING AGAINST THE ILLICIT TRAFFICKING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR OFFICIALS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF ALBANIA Rome, Italy, 2 3-2 7 November 2015 Background In March 2006, the UNESCO Regional
CASTELLO DI POSTIGNANO REAL ESTATE PROPOSAL LOCATION Located in the green heart of Italy and surrounded by changing landscapes and best places of interest in Umbria, Castello di Postignano is a quaint,
4.1 Introduction In Chapter 3, you learned how people began farming and living in small villages during Neolithic times. In this chapter, you ll discover how some small villages grew into large, complex
James Madison High School Social Studies Department World History and Geography 1 Power Standards Human Beginnings Students will be able to explain that Homo Sapiens emerged from Africa between 100,000
La salute dei Rom: una questione piuttosto ingarbugliata. Riflessioni antropologiche sulla letteratura medica riguardante gli zingari Author(s): Trevisan P. Publication date: 2005 Italy In La Ricerca Folklorica,
La Carta di Roma sul Capitale Naturale e Culturale Premessa Il semestre italiano di presidenza dell Unione Europea Giugno-Dicembre 2014 ha dato particolare rilievo alla biodiversità, nel quadro degli obblighi
Lesson 1 The Rise of Sumerian City- States 1. Introduction In Chapter 3, you learned how people in the Fertile Crescent began farming and living in small villages. In this chapter, you ll see how small
A Roman Dodecahedron for measuring distance Amelia Carolina Sparavigna Department of Applied Science and Technology Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino, Italy Here I am discussing
Animal welfare during transport and related operations 21/24 June 2011 Italy Brochure www.izs.it www.areteonline.net WHEN AND WHERE The training course will be held on 21 24 June 2011, in San Martino in
Prof John Hendrix Professor of Architectural History John Shannon Hendrix, The Splendour of English Gothic Architecture, New York: Parkstone, 2014. This book explains and celebrates the richness of English
Catholic Church History Week Two 600 s to 1400 s Acts of the Apostles Any thoughts, questions or comments on the homework assignment? PRAYER Remember Last Week: 1. Story Overview 2. Acts of the Apostles
Work and Organizational Psychology in Italy and Siplo (Italian Association of Work and Organizational Psychology) role Education regarding work and organizational psychology, along with the whole university
MEMORY OF A WETLAND THE PAUL OF LAGOS Filipe Themudo Barata & Teresa Rebelo da Silva 1 THE LANDSCAPE BEFORE THE XV CENTURY DRAINING WORKS Approximately area: 400 ha, to the North of Lagos (Algarve - Portugal),
Destination TRONDHEIM TRONDHEIM A BIG VILLAGE OR A SMALL CITY TRONDHEIM IN THE HEART OF NORWAY! TRONDHEIM A CITY WITH HIGHLIGHTS! Trondheim was founded in 997 by the Viking King Olav Tryggvason. Historical
Title: Why do people go on Pilgrimages? The Agreed Syllabus for Religious Education in Cambridgeshire Year Group: Y3/4 A Suggested Christianity School Development Unit 1 Materials to Support The Agreed
DravaTour from Novigrad Podravski to Podravske Sesvete 13 th of June 2014, Friday 2 nd day of DravaTour The peloton of 120 riders started at 10 o clock from Koprivnica (Kapronca). For the second day there
Although Lydford s earliest beginnings as a settlement are somewhat uncertain, there is little doubt that its plan form today dates from the time it was established as a burh in the late 9th or early 10th
Then and Now Quiz maps Alan Parkinson Geography teaching resource Secondary Digimap for Schools Geography Resources Title: Then and Now Quiz maps Level Context Location Secondary Locating Comparing UK:
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR TRAINING NEEDS IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PAULA BENEVENE Università Lumsa email@example.com Fecha de recepción: 26 de enero de 2011 Fecha de admisión: 10 de marzo
Bagrati Cathedral and Gelati Monastery State of Conservation Report National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia January 2014 This Report on the State of Conservation of the the Bagrati
Name The Renaissance Unit Notes To Be Handed in at the End of the Unit THE RENAISSANCE: A New Dawn 1. What was the Renaissance? 2. When did the Renaissance begin? 3. Where did the Renaissance begin? 4.
