PILE CAP DESIGN. A reinforced concrete slab or block which interconnects a group of piles and acts

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PILE CAP DESIGN. A reinforced concrete slab or block which interconnects a group of piles and acts"

Transcription

1 PILE CAP DESIGN PILE CAP:- A reinforced concrete slab or block which interconnects a group of piles and acts as a medium to transmit the load from wall or column to the Piles is called a Pile Cap. The Pile cap should normally be rigid so as to distribute the forces equally on the piles of a group. In general it is designed like a footing on soil but with the difference that instead of uniform reaction from the soil, the reactions in this case are concentrated either point loads or distributed. As per IS 2911 (Part I/ Sec 3) -2010, the pile cap may be designed by assuming that the load from column is dispersed at 45 from the top of the cap up to the mid depth of the pile cap from the base of the column or pedestal. The reaction from piles may also be taken to be distributed at 45 from the edge of the pile, up to the mid depth of the pile cap. On this basis the maximum bending moment and shear forces should be worked out at critical sections. ASSUMPTIONS INVOLVED IN THE DESIGN OF PILE CAPS:- (i) Pile cap is perfectly rigid. (ii) Pile heads are hinged to the pile cap and hence no bending moment is transmitted to piles from pile caps. (iii) Since the piles are short and elastic columns, the deformations and stress distribution are planer. DESIGN PARAMETERS OF PILE CAPS:- (i) Shape of pile cap. (ii) Depth of pile cap. (iii) Amount of steel to be provided. (iv) Arrangement of reinforcement.

2 (i) Shape of pile cap:- Whittle and Beattie have developed through computer program the relationship between dimension of pile cap and the size of the pile. The minimum spacing of piles permitted from soil mechanics depends on the type and end conditions. CP 2004 requires a minimum centre- to centre spacing of twice the diameter of the piles for end bearing and three times the diameter for friction piles. IS 2911 part1, sections 1 and 2 recommended a minimum spacing of two and half times the diameter of the pile for both driven cast in situ and bored cast in situ piles. For accommodating deviations in driving of piles, the size of the pile cap is made 300 mm more than the outer- to outer distance of the exterior piles. (150 mm on either side). The plan dimension of the pile cap is based on the fact that the actual final position of piles can be in construction up to 100 mm out of line from the theoretical centre lines. Pile caps should be made very large to accommodate these deviations. In practice, pile caps are extended as much as 150 mm beyond the outer face of the piles. Standard Pile Caps: s-spacing of pile = F x h p where h p = diameter of pile in mm F = spacing factor= centre to centre spacing Pile diameter

3 (ii) Depth of Pile Cap :- The thickness of the Pile Cap is fixed such that it is adequate to resist shear without shear reinforcement and the bars projecting from the piles and the dowel bars for the column can be provided adequate bond length. As per IS , the minimum thickness on top of piles should not be less than 300 mm. Pile cap depth should be kept on the high side to effect economy in the consumption of steel and also to provide adequate rigidity to pile cap. Generally, pile cap thickness should not be less than 500 mm which may be reduced to 300 mm at the free edges. For pile caps to be rigid, pile cap has to be quite deep with 600 mm as the minimum depth. As a guide line the formula given in Reinforced concrete by Reynolds may be followed. For Pile dia > 550 mm, Pile cap depth (h) = (2 h p + 100)mm For Pile dia 550 mm, h= ⅓ x( 8 h p + 600) mm Pile Dia h p (mm) Pile Cap depth h(mm) (i) Amount of steel to be provided :- The Pile Cap has to be designed either truss theory or beam theory. Although, the pile caps are assumed to act as a simply supported beam and are designed for the usual condition of bending and shear, their tendency is to fail by bursting due to high principal tension and they will therefore always require a cage of reinforcement in three dimensions to resist this tendency. The main reinforcement is usually bend (full bend) and extended for full depth of pile cap to fulfill the check for development length. Though IS is silent on specifying the minimum reinforcement, a minimum reinforcement of 0.15 % BD for main reinforcement and 0.12 % BD for secondary reinforcement may be provided as per clause and 2 of CP 110 code). For bursting (horizontal binders) it is

