Major Agreements of the Oslo Peace Process

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1 Major Agreements of the Oslo Peace Process Seven years - from the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government to the outbreak of the second Intifada t Beginning a Peace Process During the 1991 Gulf War, an international coalition expelled Iraq from Kuwait. The United States used the momentum of these events to start a new Middle East peace initiative. Centrepiece of these efforts was the aim to achieve a settlement in the Arab- Israeli conflict. The initiatives led to the holding of the Madrid Conference at the end of October All parties of the Middle East conflict were invited to attend the conference, including delegations from Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. The representative of the Palestinians, the Palestinian Liberation Organisation (PLO), was not invited. Yet, the PLO was in close contact with Palestinians participating at the conference as part of the Jordanian delegation. After the initial conference, broke into bilateral and multilateral tracks between the conflict parties. Stalemate in the official talks with Palestinian representatives led the newly elected Labour administration under Yitzhak Rabin to conduct a diplomatic revolution: the decision to hold direct talks with the PLO. In September 1993, the encouraging outcomes of these secret held under the auspice of the Norwegian government led to the signing of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements, better known as Oslo I. 1 About the Fact Sheet The Fact Sheet enlists in chronological order six major agreements signed between 1993 and By summarizing each of the subsequent agreements on one page, it aims to present comparable core data. The pages show the same structure: a blue box giving basic information followed on the right side by a short text providing the reader with the backdrop of the, the signing of the agreement and its implementation. At the bottom part of each side a chart visualizes the central topics of the subsequent agreements. Each topic is accompanied by the corresponding text passages. At the bottom, the concrete outcome of the agreement is examined; successfully implemented topics are highlighted in green.

2 Date Known as 13 September 1993 Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangement 2 Oslo I; Oslo Accords; Declaration of Principles Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat The Declaration of Principles was not a fully fledged agreement but rather a framework for further, mainly by providing a strict timetable. The Declaration laid down that within two months of the signing ceremony, agreement on Israel s military withdrawal from Gaza and Jericho should be reached and within four months the withdrawal should be completed. ( ) At the same time, elsewhere in the West Bank, Israel undertook to transfer power to authorized Palestinians in five spheres: education, health, social welfare, direct taxation, and tourism. Within nine months, the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza were to hold elections to a Palestinian Council to take office and assume responsibility for most government functions except defence and foreign affairs. Within two years, Israel and the Palestinians agreed to commence on the final status of the territories, and at the end of five years the permanent settlement was to come into force. 3 Both Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat -- the two leaders at that time -- were jointly awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize of 1994, honouring their efforts to make peace. 4 Despite severe internal criticism on either side, the Declaration was followed by five major agreements signed by Israel and the PLO. These agreements are examined on the following pages. Agreement on the withdrawal from Gaza Strip and Jericho area Withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area Transfer of authority after the withdrawal Redeployment of Israeli military forces Permanent status The two sides agree to conclude and sign within two months from the date of entry into force of the Declaration an agreement on the withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. (Annex II, 1.) Beginning immediately with the signing of the agreement on the Gaza Strip and Jericho area, Israel will implement an accelerated and scheduled withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area, to be completed within a period not exceeding four months. (Annex II, 2.) Immediately after the entry into force of this Declaration and the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area authority will be transferred to the Palestinians on the spheres [of] education and culture, health, social welfare, direct taxation and tourism. (Article VI, 2.) Upon the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area a five-year transitional period will begin with the aim of a settlement at the end of this period. (Article V, 1.) After the entry into force of the Declaration, and not later than the eve of elections for the Council that are scheduled within nine months, a of Israeli military forces in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip will take place. (Article XIII, 1.) An agreement will be concluded on the exact mode and conditions of the elections with the goal of holding the elections not later than nine months after the entry into force of the Declaration. (Article III, 2.) As soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third year of the interim period, permanent status will commence between the Government of Israel and the Palestinian people's representatives. (Article V, 2.) The agreement on the withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area is signed on May 4, See Gaza-Jericho- Agreement below.

