The Delta Cost Perspective on College Costs

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1 The Delta Cost Perspective on College Costs Rita J. Kirshstein Director, Delta Cost Project December 7, 2012

2 Session Overview Why the Delta Cost Project The Key Delta Cost Metrics Delta Cost Products & Resources What We Still Don t Know

3 College Affordability Concerns Not New Many Commissions, Studies & Reports 1947, Truman Commission 1986, Congressional request to study escalating college costs 1998, National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education 2006, Spellings Commission on the Future of Higher Education

4 Today s College Affordability Crisis Is Different Tuition has far outpaced inflation Tuition has increased faster than median family income College degree more necessary College students coming from more diverse backgrounds

5 Tuition Has Outpaced Inflation

6 Tuition Has Outpaced Median Family Income

7 College Degree Is Necessary

8 College Students Are More Diverse More Lower Income Students Attending College Many Students Not Prepared for College Work

9 Lots of Attention on College Affordability Miami Herald Student loans, college affordability deserve more attention from presidential candidates Washington Post No magic solution to college affordability St. Louis Post Dispatch College affordability in jeopardy, officials warn Missouri legislators New York Times College costs weighing down a generation with student debt

10 College Affordability a National Concern Responses to How We Can Help People Become Economically Secure 70% 60% 63% 50% 40% 48% 40% 30% 20% 22% 10% 0% Make Higher Ed More Affordable Cut Taxes for Middle Class Reduce Federal Deficit Help with Underwater Mortgages

11 Attention to Tuition, Student Aid, and State Appropriations

12 College Spending Had Been Ignored Just looking at revenue not enough Delta Cost Project fills gap in discussions of college spending Belief that spending can be contained without sacrificing access or educational quality Better use of data to inform strategic decision making

13 The Delta Cost Project Brainchild of Jane Wellman Delta Project on Postsecondary Education Costs, Productivity and Accountability Started in 2007 as an independent 503(c) Analytic work moved to American Institutes for Research (AIR) in January 2012 Maintenance of database went to NCES

14 The Delta Cost Project (2) Mission: to improve college affordability by helping policy makers & higher education administrators understand higher education costs and productivity Focus: how colleges and universities spend money; how tuition (price), other revenues, & spending relate to one another Tools: reports and briefs; online analysis system; website with available resources

15 The Delta Cost Data Source: IPEDS Data standardized & harmonized Matched sets of data 6 year, year, year, Available at TCS Online online.org

16 The Delta Cost Institutional Categories Public Research 152 Public Masters 230 Public Bachelors 86 Public Community Colleges 819 Private Research 99 Private Masters 311 Private Bachelors 466 Number of institutions in matched set

17 The Delta Cost Metrics Revenues: Where the Money Comes From Spending: Where the Money Goes Subsidies: Who Pays for What Outcomes: What the Money Buys

18 Revenue Categories Net tuition revenue State & local appropriations Private & affiliated gifts, investment returns, & endowment income (PIE) State & local grants & contracts Federal appropriations, grants & contracts Auxiliary enterprises Hospitals, independent operations & other sources

19 Revenue by Source

20 Net Tuition vs. State & Local Appropriations

21 Basic Spending Categories Instruction Research Public service Student services Academic support Institutional support Scholarships & fellowships net of allowances Plant operation & maintenance Auxiliary enterprises, hospitals and clinics, and independent and other operations

22 Analytical Spending Metrics Education & Related (E&R) Instruction & student services (100%) Portion of academic support, institutional support, operations & maintenance Education & General (E&G) All revenue sources other than auxiliary enterprises & hospitals Total Operating

23 Spending by Standard Expense Categories: Key Findings, Drop in spending on operation & maintenance Declines in spending for institutional support Across the board spending cuts in community colleges

24 Spending by Aggregated Expense Categories,

25 Understanding Costs, Price, & Subsidies in Higher Education For not for profit colleges, price is generally less than costs Subsidy Subsidy: difference between costs & price Price + Subsidy = Cost Costs Price

26 Tuition Revenues & Subsidy Shares of E&R Costs

27 Explaining Rising Tuitions: Increased Spending or Cost shifting?

28 Outcomes: Degrees & Completions per 100 FTE Students

29 Outcomes: E&R Spending per Degree & Completion,

30 Where to Find Reports!

31 Coming Soon College Spending in a Turbulent Decade Staffing and Compensation Patterns in Higher Education: Academic Spending versus Athletic Spending: Who Wins? Climbing Walls and Climbing Tuitions Are College Fees Rising Faster than Tuition Prices? Measuring Community College Spending

32 Sneak Preview: Staffing and Compensation Patterns Growth in part time faculty & non faculty professional staff Faculty salaries relatively flat Investment in professional staff providing student services Benefit costs rose faster than salaries

33 Sneak Preview: Academic Spending/Athletic Spending Public Division I institutions, More spent per athlete than spent to education average student Athletic subsidies per athlete increased in all subdivisions Very few athletic departments self funded

34 Sneak Preview: Climbing Walls & Climbing Tuitions Rock climbing walls get attention! Deferred maintenance of buildings a concern Facilities student life & academic attract students Emphasis on walls detracts from what really drives tuition increases.

35 Sneak Preview: College Tuitions vs Fees 2005 to 2010: Fees grew faster than tuition, except in research institutions to 2010: Fee increases averages less than $400. Public sector fees typically larger

36 Sneak Preview: Community College Spending 40% of all students attend community colleges Almost 2/3 enrolled part time Spending per FTE measures may misrepresent what community colleges spend The case of student services

37 Other Delta Cost Products: State Profiles

38 Other Delta Cost Products: Online Analysis System

39 Website Other Delta Cost Resources Helpful Staff! Rita Kirshstein, Steve Hurlburt,

40 And We Still Need to Know Costs and effectiveness of specific student supports & services When technology works best and saves money Relative costs of undergraduate vs. graduate education Discipline specific costs

41 College Spending: Public View

42 College Spending: Policy Analyst View college spending is the driving force behind affordability or lack thereof in the long run. Institutional spending is limited only by the ambition of institutions, which is to say not at all. Kevin Carey The Net Price Myth Chronicle of Higher Education November 26, 2012

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