Gravity and low pressure die casting of aluminium alloys: a technical and economical benchmark


 Pamela Hensley
 3 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Grvity nd low pressure die csting of luminium lloys: technicl nd economicl enchmrk F. Bonollo, J. Urn, B. Bontto, M. Botter Among the innovtive nd conventionl foundry processes for Aluminium lloys, low pressure die csting is chrcterised y severl dvntges, including high yield, excellent control of opertive prmeters, good metllurgicl nd technologicl qulity. This process is often (nd incorrectly) ssocited only to the production of utomotive wheels, while it is improving its potentil oth towrds other utomotive components nd nonutomotive prts. The pper is imed t showing the potentil of low pressure die csting for the production of sfety oxes, to e employed in chemicl, petrol nd offshore plnts. This potentil is exmined oth in technicl nd economicl terms, nd is compred with tht offered y other conventionl Aluminium foundry processes, such s permment mould grvity diecsting. Memorie Keywords: luminium lloys, foundry, low pressure die csting, defects, mterils chrcteristion, equipments INTRODUCTION The incresing numer of pplictions nd of products is the est proof of the success of Aluminium lloys foundry. This is proly one of the most dynmic fields inside mnufcturing nd engineering. The wellknown dvntges ssocited to the use of Aluminium lloys (light weight, good mechnicl ehviour, good corrosion resistnce, etc.) constitute the driving force for the introduction, on one hnd, of new pplictions nd design nd, on the other hnd, for the development of new processing solutions. Vrious processes re now competing, to chieve oth economiclly nd technologiclly dvntgeous production of Aluminium lloys cstings. The generl scenrio is descried in quite wide literture [110] nd is schemticlly shown in Figures 1 (prtprocessweight chrt) nd 1 (process vs qulity in terms of gs entrpment chrt). Among the most interesting processes, low pressure die csting is certinly worth mentioning, thnks to its peculirities, llowing, in severl cses, n excellent compromise etween qulity, costs, productivity, geometricl fesiility. Even if such process is quite old (the first ptent, concerning csting of led lloys, ws deposited in Englnd in 1910), its significnt industril ppliction strted thirty yers go [8]. Nowdys, it is dopted for csting Aluminium nd Mgnesiumsed lloys. The principle of this process is quite simple: the permnent die nd the filling system re plced over the furnce contining the molten lloy (Fig. 2) [16]. The filling of the cvity is otined y forcing (y mens of pressurized gs, typiclly rnging from 0.3 to 1.5 rs) the molten metl to rise into cermic tue (which is clled stlk), which connects the die to the furnce (Fig. 3). Generlly speking, the pressure used is roughly equivlent to 2 meters of n Aluminum column. Once the die cvity is filled, the overpressure in the furnce is removed, nd the residul molten metl in the tue flows gin towrds the furnce. The vrious prts of the die re then seprted, nd the csting is finlly extrcted. Specific ttention hs to e pid to the design of the die, to control y mens of proper cooling circuits, the solidifiction pth of the lloy. The mssive region of the csting hs to e the lst one to solidify nd must e plced ner to the F. Bonollo, J. Urn DTG  University of Pdov, Vicenz Itly B. Bontto  LPM, Pdov Itly M. Botter  Elfit, Villesse (GO) Itly Fig. 1 Field of convenience of foundry processes s function of production rte nd csting weight (); comprison of foundry processes in terms of gs content in cstings (). Fig. 1 Cmpi di convenienz dei processi di fonderi in funzione dell produzione richiest e del peso dei getti (); confronto tr i processi di fonderi in termini di contenuto di gs nei getti (). 6/2005 l metllurgi itlin 23
2 6/2005 Memorie stlk, which cts s virtul feeder nd llows to void the use of conventionl feeders, thus improving the yield of the process, which ecomes significntly high. The low injection velocity nd the reltively high cycle time led to good control of the fluiddynmics of the process, voiding the defects originted y turulence phenomen. Cstings up to 70 kg weight cn e produced, with tolernces of %. The die cn e design for the production of single csting or for multiple cstings, ccording to the size required nd to the chrcteristics of the mchine. The dvntges of low pressure die csting process re severl:  the high yield chievle (typiclly over 90%)  the reduction of mchining costs, thnks to the sence of feeders,  the excellent control of process prmeters which cn e otined, with high degree of utomtion,  the good metllurgicl qulity, thnks to homogeneous filling