4 suggested that 25 % of the main reinforcement (usually 12 Φ RTS at 150 mm c/c) shall be used. Cover :- A cover of 75 mm is usually provided for the pile cap surfaces in contact with earth and 60 mm against blinding concrete of 75 to 100 mm thick. In marine situations the cover should be increased to a minimum of 80 mm. DESIGN OF PILE CAP BASED ON TRUSS THEORY: The truss theory applied to pile caps with up to 5 piles. In this method the load from the column is transmitted to the piles by inclined thrust and the tie necessary to maintain equilibrium is provided by reinforcement. (Steel acts as tension chord and concrete as diagonal struts). If the Ultimate load on the column is N and we have two piles the load on each pile is N/2. From the diagram of forces T = l i.e. T = N l/2d (N/2) Area of reinforcement required = Nl/ (2d x 0.87 f y ) In the simple frame described above, the dimensions of the columns have been ignored. If the Column is square of side 2a, T = N (3l 2 a 2 ) 6 ld In truss theory, it has usually been the practice to band the reinforcement along the lines joining the piles. The code now suggests that this method of banding is only necessary if the piles are spaced at more than 3 times the pile dia. For the more normal spacing of 3 times the pile dia the total reinforcement forming the tie force in one direction can be distributed uniformly across the cap with a three- pile cap designed on the truss theory, it is difficult to see how this can be done and it is suggested that the reinforcement is banded along the centre lines joining the piles. d In the case of pile caps designed using the truss theory it is suggested that the effective depth is approximately half the distance between the centre of piles. This means the truss has an angle of approximately 45.

5 Allowable shear resistance is given by N= 2 (d h p ) 2 ζ c (d/a v ) + (b- 2 h p ) ζ c bd where ζ c = design shear strength of concrete. a v = 0.5(l- b) where l= c/c of piles & b = width of column. The section should be safe without extra shear reinforcement. Truss theory design can be done using Table 194 of Reynould s hand book.

6 Beam theory :- When (a v / d) ratio is more than 2 as in shallow pile cap or with the arrangement of 6 or more piles, bending action is more predominant than truss action. In this case the pile cap is designed as a normal beam for bending moment and shear. The pile cap area is divided into a framework of rectangular beam depending on the geometry of the pile group. The width of the beam is taken as equal to the width of the pile. The beam may be simply supported or continuous. The reinforcement is evenly distributed or concentrated. The reaction from the pile is taken as distributed at 45 from the edge of the pile cap up to the mid- depth of the pile cap. The maximum bending moment and shear force are calculated on this basis. However, it is much easier to consider the loads as concentrated loads and calculate the B.M. and S.F. The depth should be such that no extra shear reinforcement is necessary for the section.

7 Practical Aspects on Pile cap Design: The structural design of a pile cap is similar to the design of spread footing. The load acting on the pile cap from the superstructure and piles are resisted by the developments of bending moment and shear force in the pile cap. Codal provisions made in IS 2911(Part 1/sec3)-2010 : 1. The size of the pile cap is fixed in such way that it has clear overhang beyond the outermost pile not less than 100mm, but preferably 150mm. 2. It should be deep enough to allow the necessary overlap of reinforcements from column and piles. 3. The clear cover to the main reinforcement should not be less than 40mm. 4. The span to thickness ratio of the cap should not be more than 5 so that pile cap is rigid enough to distribute the load uniformly to the piles. 5. Generally, its thickness should not be less than 500mm which may be reduced to 300mm at the free edges. 6. The piles should atleast 50mm into the pile cap. 7. A leveling course of not less 75mm thick concrete should be provided under the pile cap. Design Aspects :- The reaction from the piles under the concentric axial load on the cap is assumed equal and is determined by, Pp = Q/n (1) where Q = concentric axial load on the cap n = Number of Piles When the Pile cap is eccentrically loaded or subjected to a load and moments then the reactions from the Piles are determined as Pp = Q/n +/- My x +/- Mx y (2) where x 2 y 2 Mx, My = moments with respect to x and y axes. X, y = distances from y and x axes to the Piles.

8 The critical section for bending moments and bond shall be calculated at the face of column or pedestal. The critical section for two way shear (Punching shear) will be at a distance d/2 from face of column or pedestal. One way shear is checked at a distance of d/2 from the face of the column. The Clause of IS states the following :- In computing the external shear or any section through a footing supported on Piles, the entire reaction from any pile of diameter Dp whose centre is located Dp/2 or more outside the section shall be assumed as producing shear on the section; the reaction from any Pile whose centre is located Dp/2 or more inside the section shall be assumed as producing no shear on the section. For intermediate positions of the pile centre, the position of pile reaction to be assumed as producing shear on the section shall be based on straight line interpolation between full value at Dp/2 outside the section and zero value at Dp/2 inside the section. In computing external shear on any section the entire (100%) reaction of the Pile shall be taken if the pile centre is located at 150 mm or more outside the section. The pile reaction will produce no shear (0%) if the pile centre is located at 150 mm or more inside the section. A linear interpolation shall be made for intermediate values of the pile centre. Let the centre of the pile be located at x from the face of the column. Let d be the effective depth of the pile cap. Then the critical section is located at d/2 from face of the column. If pile centre is located at (d/2 x) outside the critical section when x < d/2. If x > d/2, the expression (d/2-x) yields negative value indicating that the pile centre is located at (x-d/2) inside the section. When (d/2-x), outside is true for other case. Let the fraction of pile reaction inducing shear be f R where R is the pile reaction. Rule for checking one way shear, f = 150 +(x-d/2) 300 where x and d are in millimeters.