3 Date Known as 4 May 1994 Gaza-Jericho-Agreement 5 Cairo Agreement Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat The talks concerning the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area scheduled in the Declaration of Principles repeatedly plunged into crisis. They lasted considerably longer than the two months allowed for in the original timetable. Among other reasons, a central cause of the delay was the disparity between Israeli security considerations and the Palestinian wish for an early and extensive transfer of authority. Finally, after nearly eight months, the Gaza-Jericho were completed on May 4, 1994 with the signing of the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement. The Agreement outlined the steps to be taken for the implementation of the principles agreed upon earlier in the Declaration of Principles. Subsequently, Israel withdrew its security forces from the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area and transferred the authorities to the newly established Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority. Furthermore, the five-year interim period referred to in the Declaration of Principles officially began on the day that the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement was signed. 6 Agreement on the withdrawal from Gaza Strip and Jericho area Withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area Transfer of authority after the withdrawal Redeployment of Israeli military forces Permanent status Immediately upon the signing of the Agreement Israel will implement an accelerated and scheduled withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and from the Jericho Area. Israel shall complete such withdrawal within three weeks from this date. (Article II) Immediately upon the signing of the Agreement Israel shall commence preparations to transfer authority from the Israeli military government and its Civil Administration to the new established Palestinian Authority. The preparations shall be completed within three weeks. (Article III; Annex II, Article 2, 2.) On the date of the signing of the Agreement the fiveyear interim period referred to in the Declaration of Principles commences. (Article XXIII) According to the Declaration of Principles: After the entry into force of the Declaration, and not later than the eve of elections for the Council, a of Israeli military forces in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip will take place. (Declaration of Principles Article XIII, 1.) According to the Declaration of Principles: An agreement will be concluded on the exact mode and conditions of the elections with the goal of holding the elections not later than nine months after the entry into force of the Declaration. (Declaration of Principles Article III, 2.) According to the Declaration of Principles: As soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third year of the interim period, permanent status will commence between the Government of Israel and the Palestinian people's representatives. (Declaration of Principles Article V, 2.) The Knesset approves the Agreement on May 11, Israel hands over the Jericho area to the Palestinian police on May 13 7 and completes its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip on May 18, The Palestinian Council is sweared in on July 5, 9 the Palestinian Self- Government in the Gaza Strip and Jericho area is implemented on July On August 29, an agreement is signed to transfers authorities to the Council. 11 This early empowerment is completed on December 1, In accordance with the agreement, the five-year interim period begins on May 4, On November 8, 1994 it is agreed to start preliminary talks on. 13 On November 8, 1994 it is agreed to start preliminary talks on Palestinian elections. 14

4 Date Known as 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip 15 Oslo II; Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement; Interim Agreement; Taba Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat The first stage of the Israeli-Palestinian was concluded by the signing of the Interim Agreement on September 28, The Agreement, popularly known as Oslo II, incorporated and superseded the earlier agreements achieved between Israel and the PLO. Most considerably, it outlined steps of a of Israeli military forces from Palestinian centres of population, set a timetable for elections to a Palestinian Council and divided the West Bank into three areas; Area A, B and C. Area A was set under exclusive Palestinian, Area C under exclusive Israeli control. Area B was decided to face mixed responsibility, with the PLO exercising civilian authority and Israel remaining in charge of security matters. With these arrangements, Oslo II marked the point of no return in partly ending Israel s coercive control over the Palestinians. The signing of the Agreement was accompanied by fierce criticism from the Israeli right. One month later, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a religious-nationalist Jewish fanatic at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. Like the murderer intended, the attack was a blow to the entire peace process. Presidential elections in May 1996 brought Benjamin Netanyahu into office, giving the peace process a new spin. 16 First phase of Redeployment Redeployment in Hebron Further Redeployment Permanent status The five-year interim period referred to in the Declaration of Principles ends on May 4, The Palestinian Council and the president of the Executive Authority of the Council are elected for this transitional period. (Article III, 4.) Ten days after the signing of the Agreement the first phase of the Israeli military forces from populated areas in the West Bank will commence. It is intended to be completed at the end of December 1995 except the area of Hebron. (Article X, 1; Annex I, Appendix I, A) The elections shall take place at the earliest practicable date following the of Israeli forces. The first phase of the Israeli military forces will be completed 22 days before the day of the elections. (Article II, 4; Article X, 1.) Six months after the signing of the Agreement the Redeployment in the area of Hebron will be completed. (Annex I, Appendix I, A) The further s of Israeli military forces will be gradually implemented in three phases, each to take place after an interval of six months, after the inauguration of the elected Council, to be completed within 18 months from the date of the inauguration of the Council. (Article XI, 2.d.) Permanent status will commence as soon as possible, but not later than May 4, 1996, between the Parties. (Article XXXI, 5.) 4 November 1995: Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin is assassinated by a religious-nationalist Jewish fanatic at a peace rally in Tel Aviv 17 The first phase of begins upon the withdrawal from Jenin on November 13 and is completed upon the withdrawal from Ramallah on December 27, The first elections for the Palestinian Council and the presidential elections take place on January 20, Arafat is elected president with 87 percent of the vote and sworn in on February 12, the Council is inaugurated on March 7, An outbreak of violence causes Israel to delay the that had to take place in March 1996 until after the elections. 20 On May 29, 1996 Benyamin Netanyahu is elected new Prime Minister. 21 Afterwards, general do not resume until August 14, On May 5, 1996 Israeli and Palestinian delegations open on the final status of the Palestinian territory. 22 After Benyamin Netanyahu s election as new Prime Minister general do not resume until August 14,