nd controlled solidifiction dynmics, resulting in good mechnicl nd technologicl properties of the cstings. The pplictions of low pressure die csting in the utomotive field re severl, even if this process is often (nd reductively) ssocited only to the production of wheels (Fig. 4). Some exmples of low pressure die csting products re collected in Fig. 4. Fig. 2 Generl scheme of the low pressure die csting process. Fig. 2 Schem di principio del processo di colt in ss pressione. Fig. 3 Working sequence in the LPDC process [8]. Fig. 3 Sequenz opertiv del processo di colt in ss pressione [8]. In this pper, the potentil of low pressure die csting for the production of sfety oxes, to e employed in chemicl, petrol nd offshore plnts, will e illustrted, oth in technicl nd economicl terms. The informtion presented will llow comprison with other conventionl Aluminium foundry processes, such s permment mould grvity csting. THE COMPONENTS INVESTIGATED The components selected for the presented study re sfety oxes nd covers (Fig 5) produced y ELFIT SpA y mens of different processes. The oxes re otined y low pressure (LPDC) nd grvity die csting (GDC), while the covers re otined lso y snd csting (SC) nd high pressure diecsting (HPDC). The composition of cstings depends siclly on the processes dopted; in detil  the lloy EN AB (AlSi10Mg) hs een used for LPDC;  the lloy EN AB (AlSi13) hs een used for GDC;  the lloy EN AB (AlSi12) hs een used for HPDC;  the lloy EN AB (AlSi7) hs een used for SC. On the cstings, rdiogrphic exmintions, hrdness tests nd microstructurl investigtions (light microscopy nd imge nlysis) hve een crried out, to chieve n extended comprison mong their chrcteristics. 24 l metllurgi itlin
3 Fig. 4 Exmples of cstings produced y mens of the LPDC process [16]. Fig. 4 Esempi di getti prodotti medinte colt in ss pressione [16]. Memorie Fig. 5 The components investigted in the present pper: sfety ox () nd sfety covers (). Fig. 5 I componenti oggetto del presente lvoro: contenitore di sicurezz () coperchi di sicurezz (). RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS Rdiogrphic Inspection For wht concerns the oxes, the most criticl zone, in the cse of LPDC, hs een individuted to e the corner, with some clustered porosity; on the other side, the content of porosity in the wlls is quite low. In the cse of GDC, the corners typiclly present reltively ig cvities, even if in lower numer with respect to LPDC; the wlls evidenced some cvities. The rdiogrphic qulity of oxes nd covers is descried in Figs For this kind of csting, the distriution of defects is quite homogeneous, ut there is strong effect due to the process. The rnking of rdiogrphic qulity is the following: SC = LPDC > GDC > HPDC. The sectioning of the covers (Fig. 9) confirms, without ny douts, this rnking. Microstructurl investigtions Vrious kinds of microstructurl investigtions hve een crried out:  metllogrphic oservtion, LPDC Fig. 6 Rdiogrphs of the oxes. Fig. 6 Rdiogrfi delle sctole di sicurezz. GDC Fig. 7 Rdiogrphs of the covers. Fig. 7 Rdiogrfi dei coperchi di sicurezz. 6/2005 l metllurgi itlin 25
4 6/2005 Memorie Fig. 8 Rdiogrphs of the covers. Fig. 8 Rdiogrfi dei coperchi di sicurezz. HPDC GDC Fig. 9 Mcroscopic exmintions of the covers fter sectioning. Fig. 9 Esme mcroscopico dei coperchi dopo il sezionmento.  evlution of porosity chrcteristics nd content,  evlution of Secondry Dendrite Arm Spcing (SDAS). The investigtions hve een performed in the most representtive zones of the cstings, following the denomintion shown in Fig. 10. Metllogrphic oservtion llowed to qulittively descrie the peculirities of the different csting processes under investigtion nd of the lloys employed. Fig. 11 is referred to the low pressure die cst cover: fine dendritic structure (αal phse) cn e oserved, emedded into n AlSi eutectic mtrix. In the cse of grvity die csting (Fig. 11), the lloy solidifies into mostly eutectic structure, even if there is some evidence of primry Si nd αal grins. The size of such grins, however, is igger thn tht found in low pressure die cst mteril. The grvity snd cst lloy (Fig. 11c) presents corse microstructure, ssocited to longer solidifiction times with respect to other processes. Big sized Si needles re evident, together with αal grins. Finlly, the high pressure diecst lloy (Fig. 11d) shows very fine structure, minly constituted y the AlSi eutectic; αal dendrites cn e detected, s well s sphericl porosity, which is typiclly due to gs entrpment phenomen occurring during this process. From the microgrphic exmintions, some spects relted to the dynmics of solidifiction phenomen cn e highlighted. Let s consider the low pressure diecst components. The fetures of dendrites, nd prticulrly their size, re n index of solidifiction time. Fig. 12 compres the dendrites typiclly found in the most fr region from the ingte (zone Z3) nd in the closest (zone Z5) of the sfety ox. In low Fig. 10 Definition of the regions to e investigted in the sfety ox () nd cover (). Fig. 10 Definizione delle regioni d nlizzre nel recipiente () e nel coperchio (). Fig. 11 Typicl microstructure in the sfety covers, s function of the lloy nd of the process. Fig. 11 Microstruttur tipic nel coperchio di sicurezz, in funzione dell leg e del processo. 26 l metllurgi itlin