9 DESIGN OF TWO PILE CAP DATA:- Pile Diameter Spacing of piles 2 h p = 2 x 400 : 400 mm : 800 mm Column Dimension B x D : 300 x 450 mm Factored Load : KN Factored Moment Mxu :51.29 KN.m Safe Load on Single Pile :500KN Concrete Mix : M 20 Steel Grade : Fe 415 DESIGN : - 1. Pile Cap Dimension : Breadth of Pile Cap = C/c of Pile + h p / h p / = / / =1500 mm Width of pile cap = h p = 700 mm Depth of Pile cap = 2 h p = 2 x = 900 mm.

10 2. Check for Pile Load capacity :- Total factored axial compressive load = Pu +/- M x y +/- M x x n y 2 x 2 Self weight of Pile Cap = (1.5 x0.7 x 0.9 x 25 ) x1.5 = KN Factored load from column P u = KN Total Factored Load P u = KN No. of Piles along one side of axis = 2 y coordinate of Pile cap = 0.4 m M x = Moment about x axis Compressive load in A1 & A2 about x x axis = x x = = KN = KN.m Design working load = /1.5 = KN < Safe Load on Pile i.e 500KN. O.K. 3. Bending Moment :- Factored Moment in section Y-Y M u = x ( )= KN.m 4. Check for effective depth : M u = f ck b d 2 = x d required = ( x 10 6 ) / 2.76 x700 = mm D provided = 900 mm d available = = 822 mm > d required i.e mm 5. Check for Punching Shear (Two way shear) : - Punching shear at a distance d/2 (i.e.822/2= 411mm) from face of column = KN The critical section of punching comes the centre of pile.

11 Hence the net load is to be taken. However the depth is checked for factored axial load from column = KN b= 700 x 822 mm d= 822 mm Perimeter of critical section = 2 ( ) = 3044 mm Punching shear stress = x 10 3 = N/mm x 822 Allowable shear stress for M 20 = 0.25 f ck = = 1.12 N/mm 2 Hence safe. 6. Main Reinforcement : - M u = x 10 6 KN.m K = M u / bd 2 = x 10 6 = x Pt from Table 2 of Design Aid=0.11 Minimum Ast = 0.12 x 700 x 822 = mm Provide 7 Nos. 12 Φ RTS at bottom on both ways. (Ast = 791 mm 2 > mm 2 ) Reinforcement at top :- Minimum Ast = 0.12 x 700 x 822 = mm Provide 7 Nos. 12 mm Dia RTS at top. (Ast = 791 mm 2 > mm 2 ) 7. Check for one way shear :- Maximum Shear force at face of column = KN Shear stress = x 10 3 = 1.07 N/mm x 822 For P t = 0.20% ζ c from Table 61 of Design Aid to IS = 0.33 N /mm 2 Shear to be carried by stirrups shear

12 V us =( ) x700 x822 x 10-3 = KN. V us /d = / 82.2 = 5.18 KN/cm Provide 8 Φ RTS 4 legged 120 mm c/c. (V us /d =5.58 KN/m > 5.18 KN/cm ). 8. Sketch :

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab,

DESIGN OF SLABS. 3) Based on support or boundary condition: Simply supported, Cantilever slab, DESIGN OF SLABS Dr. G. P. Chandradhara Professor of Civil Engineering S. J. College of Engineering Mysore 1. GENERAL A slab is a flat two dimensional planar structural element having thickness small compared

More information

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P

ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P ENGINEERING SCIENCE H1 OUTCOME 1 - TUTORIAL 3 BENDING MOMENTS EDEXCEL HNC/D ENGINEERING SCIENCE LEVEL 4 H1 FORMERLY UNIT 21718P This material is duplicated in the Mechanical Principles module H2 and those

More information

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 2 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENTS IN BEAMS This is the second tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge your progress by completing the self assessment exercises.

More information

FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples

FOUNDATION DESIGN. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples FOUNDATION DESIGN Proportioning elements for: Transfer of seismic forces Strength and stiffness Shallow and deep foundations Elastic and plastic analysis Foundation Design 14-1 Load Path and Transfer to

More information

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures

Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures Chapter 8 Detailing of Reinforcment in Concrete Structures 8.1 Scope Provisions of Sec. 8.1 and 8.2 of Chapter 8 shall apply for detailing of reinforcement in reinforced concrete members, in general. For

More information

Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250

Page 1 of 18 28.4.2008 Sven Alexander Last revised 1.3.2010. SB-Produksjon STATICAL CALCULATIONS FOR BCC 250 Page 1 of 18 CONTENT PART 1 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS PAGE 1.1 General 1. Standards 1.3 Loads 1. Qualities PART ANCHORAGE OF THE UNITS.1 Beam unit equilibrium 3. Beam unit anchorage in front..1 Check of capacity..