In Umbria, on the border with Tuscany positioned among a series of gently rolling hills of a rare beauty leading down to Lake Trasimeno, you can find the residential complex "Le Ginestre di Greppolischieto"
Reflections From Our Graduates Graduate Degrees in Theology Seminary & School of Theology Steeped in Tradition, Engaging the present, Shaping the future The laity is called to participate actively in the
PROJECT Roma Design Lab International Festival of Creativity PROMOTING COMPANY Cultural Association Opificio delle Arti Dates 22-26 October 2014 location ex-mattatoio, in Testaccio district Rome FREE ENTRANCE
una produzione media partner in collaborazione con Roma ITALY S BEST WINES Rome, february 29 th - march 2 nd SPAZIO ETOILE Piazza San Lorenzo in Lucina 2008 1 THE WINE EVENT IN THE HEART OF ROME FROM FEBRUARY
Ancient Greek Arts and Architecture Ancient Greek Architecture The earliest buildings built in Greece in the New Stone Age are small houses or huts with wooden walls around them for protection. Later bigger
Roman Law This was the legal system that began in early Rome (451 B.C.E.), and was the basis of Law for Western Europe, except England. As the Roman Empire grew, laws became more complex and the profession
Curriculum Vitae Personal Info Name: CALIANDRO Stefano Nationality: Italian Date of birth: 26 Jan 1975 Education Date of achievement: 30 June 2006 Title: University of Bologna post PhD scholarship Date
Name Late Medieval Period (WHI.12) Label on Map: England, France, Spain, Russia, Holly Roman Empire, Paris, Rome, Mediterranean Sea, English Channel, Atlantic Ocean Term: Nation-state Describe: Draw: 1
Renaissance Architecture, Civil Engineering and Design from Brunelleschi to Leonardo and Michelangelo Spring Semester 2015 Francesco Vossilla Ph.D. Between the 14th and the 16th centuries, European humanists
Via Ex Internati 11/a - 37026 Balconi di Pescantina (VERONA) ITALY Phone number: +39 045 6704260 Fax +39 045 6704264 www.safital.it GENERAL INFORMATION Company Name SAFITAL s.r.l. Registered office: Via
Shinnyo-En at a glance What is Shinnyo-En? Shinnyo-En is an independent Buddhist order, which belongs to the Mahayana school of Buddhism in Japan. The complex Buddhist term Shinnyo ( reality ) designates
Cultural Diffusion Essential Question: In what ways have migration and trade affected cultures? A. Define cultural diffusion. B. Record information about the topics listed in the Cumulative Review or your
CURRICULUM VITAE Giovanni Tria PLACE AND DATE OF BIRTH Rome, 28 September 1948 NATIONALITY Italian ADDRESS Office: Via dei Robilant n.11 00135 Rome Italy Home: Via Po n.4, 00198 Rome Italy Tel.+39 06 33
Personal Introduction: After years of apathy, the history student gets it in 1967! Personal Sharing: Tell your name and share an incident from your personal history that changed the course of your life.
Welcome Padova Where is Padua? In the heart of Veneto region! 30 minutes away from Venice by car 30 minutes away from Vicenza by car 50 minutes away from Verona by car 50 minutes away from Treviso by car
Discover Lunigiana with Farfalle in cammino: exclusive tours to special places in small groups led by professional guides! Guided tours in July and August 2013 Secret Pontremoli Every Thursday in Italian.
What this unit contains Where the unit fits and how it builds upon previous learning here are some places that are important to Christians in the UK and the wider world what makes them important and what
10 DAY TOUR, ROME, ASSIS, SIENA, FLORENCE, VENICE, SORRENTO, NAPLES, POMPEII starting at $ 1895.00 per person Day 1: Rome Benvenuti a roma! After you touch down at the airport, make your own way to your
INTRODUCTION Building conservation requires particular expertise and care because historic monuments are significant and invaluable heritage of our culture that once lost or damaged cannot be replaced.
Architecture - Theory/ History (ARCH) Azrieli School of Architecture and Urbanism Faculty of Engineering and Design ARCH 1000 [0.5 credit] Intro. to Architecture Architecture in the matrix of human conditions:
Special Tours 15. LEONARDO ITINERARY AND MILAN EXPO 2015 Roma Firenze Toscana Venezia Milano Itinerary to discover the places visited by Leonardo: from Vinci to Milan. In the land of art and ingenuity,
History of the Anglican Church Discovery Class 2015 Calvary Episcopal Church Conversion of Britain The conversion of the Anglo- Saxons (Britain) was undertaken by St. Augustine, a monk in Rome chosen by
Cultural Extinction Statement of the Problem: Culture is essential for human beings since it is the key for people to identify themselves and fit in the groups. The culture can be the sum total of people
Introduction 'Have historians overstated the cultural impact of the Black Death?' The introduction to this essay will first outline the principle aspects of the period under scrutiny, briefly describing
The Anglo-Saxons First inhabitants of Britain were the Britons and the Celts. Tall blonde warriors, hunters, and farmers Highly religious people who saw spirits in every part of nature. Their main deities
EDITORIAL GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS Sending in a text All contributions should be sent exclusively to the journal s editors at this e- mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org All articles must be
Workshop AISRe - ABC Le frontiere del dibattito in Economia Regionale e Urbana Milano, 5-6 marzo 2015 New Urban policies for medium sized cities Enrico Ciciotti Ordinario di Politica Economica LEL- Laboratorio
CURRICULUM VITAE RANDOLPH LUCA BRUNO Contact Details Address for Correspondence email@example.com Via dei Contarini 5, Homepage: 20133 Milan (Italy) https://mail.sssup.it/ brunor/ http://www.dse.unibo.it/dse/
DC/2015/00494 AGRICULTURAL BUILDING WITH PHOTOVOLTARIC SOLAR PANELS TO SOUTH FACING ROOF LAND AT ONEN, ADJACENT TO B4233, NP25 5EN. RECOMMENDATION: APPROVE Case Officer: Elizabeth Bennett Date Registered:
GRADE 5 SOCIAL STUDIES History Standard 1 Historical Thinking Skills Students use historical thinking skills to examine the influence of key people, ideas, and events from pre-columbian civilizations through