5 Memorie Fig. 12 Microstructure in LPDC sfety ox: region Z3 () nd region Z5 (). Fig. 12 Microstrutur nel contenitore colto in ss pressione: regione Z3 () e regione Z5 (). Fig. 13 Microstructure in LPDC cover: region Z1 () nd region Z3 (). Fig. 13 Microstruttur nel coperchio colto in ss pressione: regione Z1 () e regione Z3 (). pressure diecsting configurtion, the ingte cn e considered s virtul feeder: ner to it, long solidifiction time is expected, leding to corse microstructure. Fine dendrites cn e esily seen in regions fr from the ingte, in which solidifiction rte is certinly higher. Similr considertions cn e done for wht concerns the covers. Fig. 13 compres the microstructure in the externl region (Z1) nd in the centrl one (Z3), which is very close to the ingte. The qulittive results of microgrphs hve een converted into quntittive informtion y mens of SDAS mesurements. Tle 1 collects the results. By mens of imge nlysis, the verge size of defects nd Tle 1 SDAS vlues for LPDC components. Tell 1 Vlori del prmetro SDAS per i getti colti in ss pressione. 6/2005 l metllurgi itlin 27
6 6/2005 Memorie the porosity content hve een detected for ll the cstings under investigtion. Figs 14 nd 15 summrise the results. For wht concerns the sfety ox cst y LPDC, the most criticl region is Z1, i.e. tht of the corner: the mount of porosity is out 2%. In the other regions, the porosity is lwys significntly lower thn 0.3%. The porosity content nd the verge re of pores re significntly higher in grvity diecst oxes. In fct, the mount of porosity rnges from 0.8 to 2.2%, ccording to the region considered. Aprt from region Z1, in which porosity size is similr etween LPDC nd GDC, in ll the other regions of the grvity diecst ox present cvities with size 10 to 25 times igger thn those detected in low pressure diecst ox. The verging, crried out on ll regions, gives for LPDC porosity content of 0,54% versus porosity content of 1,72% for GDC. Similr results hve een chieved lso for covers, showing quite good greement with the results of rdiogrphic inspections. In terms of porosity size, the most criticl sitution is tht of GDC, followed y HPDC, SC nd LPDC. In terms of porosity mount, the most criticl process, s expected, is HPDC (typiclly rnging fron 2 to 4%), followed y GDC, SC nd LPDC. In detil, LPDC shows porosity content lower thn 0,01% in Z1 nd Z2. It is lso useful to consider in deeper wy the dt. Porosity cn e opertively divided into two ctegories, i.e. mcroporosity (intended s tht detectle y stereogrphic microscope) nd microporosity (intended s tht detectle only y opticl microscopy). The threshold etween micro Fig. 14 Averge re of pores () nd porosity content () in sfety ox s function of process. Fig. 14 Are medi dei pori () e contenuto di porosità () nel contenitore di sicurezz, in funzione del processo. Fig. 15 Averge re of pores () nd porosity content () in sfety cover s function of process. Fig. 15 Are medi dei pori () e contenuto di porosità () nel coperchio di sicurezz, in funzione del processo. Region Porosity LPDC GDC SC HPDC Micro 0,004 0,048 0,072 0,557 Z1 Mcro 0,76 1,59 Totl 0,004 0,81 0,072 2,15 Micro 0,005 0,002 0,108 0,232 Z2 Mcro 0,30 2,74 Totl 0,005 0,30 0,108 2,98 Micro 0,055 0,061 0,069 0,534 Z3 Mcro 0,50 1,80 1,86 3,24 Totl 0,56 1,86 1,92 3,78 Tle 2 Averge porosity content in sfety covers. Tell 2 Contenuto medio di porosità nei coperchi di sicurezz. nd mcroporosity re hs een fixed t 3000 µm 2. Tle 2 collects the results, showing tht the qulity of GDC nd HPDC is strongly decresed y mcroporosity. LPDC typiclly presents microporosity, nd in relly low mount. The overll csting porosity is 0,19% for LPDC, 0,70% for SC, 0,99% for GDC nd 2,97 % for HPDC. Hrdness tests Brinell hrdness tests hve een crried out in regions ner (Z5 for the sfety ox, Z3 for the cover) to the ingte nd fr (Z3 for the sfety ox, Z1 for the cover) from it. Csting we 28 l metllurgi itlin