More information

FOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE

FOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE County: Any Design: BRG Date: 10/007 Hwy: Any Ck Dsn: BRG Date: 10/007 FOOTING DESIGN EXAMPLE Design: Based on AASHTO LRFD 007 Specifications, TxDOT LRFD Bridge Design Manual, and TxDOT Project 0-4371

More information

Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS

Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Module 5 (Lectures 17 to 19) MAT FOUNDATIONS Topics 17.1 INTRODUCTION Rectangular Combined Footing: Trapezoidal Combined Footings: Cantilever Footing: Mat foundation: 17.2 COMMON TYPES OF MAT FOUNDATIONS

More information

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow.

The following sketches show the plans of the two cases of one-way slabs. The spanning direction in each case is shown by the double headed arrow. 9.2 One-way Slabs This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design 9.2.1 Introduction Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. With increase

More information

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL 1 STRESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTOIAL 1 STESSES IN BEAMS DUE TO BENDING This is the first tutorial on bending of beams designed for anyone wishing to study it at a fairly advanced level. You should judge

More information

DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

DESIGN OF SLABS. Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia DESIGN OF SLABS Department of Structures and Materials Engineering Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Introduction Types of Slab Slabs are plate elements

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME 2 ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ENGINEERING COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES OUTCOME ENGINEERING COMPONENTS TUTORIAL 1 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural members: struts and ties; direct stress and strain,

More information

Unit 48: Structural Behaviour and Detailing for Construction. Chapter 13. Reinforced Concrete Beams

Unit 48: Structural Behaviour and Detailing for Construction. Chapter 13. Reinforced Concrete Beams Chapter 13 Reinforced Concrete Beams Concrete is a material strong in its resistance to compression, but very weak indeed in tension. good concrete will safely take a stress upwards of 7 N/mm 2 in compression,

More information

Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5

Reinforced Concrete Design to BS8110 Structural Design 1 Lesson 5 Lesson 5: Deflection in reinforced concrete beams Content 4.1 Introduction 4. Definitions 4..1 Tension 4.. Compression 4.3 Initial sizing 4.3.1 Worked example 4.4 Reinforcement details 4.5 Anchorage at

More information

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST

METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Compression Test, METHOD OF STATEMENT FOR STATIC LOADING TEST Tension Test and Lateral Test According to the American Standards ASTM D1143 07, ASTM D3689 07, ASTM D3966 07 and Euro Codes EC7 Table of Contents

More information

Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column

Design of reinforced concrete columns. Type of columns. Failure of reinforced concrete columns. Short column. Long column Design of reinforced concrete columns Type of columns Failure of reinforced concrete columns Short column Column fails in concrete crushed and bursting. Outward pressure break horizontal ties and bend

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges 7.7 Truss bridges Fig. 7.21 some of the trusses that are used in steel bridges Truss Girders, lattice girders or open web girders are efficient and economical structural systems, since the members experience

More information

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL TUTORIAL 4 - COMPLEMENTARY SHEAR STRESS

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL TUTORIAL 4 - COMPLEMENTARY SHEAR STRESS MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - BEAMS TUTORIAL TUTORIAL 4 - COMPLEMENTARY SHEAR STRESS This the fourth and final tutorial on bending of beams. You should judge our progress b completing the self assessment exercises.

More information

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14

Draft Table of Contents. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 Draft Table of Contents Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary ACI 318-14 BUILDING CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL CONCRETE (ACI 318 14) Chapter 1 General 1.1 Scope of ACI 318

More information

METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION

METHODS FOR ACHIEVEMENT UNIFORM STRESSES DISTRIBUTION UNDER THE FOUNDATION International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 45-66, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_004 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS

Reinforced Concrete Design SHEAR IN BEAMS CHAPTER Reinforced Concrete Design Fifth Edition SHEAR IN BEAMS A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part I Concrete Design and Analysis 4a FALL 2002 By Dr.

More information

SEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading:

SEISMIC DESIGN. Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: SEISMIC DESIGN Various building codes consider the following categories for the analysis and design for earthquake loading: 1. Seismic Performance Category (SPC), varies from A to E, depending on how the

More information

16. Beam-and-Slab Design

16. Beam-and-Slab Design ENDP311 Structural Concrete Design 16. Beam-and-Slab Design Beam-and-Slab System How does the slab work? L- beams and T- beams Holding beam and slab together University of Western Australia School of Civil

More information

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS

INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS Third Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural Steel Design and Analysis

More information

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993

Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Technical Notes 3B - Brick Masonry Section Properties May 1993 Abstract: This Technical Notes is a design aid for the Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE 5/TMS 402-92) and Specifications

More information

SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems:

SLAB DESIGN. Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: Reading Assignment SLAB DESIGN Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13.6.1 Direct Design Method (DDM) For slab systems

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 LOADED COMPONENTS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 LOADED COMPONENTS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQ LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 3 LOADED COMPONENTS 1. Be able to determine the effects of loading in static engineering

