9/22/2011. Learning Target: To understand the review impact of the Roman Empire and Greece on history: take a senteo quiz.

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1 Learning Target: To understand the review impact of the Roman Empire and Greece on history: take a senteo quiz. Rome Intro 1

2 Italy in 750 BCE 2

3 Early Civilization -Italy was originally occupied by many different groups of people -Two main groups were Greek colonists and the Etruscans -The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy and Rome itself -Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled in the area that is now Rome around 800 B.C. 5 Influence of the Etruscans Writing Religion The Arch 3

4 Legend of the Founding of Rome -Legend has it that twin brothers, Romulus and Remus founded the city -According to the tale, the twins mother was a Latin woman and their father was the war god Mars - 7 Rome is located: -On the banks of the Tiber River -On and around seven hills 8 4

5 - 509 B.C. Rome is Founded -Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler and established a republic - They did not want one person to have all the power 10 5

6 Republican Government 2 Consuls (Rulers of Rome) Senate (Representative body for patricians) Tribal Assembly (Representative body for plebeians) Structure of the Republic -Patricians= landholding upper class -Plebeians= farmers, merchants, artisans, -traders Patricians Plebeians -Senate= governing body -Consuls= two patricians -Dictator= assigned to be in charge in the event of a war for six months 12 6

7 The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE Providing political and social rights for the plebeians. The Roman Forum 7

8 Carthaginian Empire 8

9 Roman Empire Most powerful ancient empire At the time of Punic Wars had only conquered Italy and some of the surrounding islands. Started Punic Wars The Punic Wars -Carthage had an empire throughout the Mediterranean -Rome fought Carthage in three wars from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C. (118 years!) Had the largest navy at the time of 246 B.C. 18 9

10 First Punic War Fought on and around the island of Sicily Rome besieged many Carthaginian cities in Sicily Carthage blockaded Sicily Rome destroyed Carthage's Navy. Rome won the first Punic War Hannibal s Route 10

11 Hannibal Trebia and Tresemia Second Punic War Carthage created colonies in Spain and General Hannibal Attacked Rome. Hannibal captured almost all of Italy. Roman General Scipio captured Spain cutting off supplies to Hannibal. Scipio attacked Carthage and defeated Hannibal Rome Controls all of Northern Africa 11

12 Third Punic War Rome became afraid Carthage would attack again. Rome attacked Carthage Rome decimated the city and sold the Carthaginians into slavery. Carthage was finally defeated by Rome after 120 years of fighting. 12

13 Politics -Rome grows strong and begins conquering the rest of Italy -By 270 B.C., Rome controls most of the Italian peninsula -Military is made up of citizens -Rome conquered justly- allowing those conquered to keep their culture, customs, and government- as long as they supplied soldiers, paid taxes, and acknowledge Roman leadership 25 Religion -Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many gods and goddesses -Many of the gods were adapted from the Greek gods Greek God Zeus-ruler of all gods Hera-wife of Zeus, protected marriage Poseidon-god of the sea Roman God Jupiter-ruler of all gods Juno-wife of Jupiter, protected marriage Neptune-god of the sea -Roman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations to honor the gods and goddesses -Temples for worship to ask for divine assistance 26 13

14 Rome s Early Road System Roman Roads: The Appian Way 14

15 Roman Aqueducts The Roman Colosseum 15

16 The Colosseum Interior Circus Maximus 16

17 Reform Leaders Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus the poor should be given grain and small plots of free land. Military Reformer Gaius Marius recruited an army from the poor and homeless. professional standing army. The Gracchus Brothers -Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus were patricians who were elected tribunes The brothers worked to get the state to distribute the land to the poor farmers They also worked to get the state to buy grain to feed the poor Senate felt they were a threat to its power, and hired thugs to kill the brothers and their followers 34 17

18 Civil War & Dictators Julius Caesar Pompey Julius Caesar Alesia 18

19 Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC The Die is Cast! The First Triumvirate Julius Caesar Marcus Licinius Crassus Gaius Magnus Pompey 19

20 Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE The Second Triumvirate Octavian Augustus Marc Antony Marcus Lepidus 20

21 Octavian Augustus: Rome s First Emperor 21

22 The First Roman Dynasty Pax Romana: 27 BCE 180 CE 22

23 The Greatest Extent of the Roman Empire 14 CE The Rise of Christianity 23

24 St. Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles The Spread of Christianity 24

25 Imperial Roman Road System The Empire in Crisis: 3c 25

26 Diocletian Splits the Empire in Two: 294 CE Constantine:

27 Constantinople: The 2 nd Rome (Founded in 330) Barbarian Invasions: 4c-5c 27

28 Attila the Hun: The Scourge of God Byzantium: The Eastern Roman Empire 28

29 The Byzantine Empire During the Reign of Justinian -Civil wars break out to decide who should hold power. The senate wanted to keep the status quo; political leaders wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms -Slave uprisings throughout the republic -Armies became loyal to their commanders because they gave them benefits such as captured land 58 29

30 The Byzantine Emperor Justinian The Legacy of Rome Republic Government Roman Law Latin Language Roman Catholic Church City Planning Romanesque Architectural Style Roman Engineering Aqueducts Sewage systems Dams Cement Arch 30

31 31

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