7 Csting Region HB Sfety ox  LPDC Sfety ox  GDC Cover  LPDC Cover  HPDC Cover  SC Cover  GDC Tle 3 Results of hrdness tests. Tell 3 Risultti delle prove di durezz. Z3 67 Z5 63 Z3 50 Z5 49 Z1 67 Z3 67 Z1 79 Z3 65 Z1 53 Z3 54 Z1 58 Z3 57 re tested in scst conditions, i.e. without ny het tretment. The difference in hrdness vlues (which re displyed in Tle 3) re due to the lloy nd to the different microstructure chieved. HPDC presents the higher hrdness thnks to the high Si content of the lloy, together to the fine structure deriving from high cooling rtes. LPDC cstings show hrdness vlues rnging from 63 to 67 HB. ECONOMICAL CONSIDERATIONS Through experimentl nlysis, the technicl potentil of LPDC for the production of ox nd covers hs een demonstrted. The further spect to e investigted to the cost of the qulity of LPDC process, which is the keypoint for industril fesiility. Sfety ox: determintion of Brekeven Point nd structure of costs First of ll, it hs to e determined the production rte tht mkes one process cheper thn the other, using the Brekeven nlysis, under the hypothesis tht new csting mchine hs to e cquired, choosing etween LPDC nd GDC. This mens tht the nlysis considers two lterntives with identicl im nd equl service life. The dt used for the Brekeven nlysis re shown in Tle 4. Anlysing cost items, it clerly ppers tht the initil expense for LPDC (higher then GDC) corresponds to higher yield nd reduced production time. Stlk (rising tue) is cost item typicl of low pressure technology, nd cn e considered s fixed cost. After the extrction from the die, the csting follows different pth, depending on the process. The LPDC csting is loded on n utomtic work centre tht removes the ingte in 1 minute, with n estimted cost of 0,90. This opertion requires 1 minute of workmn to lod nd unlod the piece. The GDC csting is sujected to mnul mchining, consisting of cutting of the riser nd susequent deurring. These opertions require 5 minute of workmn in totl. The item recycled Al vlue represents deduction in the clcultion concerning the GDC solution. It consists in the scrp mteril (solidified risers nd feeders) resold to remelting nd refining compnies. An interest rte of 5% is used in Brekeven nlysis. The output of such nlysis is reported in Fig. 16, showing the Brekeven point, for the sfety ox under study, t 2143 pcs/yer. The formul used in the clcultion of Brekeven point is (1): Memorie Fig. 16 Grphic determintion of Brekeven point for sfety oxes. Fig. 16 Determinzione grfic del Brekeven point per i contenitori di sicurezz. Tle 4 Dt for Brekeven nlysis for sfety oxes. Tell 4 Dti per l Brekeven nlysis reltiv l contenitore di sicurezz. LPDC GDC Investment ( ) Die cost ( ) Stlk (rising tue) ( ) Aluminium cost* ( /kg) 1,58 1,58 Weight of csting (kg) Yield 0,99 0,73 Production time (h/pc) 0,088 0,15 Scrp 0,03 0,05 Cost of lour ( /h) Melting in gs furnce, Melting in gs furnce, Preliminry tretments TiB grin refinement, degssing, TiB grin refinement, degssing, electric furnce mintennce electric furnce mintennce Riser removl ( /pc) 0,90 (crried out on utomtic Mnul work centre) (riser cutting nd deurring) Downstrem working Sndlsting Sndlsting Recycled Al vlue ( /kg)  0,70 6/2005 l metllurgi itlin 29
8 6/2005 Memorie Cse Box weight Brekeven point A 6, B 13, C 21, D 35,0 725 Tle 5 Brekeven Point s function of sfety ox weight. Tell 5 Andmento del Brekeven point in fuzione del peso del contenitore di sicurezz. LPDC GDC Csting weight (kg) 6 6 Yield 0,99 0,80 Product time (h/pc) 0,067 0,15 Riser removl ( /pc) 0,80 Mnul Tle 6 Dt for Brekeven Anlysis for sfety covers. Tell 6 Dti per l Brekeven Anlysis reltiv l coperchio di sicurezz. in which: CF = fixed costs S = scrp W = weight of csting C Al = Aluminium cost (rw mteril) Y = yield PT = production time C l = cost of lour V Al = recycled Al vlue RR = riser removl Fixed costs of LPDC option re reckoned s follows: Mchine llownce, for 10 yers of lifetime, interest rte of 5%, null finl vlue of the mchine (t most it is considerle the vlue of recycling the steel tht uild up the mchine) Die llownce, for 10 yers of lifetime, interest rte of 5%, null finl vlue of the die Stlks consumption. Fixed costs of GDC solution re reckoned with the sme method of LPDC, except for the lst item, which oviously is not considered. The vlue 1/12 in (1) tkes into ccount the time (expressed in hours) needed for mnul opertions of cutting nd deurring, s well for the vlue 1/60 concerning LPDC. From the production dt representing the Brekeven point (in this wy the solute vlue of unit cost is the sme for oth techniques), the cost structure cn e determined, nd is shown in Fig. 17. It cn e seen tht rw mteril cost in LPDC hs lower relevnce with respect to GDC (59% insted of 76%), thnks to the etter process yield. On the other hnd, mchine llownce represents significnt prt of totl cost in LPDC (35% versus 15%), due the higher initil