More information

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS

TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS 1 Foundation Systems Shallow Foundation Deep Foundation Pile Foundation Pier (Caisson) Foundation Isolated spread footings Wall footings Combined footings Cantilever or strap footings

More information

Since the Steel Joist Institute

Since the Steel Joist Institute SELECTING and SPECIFYING Wesley B. Myers, P.E. An insider s guide to selecting and specifying K-series, LH, DLH-series joists and joist girders Since the Steel Joist Institute adopted the first standard

More information

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge

Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 34 (1) (26) 1-14 Optimum proportions for the design of suspension bridge Tanvir Manzur and Alamgir Habib Department of Civil Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering

More information

Given informations about construction on foundation plan:

Given informations about construction on foundation plan: FOUNDATIONS Foundations are structure members having different types of design that carry and transmit the dead, live and earthquake loads of structure. Foundation plans are drawn with 1/50 or 1/100 scale

More information

Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics)

Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics) Chapter 5 Stresses in Beam (Basic Topics) 5.1 Introduction Beam : loads acting transversely to the longitudinal axis the loads create shear forces and bending moments, stresses and strains due to V and

More information

Problem 1: Computation of Reactions. Problem 2: Computation of Reactions. Problem 3: Computation of Reactions

Problem 1: Computation of Reactions. Problem 2: Computation of Reactions. Problem 3: Computation of Reactions Problem 1: Computation of Reactions Problem 2: Computation of Reactions Problem 3: Computation of Reactions Problem 4: Computation of forces and moments Problem 5: Bending Moment and Shear force Problem

More information

Miss S. S. Nibhorkar 1 1 M. E (Structure) Scholar,

Miss S. S. Nibhorkar 1 1 M. E (Structure) Scholar, Volume, Special Issue, ICSTSD Behaviour of Steel Bracing as a Global Retrofitting Technique Miss S. S. Nibhorkar M. E (Structure) Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering

More information

Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology

Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Safe & Sound Bridge Terminology Abutment A retaining wall supporting the ends of a bridge, and, in general, retaining or supporting the approach embankment. Approach The part of the bridge that carries

More information

Module 3. Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Module 3. Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur Module 3 Limit State of Collapse - Flexure (Theories and Examples) Lesson 4 Computation of Parameters of Governing Equations Instructional Objectives: At the end of this lesson, the student should be able

More information

Design Manual to BS8110

Design Manual to BS8110 Design Manual to BS8110 February 2010 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 195 195 195 280 280 195 195 195 The specialist team at LinkStudPSR Limited have created this comprehensive Design Manual, to assist

More information

Type of Force 1 Axial (tension / compression) Shear. 3 Bending 4 Torsion 5 Images 6 Symbol (+ -)

Type of Force 1 Axial (tension / compression) Shear. 3 Bending 4 Torsion 5 Images 6 Symbol (+ -) Cause: external force P Force vs. Stress Effect: internal stress f 05 Force vs. Stress Copyright G G Schierle, 2001-05 press Esc to end, for next, for previous slide 1 Type of Force 1 Axial (tension /

More information

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Chapter 4 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION Woodframe floor systems and concrete slab-on-grade floors are discussed in this chapter. Although cold-formed steel framing for floor systems also is permitted by the IRC,

More information

Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures

Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures THE CIVIL & STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING PANEL ENGINEERS AUSTRALIA SYDNEY DIVISION 28 August 2012 Detailing of Reinforcement in Concrete Structures R.I. Gilbert Introduction: Detailing is often considered to

More information

Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS Chapter 9 CONCRETE STRUCTURE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 9.1 GENERAL 9.1.1 Scope. The quality and testing of concrete and steel (reinforcing and anchoring) materials and the design and construction of concrete

More information

A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads

A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads 1 A Case Study Comparing Two Approaches for Applying Area Loads: Tributary Area Loads vs Shell Pressure Loads By Dr. Siriwut Sasibut (Application Engineer) S-FRAME Software Inc. #1158 13351 Commerce Parkway

More information

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE

INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE 2/2013 ANCHOR BOLTS INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE - Threaded rebars ATP, AHP, AJP - Threaded high strength steel bolts ALP-L, ALP-P, AMP ATP AHP ALP-L ALP-P AMP Eurocode design according to EN1993-1-8 (2005) &

More information

Advanced Structural Analysis. Prof. Devdas Menon. Department of Civil Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Module - 5.3.

Advanced Structural Analysis. Prof. Devdas Menon. Department of Civil Engineering. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Module - 5.3. Advanced Structural Analysis Prof. Devdas Menon Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 5.3 Lecture - 29 Matrix Analysis of Beams and Grids Good morning. This is

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. The design of any foundation consists of following two parts.