5 Date Known as 15 to 17 January 1997 Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron 24 The Hebron Protocol; Hebron Agreement Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu and President Yasser Arafat The electoral victory of Likud under the leadership of Benyamin Netanyahu in May 1996 had far-reaching implications for the peace process. From the very beginning, the party was strongly opposed to the landfor-peace policy of the former Labour government under Yitzhak Rabin. The two and a half years of Netanyahu s term were marked by policies that aimed to defer and subvert the Oslo agreements. While arguing that all steps taken by his government occurred in reaction to Palestinian actions, his term was dotted with unilateral steps like the demolition of Arab houses, the confiscation of land and the building of new settlements. Only through considerable foreign pressure during his term, two agreements dealing with the concession of territory to the Palestinian Authority were signed: The first one concerned the Redeployment in Hebron, in Oslo II originally scheduled to be completed in March After Netanyahu s election, these came to a halt. It was only in January 1997, when the Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron was signed. The was completed within days after the signing of the Agreement. 25 First phase of Redeployment Redeployment in Hebron Further Redeployment Permanent status According to the Interim Agreement: The five-year interim period ends on May 4, The Palestinian Council and the president are elected for this transitional period. (Interim Agreement Article III, 4.) Not later than ten days from the signing of the Protocol and in accordance with the Interim Agreement the of Israeli Military Forces in Hebron will be carried out and completed. (Article I) According to Oslo II: The further s of Israeli military forces will be gradually implemented in three phases, to be completed within 18 months from the date of the inauguration of the Council. (Oslo II Article XI, 2.d.) According to Oslo II: Permanent status will commence as soon as possible, but not later than May 4, 1996, between the Parties. (Oslo II Article XXXI, 5.) Under diplomatic pressure Prime Minister Netanyahu and President Arafat agree on the protocol at January 14, dividing the city into an Arab and a Jewish part. The withdrawal commences the following day with the Knesset approving the protocol. At January 17, 1997 the is completed. 26 Months long deadlock in the. Several plans are proposed during 1998, leading to a new agreement signed in October. See Wye River Memorandum below. Months long deadlock in the. Several plans are proposed during 1998, leading to a new agreement signed in October. See Wye River Memorandum below.

6 Date 23. October 1998 Wye River Memorandum 27 Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu and President Yasser Arafat The second agreement under Netanyahu conceding territory to the Palestinian Authority was signed on October 23, The Wye River Memorandum was intended to fulfil earlier provisions by establishing a three-step timetable for the implementation of phases one and two (of three) of further envisaged in Oslo II. After the formal approval of the Memorandum by the Israeli Cabinet and by the Knesset, the first of the three decided steps of was carried out on November 20, Afterwards, despite the ratification of the Wye River agreement by the Knesset, Mr. Netanyahu came under fire from the extreme right and from the religious parties, even in his own government coalition, who objected to any withdrawal from Palestinian territory. He announced that the next phase of withdrawal, on 18 December, would not take place and finally, on 20 December, suspended implementation of the agreement. 28 The Right's subsequent uproar led the Knesset to pass a vote of no confidence in Netanyahu's government and general elections were pushed up. In the elections on May 17, 1999 Netanyahu lost against his competitor from the Labour Party, Ehud Barak. 29 First phase of Redeployment Redeployment in Hebron Further Redeployment Permanent status According to the Interim Agreement: The five-year interim period ended on May 4, The Palestinian Council and the President were elected for this transitional period. (Interim Agreement Article III, 4.) Pursuant to the Interim Agreement, the Israeli side was meant to implement the first and second Phases of the Further Redeployment in three steps between week two and twelve upon entry into force of the Memorandum. (Article I, A; Attachment Timeline) The two sides were meant to immediately resume permanent status on an accelerated basis and were supposed to make a determined effort to reach an agreement by May 4, (Article IV) The five-year interim period runs out on May 4, 1999 without a final agreement reached. Yet, the Palestinian Council and the President continued their work in silent agreement with the Israeli side. The Knesset adopted the memorandum on November 17. The first step was completed on November 21, Due to pressure from the extreme right and religious parties within his coalition, Netanyahu suspended the implementation of the next steps of the agreement on December 20, The opening of final status was postponed on October 24 and again on December 3, Meanwhile, the interim period run out on May 4, The election of Ehud Barak as Prime Minister revived the peace process and led to the signing of the Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum, see below.