investment. Difference in cost of lour mount is the result of different production time: LPDC production time is 41% lower thn GDC. However, sfety oxes cn e produced in different size, nd it is interesting to see the effect of this prmeter on the definition of the Brekeven Point. Some exmples re collected in Tle 5: s csting weight increses, the vlue of lnce is reduced, ecuse of the dvntgeous yield of LPDC with respect to GDC. Sfety cover: determintion of Brekeven Point nd structure of costs A similr pproch cn e dopted to evlute the potentil of LPDC in the production of covers. The different dt used in this Brekeven nlysis (with respect to the previous one) re shown in Tle 6. Min difference lies in the yield of GDC sfety cover, which is higher thn for GDC sfety ox, ecuse cover is smller nd more geometriclly simple thn ox, so it needs smller risers. Fig. 18 shows the grphic determintion of Brekeven point, which hs een clculted to e 4531 pcs/yer, y using eqution (1). Also in this cse, the Brekeven point decreses s the csting weight increses (Tle 7). Fig. 17 Unit cost structure of LPDC nd GDC sfety oxes. Fig. 17 Struttur unitri dei costi per i contenitori di sicurezz prodotti per colt in ss pressione e in grvità. 30 l metllurgi itlin
9 Cse Box weight Brekeven point A 3, B C D 16, Tle 7 Brekeven Point s function of sfety cover weight. Tell 7 Andmento del Brekeven point in funzione del peso del coperchio di sicurezz. 1) The LPDC process llows the chievement of cstings with very good soundness nd metllurgicl qulity. Inside the group of components studied, the rnking of qulity is LPDC > SC > GDC > HPDC 2) LPDC is chrcterised y high yield, leding to n optiml use of the lloy nd consequently in relevnt cost svings. 3) With specific reference to LPDC nd GDC, which hve een deeply investigted from the economicl point of view, they present different structure of the costs; in prticulr, LPDC ssures strong decrese in costs ssocited to rw mteril, needing, on the other side, higher equipment costs. 4) The Brekeven point, in terms of numer of pieces/yer for which LPDC strts to ecome convenient with respect to GDC, depends oviously on csting weight nd geometry; however, in the cse studied, it cn e set t out pieces/yer for 10 kg csting; it decreses to pieces/yer for 20 kg csting. From these considertion, it cn e rgued tht LPDC relly presents relevnt potentil, which cn e exploited in new nd vrious field nd pplictions. Memorie Fig. 18 Grphic determintion of Brekeven point for sfety covers. Fig. 18 Determinzione grfic del Brekeven point per il coperchio di sicurezz. Likewise in the previous cse, Fig. 19 shows unit cost per cent composition of sfety covers, reckoned t lnce output. Remrks done on Fig. 17 re still vlid. It is evident tht the gp in terms of rw mteril cost ecomes thinner, ecuse the GDC cover yield is higher thn the GDC ox yield. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS From the technicl investigtions nd the economicl evlutions crried out, some concluding remrks cn e done. REFERENCES [1] ASM Metls Hndook, 10th ed., vol. 15: Csting, ASM  Metls Prk, Ohio (1990). [2] J. CAMPBELL, R. A. HARDING, Csting Technology in TALAT 2.0 cdrom, EAA, Bruxelles (2000). [3] J. CAMPBELL, Cstings, Butterworth, Oxford (1991). [4] A. PERRONE, F. BONOLLO, V. WAGNER, Alluminio Mgzine, 4 (1998), pp [5] S. SCHLEG, D.P. KAMICKI, Guide to csting nd moulding processes, Engineered csting solutions, Technicl rticles (2000). [6] J.R. BROWN, Nonferrous foundrymn s hndook, Butterworth, Oxford (1999). [7] G.S. COLE, A.M. SHERMAN, Mterils Chrcteriztion 35 (1995), pp [8] A.C. STREET, The diecsting ook 2nd edition, Portcullis Press (1990) [9] T. YAMADA, H. USUI, H. TOSA, H. TERAUCHI, J.G. CONLEY, SAE Technicl Pper Series N (1992), pp [10] F. BONOLLO, S. ODORIZZI, Numericl Simultion of Foundry Processes, SGE, Pdov (2001) Figure 19 Unit cost structure of LPDC nd GDC sfety covers. Fig. 19 Struttur unitri dei costi per i coperchi di sicurezz prodotti per colt in ss pressione e in grvità. 6/2005 l metllurgi itlin 31