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar. The design of any foundation consists of following two parts. 8.7. Design procedure for foundation The design of any foundation consists of following two parts. 8.7.1 Stability analysis Stability analysis aims at removing the possibility of failure of foundation

More information

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED

SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED SECTION 5 ANALYSIS OF CONTINUOUS SPANS DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: BRYAN ALLRED NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design, it is preferable to draw moment diagrams

More information

Basis of Structural Design

Basis of Structural Design Basis of Structural Design Course 5 Structural action: - Cable structures - Multi-storey structures Course notes are available for download at http://www.ct.upt.ro/users/aurelstratan/ Cable structures

More information

Design of an Industrial Truss

Design of an Industrial Truss Design of an Industrial Truss Roofing U 2 U 3 Ridge U 4 Sagrod 24 U 1 U 5 L 0 L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 L 5 L 6 6@20 = 120 Elevation of the Truss Top Cord Bracing Sagrod Purlin at top, Bottom Cord Bracing at bottom

More information

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for:

REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced Concrete Design. A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition. Walls are generally used to provide lateral support for: HANDOUT REINFORCED CONCRETE Reinforced Concrete Design A Fundamental Approach - Fifth Edition RETAINING WALLS Fifth Edition A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

More information

POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns)

POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns) POST AND FRAME STRUCTURES (Pole Barns) Post and frame structures. The following requirements serve as minimum standards for post and frame structures within all of the following structural limitations:

More information

Design MEMO 54a Reinforcement design for RVK 41

Design MEMO 54a Reinforcement design for RVK 41 Page of 5 CONTENTS PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS... 2 GENERAL... 2 STANDARDS... 2 QUALITIES... 3 DIMENSIONS... 3 LOADS... 3 PART 2 REINFORCEMENT... 4 EQUILIBRIUM... 4 Page 2 of 5 PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS GENERAL

More information

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Foundations Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and

More information

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY 13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 4 MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM-COLUMN ASSEMBLAGES WITH ECCENTRICITY Tomohiko KAMIMURA

More information

Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments

Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments Structural Axial, Shear and Bending Moments Positive Internal Forces Acting Recall from mechanics of materials that the internal forces P (generic axial), V (shear) and M (moment) represent resultants

More information

Structural Steel Design Project

Structural Steel Design Project Job No: Sheet 1 of 1 Rev Job Title: Eccentrically Loaded Bolt Group Worked Example 1 Checked by Date Design Example 1: Design a bolted connection between a bracket 8 mm thick and the flange of an ISHB

More information

National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination

National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying. Principles and Practice of Engineering Structural Examination Structural Effective Beginning with the April 2011 The structural engineering exam is a breadth and exam examination offered in two components on successive days. The 8-hour Vertical Forces (Gravity/Other)

More information

Index 20010 Series Prestressed Florida-I Beams (Rev. 07/12)

Index 20010 Series Prestressed Florida-I Beams (Rev. 07/12) Index 20010 Series Prestressed Florida-I Beams (Rev. 07/12) Design Criteria AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 6th Edition; Structures Detailing Manual (SDM); Structures Design Guidelines (SDG)

More information

Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures

Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures Buildings Department Practice Note for Authorized Persons, Registered Structural Engineers and Registered Geotechnical Engineers APP-68 Design and Construction of Cantilevered Reinforced Concrete Structures

More information

Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5

Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5 Examples of New version for Designing members of Reinforced Concrete, Steel or Timber according to Eurocode 2, Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 5 Copyright RUNET Software www.runet-software.com 1 1. Examples 1.1

More information

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT

IMPROVING THE STRUT AND TIE METHOD BY INCLUDING THE CONCRETE SOFTENING EFFECT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 7, Issue 2, March-April 2016, pp. 117 127, Article ID: IJCIET_07_02_009 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=7&itype=2

More information

SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES

SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES Dr. Suresh Bhalla Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi -110016 EMAIL: sbhalla@civil.iitd.ac.in CONTENTS WHY

More information

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar

Design of Steel Structures Prof. S.R.Satish Kumar and Prof. A.R.Santha Kumar Problem 1 Design a hand operated overhead crane, which is provided in a shed, whose details are: Capacity of crane = 50 kn Longitudinal spacing of column = 6m Center to center distance of gantry girder

More information

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT

ANALYSIS FOR BEHAVIOR AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE CORBELS WITH HYBRID REINFORCEMENT International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 25-35 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_003 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

More information

VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING

VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING 14.53 THEORETICAL SOIL MECHANICS VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOILS TYPES OF LOADING Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples: -Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples:

More information

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION SERIES 8000 PRECAST CONCRETE TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION PART 8000 - PRECAST CONCRETE TABLE OF CONTENTS Item Number Page 8100 PRECAST CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION - GENERAL 8-3 8101 General

More information

General Overview of Post-Tensioned Concrete Design

General Overview of Post-Tensioned Concrete Design PDHonline Course S127 (2 PDH) General Overview of Post-Tensioned Concrete Design Instructor: D. Matthew Stuart, P.E., S.E., F.ASCE, F.SEI, SECB, MgtEng 2013 PDH Online PDH Center 5272 Meadow Estates Drive

More information

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams

HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams HOW TO DESIGN CONCRETE STRUCTURES Beams Instructions for the Members of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO: It is the responsibility of the Members (national associations) of BIBM, CEMBUREAU, EFCA and ERMCO

More information

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

More information

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

More information

A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated.