7 17 May 1999: Ehud Barak is elected Prime Minister Date Known as 4 September 1999 Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum on Implementation Timeline of Outstanding Commitments of Agreements Signed and the Resumption of Permanent Status Negotiations 33 Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum Prime Minister Ehud Barak and President Yasser Arafat With the original interim period already running out on May 4, 1999, the election of Ehud Barak, a Labour politician, as Prime Minister revived the peace process. After six months of, the deadlock created by the failed implement of the Wye River Memorandum was overcome by the signing of the Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum. A timetable for the final status talks was set up, demanding a comprehensive agreement by September 13, In a promising start, the implementation of phases one and two (of three) of further envisaged in Oslo II began in due time, though no regulations for the third phase were set. After the opening of the final status on November 8, 1999 and rising disappointment on the Palestinian side, difficulties aroused again. 34 The renewed deadlock led to the announcement of to be held in Camp David with American help. The ended in a disappointment on both sides with Barak hoping to impose his terms with the help of the American brokers and Arafat rejecting the offered proposals. After then Defence Minister Ariel Sharon s provocative visit on the Temple Mount on September 28, 2000 and the subsequent outbreak of the Second Intifada, the set deadline expired without an agreement being reached. 35 First phase of Redeployment Redeployment in Hebron Further Redeployment Permanent status Pursuant to the Interim Agreement the Israeli side will implement the first and second Phases of the Further Redeployments in three steps between September 5, 1999 and January 20, (Article II) Permanent Status will resume not later than September 13, The two sides will conclude a comprehensive agreement on all Permanent Status issues within one year from the resumption of the. (Article I, e; Article I, d.) The first step of phase one and two of the Further Redeployment is completed at September 10, 1999; the second step at January 6, 2000 and the third and last step at March 21, There is no agreement upon the implementation of the third Phase of the Further Redeployment outlined in the Interim Agreement. The formally resume on September 13, On July 11, the Camp David 2000 Summit convenes. 37 The summit ends on July 25, with the declaration of a Trilateral Statement defining the agreed principles to guide further. 38 The set deadline ends without an agreement being reached.

8 28 September 2000: Then Defence Minister Ariel Sharon visits the Temple Mount. Outbreak of the Second Intifada. Summary: Seven years - from the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government to the outbreak of the Second Intifada 13 September 1993: The Declaration of Principles (Oslo I) was the first Agreement ever between Israel and the PLO, setting the framework for further by providing a strict timetable. 4 Mai 1994: The Gaza-Jericho-Agreement outlined steps to implement the principles agreed upon earlier in Oslo I, most notably a withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and the Jericho area. 28 September 1995: The first stage of the Israeli-Palestinian was concluded by the signing of the Interim Agreement (Oslo II) which incorporated and superseded the earlier agreements. 4 November 1995: Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by a religious-nationalist Jewish fanatic at a peace rally in Tel Aviv. The peace process faced its first big blow. 15 to 17 January 1997: In the term of Prime Minister Benyamin Netanyahu, the Hebron Protocol was signed due to international pressure, dividing the city of Hebron into two parts. 23 October 1998: The Why River Memorandum intended to fulfil earlier provisions envisaged in Oslo II, among other phase one and two of the three phases of the further. 17 May 1999: Due to the Right's subsequent uproar and the following suspension of the Why River Agreement general elections were pushed up. On May 17, 1999 Ehud Barak was elected Prime Minister. 4 September 1999: The election of Labour politician Ehud Barak revived the peace process and led to the signing of the Sharm el- Sheikh Memorandum with a new timetable set up. 28 September 2000: Then Defence Minister Ariel Sharon s provocative visit on the Temple Mount on September 28 led to the outbreak of the Agreement on the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area Withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area Transfer of authority after the withdrawal Redeployment of Israeli military forces Permanent status As first step of the in the Declaration of Principles (Oslo I) outlined peace process the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement was signed at May 4, 1994, setting a timetable for the withdrawal of Israeli military forces from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. After the Knesset approved the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement, Israel handed over the Jericho area to the Palestinian police at May 13 and completed its withdrawal from the Gaza Strip at May 18, In accordance with the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement and the earlier Declaration of principles (Oslo I), an agreement was signed at August 29, 1994, outlining the process of transfer of authorities to the new established Palestinian Council. The so called early empowerment was completed at December 1, The five-year interim period referred to in Oslo I commenced at the date of the signing of the Gaza-Jericho-Agreement. According to the Interim Agreement (Oslo II) the Palestinian Council and the President were elected for this transitional period. The five-year interim period ran out at May 4, 1999 without a final agreement reached. Yet, the Palestinian Council and the President continued their work in silent agreement with the Israeli side. This status prevails until today. The first phase of the Redeployment, followed by the elections, was completed upon the withdrawal from Ramallah at December 28, The withdrawal from Hebron was completed at January 17, Phases one and two of the in the Interim Agreement (Oslo II) outlined three phases of Further Redeployment were implemented between November 20, 1998 and March 21, There is no agreement upon the third phase of the Further Redeployment outlined in Oslo II. The third phase waits to be implemented until today. After the first phase of was completed at December 28, 1995, the first elections for the Palestinian Council and the presidential elections took place at January 20, Arafat was elected president with 87 percent of the vote and sworn in at February 12. The Council was inaugurated at March 7, At May 5, 1996 Israeli and Palestinian delegations opened for the first time on the final status of the Palestinian territory. After Benyamin Netanyahu s election as new Prime Minister at May 29, 1996, the were in a deadlock with the five-year interim period running out at May 4, The election of Ehud Barak as Prime Minister at May 17, 1999, revived the peace process and lead to the signing of the Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum. The formally resumed on September 13, On July 11, the Camp David 2000 Summit convened. The summit ended on July 25, with the declaration of a Trilateral Statement defining the agreed principles to guide further. The set deadline ended without an agreement being reached at September 13, With