10 6/2005 Memorie COLATA IN GRAVITÀ E IN BASSA PRESSIONE DI LEGHE DI ALLUMINIO: UN CONFRONTO TECNICO ED ECONOMICO Prole chive: lluminio e leghe, difetti, fonderi, crtterizzzione mterili, impinti e ttrezzture ABSTRACT Tr i vri processi, convenzionli e innovtivi, di fonderi dell lluminio (Fig. 1), l colt in ss pressione (low pressure die csting, LPDC), il cui principio di funzionmento è descritto nelle Figg. 2 e 3, è crtterizzt d svriti vntggi:  elevt res,  eccellente controllo dei prmetri opertivi,  uon qulità metllurgic e tecnologic dei getti. Sono numerose le tipologie di getti otteniili (Fig.4), nche se finor il processo è stto prevlentemente pplicto l settore utomoilistico. In questo lvoro viene illustrto il potenzile tecnico ed economico dell colt in ss pressione finlizzt ll produzione di contenitori e coperchi di sicurezz per l industri chimic e petrolchimic (Fig. 5). Tli componenti sono prodotti d ELFIT SpA ricorrendo differenti processi. Oltre ll ss pressione, nel cso dei contenitori viene ust l colt in grvità in conchigli (grvity die csting, GDC). Per i coperchi, oltre i due processi citti, vengono usti nche l colt in si (snd csting, SC) e l pressocolt (high pressure diecsting, HPDC). Le leghe impiegte sono le seguenti  EN AB (AlSi10Mg) per il processo LPDC;  EN AB (AlSi13) per il processo GDC;  EN AB (AlSi12) per il processo HPDC;  EN AB (AlSi7) per il processo SC. Le indgini rdiogrfiche e mcrogrfiche (Figg. 69) hnno dimostrto, per i coperchi di sicurezz, l seguente grdutori di qulità: SC = LPDC > GDC > HPDC. Le indgini microstrutturli (metllogrfi + nlisi di immgine) sono stte effettute nelle regioni indicte in Fig. 10. Le microstrutture tipiche dei getti sono illustrte nelle Figg , mentre l T. 1 illustr i vlori dell spzitur dendritic secondri (secondry dendrite rm spcing, SDAS) nelle vrie regioni dei getti prodotti per LPDC. Nelle Figg e in T. 2 viene invece riportt l sintesi delle misure di porosità. Nei contenitori di sicurezz, si h un vlore medio pri llo 0,54% per il processo LPDC e ll 1,72% per il processo GDC. Nel cso dei coperchi, si h un contenuto di porosità di 0,19% per LPDC, 0,70% per SC, 0,99% per GDC e 2,97 % per HPDC. Sono stte effettute nche prove di durezz, i cui risultti sono rccolti in T. 3. In termini economici sono stti invece determinti i vlori di produzione che rendono un processo più conveniente rispetto ll ltro, utilizzndo l Brekeven nlysis, sotto l ipotesi voler confrontre LPDC e GDC dovendo cquistre un nuov mcchin. I dti di input dell nlisi sono rccolti nelle T. 4 e 6. A fronte di un mggior investimento inizile per l mcchin LPDC, si ottengono con questo processo un res più elevt e tempi ciclo più revi. Il Brekeven point vntggio dell LPDC, nel cso dei contenitori di sicurezz, si h in corrispondenz d un produzione di 2143 pezzi/nno (Fig. 16), con l struttur unitri dei costi descritt in Fig. 17. Come illustrto in T. 5, il vlore del Brekeven point è funzione del peso del getto. Nel cso dei coperchi di sicurezz, il rekeven point fvore del processo LPDC si h 4531 pezzi/nno (Fig. 18); l effetto del peso del getto è sintetizzto in T. 7, mentre in Fig. 19 è riportt l struttur dei costi. In definitiv, il potenzile del processo LPDC si present dvvero significtivo, nche per l produzione di componenti per settori differenti d quello utomoilistico. 32 l metllurgi itlin
Reasoning to Solve Equations and Inequalities
Lesson4 Resoning to Solve Equtions nd Inequlities In erlier work in this unit, you modeled situtions with severl vriles nd equtions. For exmple, suppose you were given usiness plns for concert showing
More informationTreatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.
The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the ttest is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the ttest cn be used to compre the mens of only
More informationFEASIBILITY OF USING PRESSED SUGAR CANE STALK FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL. D Ffoulkes, R Elliott and T R Preston
Trop Anim Prod 1980 5:2 125 FEASIBILITY OF USING PRESSED SUGAR CANE STALK FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CHARCOAL D Ffoulkes, R Elliott nd T R Preston Fcultd de Medicin Veterinri y Zootecni, University of Yuctn,
More informationAn Undergraduate Curriculum Evaluation with the Analytic Hierarchy Process
An Undergrdute Curriculum Evlution with the Anlytic Hierrchy Process Les Frir Jessic O. Mtson Jck E. Mtson Deprtment of Industril Engineering P.O. Box 870288 University of Albm Tuscloos, AL. 35487 Abstrct
More informationRegular Sets and Expressions
Regulr Sets nd Expressions Finite utomt re importnt in science, mthemtics, nd engineering. Engineers like them ecuse they re super models for circuits (And, since the dvent of VLSI systems sometimes finite
More information** Dpt. Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
Modelling nd Simultion of hemicl Processes in Multi Pulse TP Experiment P. Phnwdee* S.O. Shekhtmn +. Jrungmnorom** J.T. Gleves ++ * Dpt. hemicl Engineering, Ksetsrt University, Bngkok 10900, Thilnd + Dpt.hemicl
More informationSirindhorn International Institute of Technology Thammasat University at Rangsit
Sirindhorn Interntionl Institute of Technology Thmmst University t Rngsit School of Informtion, Computer nd Communiction Technology COURSE : ECS 204 Bsic Electricl Engineering L INSTRUCTOR : Asst. Prof.