A transverse strip of the deck is assumed to support the truck axle loads. Shear and fatigue of the reinforcement need not be investigated. Design Step 4 Design Step 4.1 DECK SLAB DESIGN In addition to designing the deck for dead and live loads at the strength limit state, the AASHTO-LRFD specifications require checking the deck for vehicular

More information

Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems

Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems Distribution of Forces in Lateral Load Resisting Systems Part 2. Horizontal Distribution and Torsion IITGN Short Course Gregory MacRae Many slides from 2009 Myanmar Slides of Profs Jain and Rai 1 Reinforced

More information

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN

SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN CHAPTER Structural Steel Design LRFD Method Third Edition SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN A. J. Clark School of Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Part II Structural

More information

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design

New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design New approaches in Eurocode 3 efficient global structural design Part 1: 3D model based analysis using general beam-column FEM Ferenc Papp* and József Szalai ** * Associate Professor, Department of Structural

More information

Design MEMO 60 Reinforcement design for TSS 102

Design MEMO 60 Reinforcement design for TSS 102 Date: 04.0.0 sss Page of 5 CONTENTS PART BASIC ASSUMTIONS... GENERAL... STANDARDS... QUALITIES... 3 DIMENSIONS... 3 LOADS... 3 PART REINFORCEMENT... 4 EQUILIBRIUM... 4 Date: 04.0.0 sss Page of 5 PART BASIC

More information

SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES

SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES SECTION 02832 CHAIN LINK FENCE AND GATES PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. Fabrication, furnishing and installation of chain link fence, chain link gates, and extension brackets with barbed wire.

More information

Rigid and Braced Frames

Rigid and Braced Frames Rigid Frames Rigid and raced Frames Rigid frames are identified b the lack of pinned joints within the frame. The joints are rigid and resist rotation. The ma be supported b pins or fied supports. The

More information

Structural Integrity Analysis

Structural Integrity Analysis Structural Integrity Analysis 1. STRESS CONCENTRATION Igor Kokcharov 1.1 STRESSES AND CONCENTRATORS 1.1.1 Stress An applied external force F causes inner forces in the carrying structure. Inner forces

More information

OPTIMAL DIAGRID ANGLE TO MINIMIZE DRIFT IN HIGH-RISE STEEL BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO WIND LOADS

OPTIMAL DIAGRID ANGLE TO MINIMIZE DRIFT IN HIGH-RISE STEEL BUILDINGS SUBJECTED TO WIND LOADS International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 11, Nov 215, pp. 1-1, Article ID: IJCIET_6_11_1 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=11

More information

B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN

B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN No. of Printed Pages : 7 BAS-01.0 B.TECH. (AEROSPACE ENGINEERING) PROGRAMME (BTAE) CV CA CV C:) O Term-End Examination December, 2011 BAS-010 : MACHINE DESIGN Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70 Note : (1)

More information

5 G R A TINGS ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL. MBG Metal Bar Grating METAL BAR GRATING MANUAL MBG 534-12 METAL BAR GRATING NAAMM

5 G R A TINGS ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL. MBG Metal Bar Grating METAL BAR GRATING MANUAL MBG 534-12 METAL BAR GRATING NAAMM METAL BAR NAAMM GRATNG MANUAL MBG 534-12 5 G R A TNG NAAMM MBG 534-12 November 4, 2012 METAL BAR GRATNG ENGNEERNG DEGN MANUAL NAAMM MBG 534-12 November 4, 2012 5 G R A TNG MBG Metal Bar Grating A Division

More information

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST EVALUATION OF SEISMIC RESPONSE - FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING -BUCHAREST Abstract Camelia SLAVE University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Marasti

More information

Strengthening of Large Storage Tank Foundation Walls in an Aggressive Environment by External Post-tensioning. May 7th 2013: Dominique Deschamps

Strengthening of Large Storage Tank Foundation Walls in an Aggressive Environment by External Post-tensioning. May 7th 2013: Dominique Deschamps Strengthening of Large Storage Tank Foundation Walls in an Aggressive Environment by External Post-tensioning May 7th 2013: Dominique Deschamps Scope of the paper Presentation of the project Cause of cracks

More information

Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables

Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Retrofitting of RCC Structure WIH Strengthening of Shear Wall with External Post Tensioning Cables Yogesh Ghodke, G. R. Gandhe Department of Civil Engineering, Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management