9 Second Intifada. the outbreak of the second Intifada, the peace process came to a temporary halt. Despite several initiatives, no final agreement is reached until today. Footnotes 1 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Guide to the Middle East Peace Process. 2 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangement. 3 Avi Shlaim The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. In: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, Louise. Oxford, Oxford University Press, p Nobelprize. The Nobel Peace Prize of Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Gaza-Jericho Agreement 6 Avi Shlaim The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. In: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, Louise. Oxford, Oxford University Press, p Journal of Palestinian Studies. Chronology 16 February-15 May Journal of Palestinian Studies. Chronology 16 May August. 9 Laub, Karin Arafat Swears In His Interim Ministers A Low But Fervent Turnout greets Him In West Bank. In: The Seattle Time. 10 Birzeit University. Legal Status in Palestine Palestinian Judicial system. 11 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities. 12 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Background on Early Empowerment. 13 Haberman, Clyde. 1994, Israel to speed Gaza talks. In: Wisconsin State Journal. 14 Haberman, Clyde. 1994, Israel to speed Gaza talks. In: Wisconsin State Journal. 15 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip 16 Avi Shlaim The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. In: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, Louise. Oxford, Oxford University Press, p BBC. The assasination of Yitzhak Rabin (audio). 18 Journal of Palestinian Studies. Chronology 16 November February Struck, Doug Arafat proclaims birth of a new democratic state First Palestinian Council inaugurated with grand promises, long speeches. In: The Baltimore Sun. 20 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Statement by Prime Minister Peres on Hebron Redeployment, 3 May Enyxclopaedia Britannica. Benjamin Netanyahu. 22 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Remarks by Mr. Uri Savir, Head of Israel's Delegation to the Permanent Status Negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. 23 Pessin, Al Netanyahu Proposes Routine Negotiations. 24 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron. 25 Avi Shlaim The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. In: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, Louise. Oxford, Oxford University Press, p Journal of Palestinian Studies. Chronology 16 November February Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Wye River Memorandum. 28 Avi Shlaim The Rise and Fall of the Oslo Peace Process. In: International Relations of the Middle East, ed. Fawcett, Louise. Oxford, Oxford University Press, p MEDEA. Why River Memorandum. 30 Aronson, Geoffrey Recapitulating the Redeployments: The Israel-PLO Interim Agreements. 31 MEDEA. Why River Memorandum. 32 MEDEA. Why River Memorandum. 33 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Sharm el-sheikh Memorandum: Selected Documents and Stages of Implementation. +Selected+D.htm

10 34 MEDEA. Why River Memorandum. 35 BBC. Al-Aqsa Intifada timeline. 36 Aronson, Geoffrey Recapitulating the Redeployments: The Israel-PLO Interim Agreements. 37 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Israel-Palestinian Negotiations. 38 Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Trilateral Statement on the Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David

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