More informationTests for One Poisson Mean
Chpter 412 Tests for One Poisson Men Introduction The Poisson probbility lw gives the probbility distribution of the number of events occurring in specified intervl of time or spce. The Poisson distribution
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology
More informationNet Change and Displacement
mth 11, pplictions motion: velocity nd net chnge 1 Net Chnge nd Displcement We hve seen tht the definite integrl f (x) dx mesures the net re under the curve y f (x) on the intervl [, b] Any prt of the
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd business. Introducing technology
More informationSmall Businesses Decisions to Offer Health Insurance to Employees
Smll Businesses Decisions to Offer Helth Insurnce to Employees Ctherine McLughlin nd Adm Swinurn, June 2014 Employersponsored helth insurnce (ESI) is the dominnt source of coverge for nonelderly dults
More informationEQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES
EQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES MATH 195, SECTION 59 (VIPUL NAIK) Corresponding mteril in the ook: Section 12.5. Wht students should definitely get: Prmetric eqution of line given in pointdirection nd twopoint
More informationAssuming all values are initially zero, what are the values of A and B after executing this Verilog code inside an always block? C=1; A <= C; B = C;
B26 Appendix B The Bsics of Logic Design Check Yourself ALU n [Arthritic Logic Unit or (rre) Arithmetic Logic Unit] A rndomnumer genertor supplied s stndrd with ll computer systems Stn KellyBootle,
More informationUnderstanding Life Cycle Costs How a Northern Pump Saves You Money
Understnding Life Cycle Costs How Nrn Pump Sves You Money Reference: Hydrulic Institute (www.s.g) Introduction Wht Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Clculting Totl LCC LCC Components Wht Life Cycle Cost Life Cycle
More informationTwo hours UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER SCHOOL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE. Date: Friday 16 th May 2008. Time: 14:00 16:00
COMP20212 Two hours UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER SCHOOL OF COMPUTER SCIENCE Digitl Design Techniques Dte: Fridy 16 th My 2008 Time: 14:00 16:00 Plese nswer ny THREE Questions from the FOUR questions provided
More informationCOMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING
LECTURE COMPONENTS: COMBINED LOADING Third Edition A. J. Clrk School of Engineering Deprtment of Civil nd Environmentl Engineering 24 Chpter 8.4 by Dr. Ibrhim A. Asskkf SPRING 2003 ENES 220 Mechnics of
More informationAll pay auctions with certain and uncertain prizes a comment
CENTER FOR RESEARC IN ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT CREAM Publiction No. 12015 All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin Riis All py uctions with certin nd uncertin prizes comment Christin
More information10.5 Graphing Quadratic Functions
0.5 Grphing Qudrtic Functions Now tht we cn solve qudrtic equtions, we wnt to lern how to grph the function ssocited with the qudrtic eqution. We cll this the qudrtic function. Grphs of Qudrtic Functions
More informationJaERM SoftwareasaSolution Package
JERM SoftwresSolution Pckge Enterprise Risk Mngement ( ERM ) Public listed compnies nd orgnistions providing finncil services re required by Monetry Authority of Singpore ( MAS ) nd/or Singpore Stock
More informationEconomics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15. macroeconomists. a b, Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen. Received 11 December 1998; accepted 12 May 1999
Economics Letters 65 (1999) 9 15 Estimting dynmic pnel dt models: guide for q mcroeconomists b, * Ruth A. Judson, Ann L. Owen Federl Reserve Bord of Governors, 0th & C Sts., N.W. Wshington, D.C. 0551,
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationAppendix D: Completing the Square and the Quadratic Formula. In Appendix A, two special cases of expanding brackets were considered:
Appendi D: Completing the Squre nd the Qudrtic Formul Fctoring qudrtic epressions such s: + 6 + 8 ws one of the topics introduced in Appendi C. Fctoring qudrtic epressions is useful skill tht cn help you
More information2 DIODE CLIPPING and CLAMPING CIRCUITS
2 DIODE CLIPPING nd CLAMPING CIRCUITS 2.1 Ojectives Understnding the operting principle of diode clipping circuit Understnding the operting principle of clmping circuit Understnding the wveform chnge of
More informationOn the Meaning of Regression Coefficients for Categorical and Continuous Variables: Model I and Model II; Effect Coding and Dummy Coding
Dt_nlysisclm On the Mening of Regression for tegoricl nd ontinuous Vribles: I nd II; Effect oding nd Dummy oding R Grdner Deprtment of Psychology This describes the simple cse where there is one ctegoricl
More informationModule 2. Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method. Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur
Module Anlysis of Stticlly Indeterminte Structures by the Mtrix Force Method Version CE IIT, Khrgpur esson 9 The Force Method of Anlysis: Bems (Continued) Version CE IIT, Khrgpur Instructionl Objectives
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationSection 54 Trigonometric Functions
5 Trigonometric Functions Section 5 Trigonometric Functions Definition of the Trigonometric Functions Clcultor Evlution of Trigonometric Functions Definition of the Trigonometric Functions Alternte Form
More informationSimulation of operation modes of isochronous cyclotron by a new interative method
NUKLEONIKA 27;52(1):29 34 ORIGINAL PAPER Simultion of opertion modes of isochronous cyclotron y new intertive method Ryszrd Trszkiewicz, Mrek Tlch, Jcek Sulikowski, Henryk Doruch, Tdeusz Norys, Artur Srok,
More information, and the number of electrons is 19. e e 1.60 10 C. The negatively charged electrons move in the direction opposite to the conventional current flow.
Prolem 1. f current of 80.0 ma exists in metl wire, how mny electrons flow pst given cross section of the wire in 10.0 min? Sketch the directions of the current nd the electrons motion. Solution: The chrge
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why network is n essentil productivity tool for ny smll business Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse the productivity of their people nd processes. Introducing technology
More informationA Note on Complement of Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers Using the αcut Method
Interntionl Journl of Applictions of Fuzzy Sets nd Artificil Intelligence ISSN  Vol.  A Note on Complement of Trpezoidl Fuzzy Numers Using the αcut Method D. Stephen Dingr K. Jivgn PG nd Reserch Deprtment
More informationUnleashing the Power of Cloud
Unleshing the Power of Cloud A Joint White Pper by FusionLyer nd NetIQ Copyright 2015 FusionLyer, Inc. All rights reserved. No prt of this publiction my be reproduced, stored in retrievl system, or trnsmitted,
More informationOr more simply put, when adding or subtracting quantities, their uncertainties add.