More information

Thermokorb Balcony Connector System

Thermokorb Balcony Connector System Thermokorb Balcony Connector System 15-1 www.cfsfixings.com Contents Thermal AVI Thermokorb Insulated Balcony Connection System 15-3 Type TKM 15-6 Type TKA 15-7 Type TKF 15-8 Thermokorb Special Solutions

More information

Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02

Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02 ENGINEERING DATA REPORT NUMBER 51 Tension Development and Lap Splice Lengths of Reinforcing Bars under ACI 318-02 A SERVICE OF THE CONCRETE REINFORCING STEEL INSTITUTE Introduction Section 1.2.1 in the

More information

9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I)

9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) 9.3 Two-way Slabs (Part I) This section covers the following topics. Introduction Analysis and Design Features in Modeling and Analysis Distribution of Moments to Strips 9.3.1 Introduction The slabs are

More information

Aluminium systems profile selection

Aluminium systems profile selection Aluminium systems profile selection The purpose of this document is to summarise the way that aluminium profile selection should be made, based on the strength requirements for each application. Curtain

More information

Analysis of Underground Water Tank

Analysis of Underground Water Tank Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 (Metric Units) Analysis of Underground Water Tank Using SAP2000 Table of Content Objective... 3 Problem... 3 Step by Step... 6 1. Start Model with Template...

More information

VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL TYPES OF LOADING. Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Examples: - Posts. Examples: - Railroad track

VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL TYPES OF LOADING. Point Loads (P) Line Loads (q/unit length) Examples: - Posts. Examples: - Railroad track VERTICAL STRESS INCREASES IN SOIL Point Loads (P) TYPES OF LOADING Line Loads (q/unit length) Revised 0/015 Figure 6.11. Das FGE (005). Examples: - Posts Figure 6.1. Das FGE (005). Examples: - Railroad

More information

Statics of Structural Supports

Statics of Structural Supports Statics of Structural Supports TYPES OF FORCES External Forces actions of other bodies on the structure under consideration. Internal Forces forces and couples exerted on a member or portion of the structure

More information

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Int. J. Struct. & Civil Engg. Res. 2013 Y V Ladi and P M Mohite, 2013 Research Paper EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM RETROFITTED WITH FERROCEMENT Y V Ladi 1 * and P M Mohite 2 *Corresponding

More information

1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona

1997 Uniform Administrative Code Amendment for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures Tucson/Pima County, Arizona for Earthen Material and Straw Bale Structures SECTION 70 - GENERAL "APPENDIX CHAPTER 7 - EARTHEN MATERIAL STRUCTURES 70. Purpose. The purpose of this chapter is to establish minimum standards of safety

More information

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE

SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE SECTION 3 DESIGN OF POST- TENSIONED COMPONENTS FOR FLEXURE DEVELOPED BY THE PTI EDC-130 EDUCATION COMMITTEE LEAD AUTHOR: TREY HAMILTON, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA NOTE: MOMENT DIAGRAM CONVENTION In PT design,

More information

Structural Analysis. EUROCODE 2 Background and Applications

Structural Analysis. EUROCODE 2 Background and Applications Dissemination of information for training Brussels, 20-21 October 2011 1 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Manfred Curbach TU Dresden, Institute for Concrete Structures M.Sc. Martin Just TU Dresden, Institute for Concrete

More information

ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTAL BEAM

ABSTRACT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SEGMENTAL BEAM Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI 11), Engineering for a Smart Planet, Innovation, Information Technology and Computational Tools for Sustainable Development, August 3-, 11,

More information

Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures

Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Approximate Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures Every successful structure must be capable of reaching stable equilibrium under its applied loads, regardless of structural behavior. Exact analysis

More information

Chapter 8. Flexural Analysis of T-Beams

Chapter 8. Flexural Analysis of T-Beams Chapter 8. Flexural Analysis of T-s 8.1. Reading Assignments Text Chapter 3.7; ACI 318, Section 8.10. 8.2. Occurrence and Configuration of T-s Common construction type.- used in conjunction with either

More information

The elements used in commercial codes can be classified in two basic categories:

The elements used in commercial codes can be classified in two basic categories: CHAPTER 3 Truss Element 3.1 Introduction The single most important concept in understanding FEA, is the basic understanding of various finite elements that we employ in an analysis. Elements are used for

More information

Deflections. Question: What are Structural Deflections?

Deflections. Question: What are Structural Deflections? Question: What are Structural Deflections? Answer: The deformations or movements of a structure and its components, such as beams and trusses, from their original positions. It is as important for the

More information

Appendix : According to IBC 2003, table , the minimum uniformly distributed live loads and minimum concentrated live loads are as follow:

Appendix : According to IBC 2003, table , the minimum uniformly distributed live loads and minimum concentrated live loads are as follow: Appendix Dead and Live Loads International Building Code 2003 (IBC) 1607.1: According to IBC 2003, table 1607.1, the minimum uniformly distributed live loads and minimum concentrated live loads are as

More information