Propgtion of Uncertint through Mthemticl Opertions Since the untit of interest in n eperiment is rrel otined mesuring tht untit directl, we must understnd how error propgtes when mthemticl opertions re
More informationSmall Business Networking
Why Network is n Essentil Productivity Tool for Any Smll Business TechAdvisory.org SME Reports sponsored by Effective technology is essentil for smll businesses looking to increse their productivity. Computer
More informationCOVER CROP VARIETY AND SEEDING RATE EFFECTS ON WINTER WEED SEED PRODUCTION
COVER CROP VARIETY AND SEEDING RATE EFFECTS ON WINTER WEED SEED PRODUCTION Nthn S. Boyd nd Eric B. Brennn, USDAARS, Orgnic Reserch Progrm, 1636 E. Alisl Street, Slins, CA 93905 Astrct Weed mngement is
More information1 Numerical Solution to Quadratic Equations
cs42: introduction to numericl nlysis 09/4/0 Lecture 2: Introduction Prt II nd Solving Equtions Instructor: Professor Amos Ron Scribes: Yunpeng Li, Mrk Cowlishw Numericl Solution to Qudrtic Equtions Recll
More information14.2. The Mean Value and the RootMeanSquare Value. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes
he Men Vlue nd the RootMenSqure Vlue 4. Introduction Currents nd voltges often vry with time nd engineers my wish to know the men vlue of such current or voltge over some prticulr time intervl. he men
More informationBayesian Updating with Continuous Priors Class 13, 18.05, Spring 2014 Jeremy Orloff and Jonathan Bloom
Byesin Updting with Continuous Priors Clss 3, 8.05, Spring 04 Jeremy Orloff nd Jonthn Bloom Lerning Gols. Understnd prmeterized fmily of distriutions s representing continuous rnge of hypotheses for the
More informationRotating DC Motors Part II
Rotting Motors rt II II.1 Motor Equivlent Circuit The next step in our consiertion of motors is to evelop n equivlent circuit which cn be use to better unerstn motor opertion. The rmtures in rel motors
More informationDlNBVRGH + Sickness Absence Monitoring Report. Executive of the Council. Purpose of report
DlNBVRGH + + THE CITY OF EDINBURGH COUNCIL Sickness Absence Monitoring Report Executive of the Council 8fh My 4 I.I...3 Purpose of report This report quntifies the mount of working time lost s result of
More informationSpace Vector Pulse Width Modulation Based Induction Motor with V/F Control
Interntionl Journl of Science nd Reserch (IJSR) Spce Vector Pulse Width Modultion Bsed Induction Motor with V/F Control Vikrmrjn Jmbulingm Electricl nd Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Indi Abstrct:
More informationBasic Analysis of Autarky and Free Trade Models
Bsic Anlysis of Autrky nd Free Trde Models AUTARKY Autrky condition in prticulr commodity mrket refers to sitution in which country does not engge in ny trde in tht commodity with other countries. Consequently
More informationExperiment 6: Friction
Experiment 6: Friction In previous lbs we studied Newton s lws in n idel setting, tht is, one where friction nd ir resistnce were ignored. However, from our everydy experience with motion, we know tht
More informationIn this section make precise the idea of a matrix inverse and develop a method to find the inverse of a given square matrix when it exists.
Mth 52 Sec S060/S0602 Notes Mtrices IV 5 Inverse Mtrices 5 Introduction In our erlier work on mtrix multipliction, we sw the ide of the inverse of mtrix Tht is, for squre mtrix A, there my exist mtrix
More informationContent Objectives: After completing the activity, students will gain experience of informally proving Pythagoras Theorem
Pythgors Theorem S Topic 1 Level: Key Stge 3 Dimension: Mesures, Shpe nd Spce Module: Lerning Geometry through Deductive Approch Unit: Pythgors Theorem Student ility: Averge Content Ojectives: After completing
More information4 Geometry: Shapes. 4.1 Circumference and area of a circle. FM Functional Maths AU (AO2) Assessing Understanding PS (AO3) Problem Solving HOMEWORK 4A
Geometry: Shpes. Circumference nd re of circle HOMEWORK D C 3 5 6 7 8 9 0 3 U Find the circumference of ech of the following circles, round off your nswers to dp. Dimeter 3 cm Rdius c Rdius 8 m d Dimeter
More informationAPPLICATION NOTE Revision 3.0 MTD/PS0534 August 13, 2008 KODAK IMAGE SENDORS COLOR CORRECTION FOR IMAGE SENSORS
APPLICATION NOTE Revision 3.0 MTD/PS0534 August 13, 2008 KODAK IMAGE SENDORS COLOR CORRECTION FOR IMAGE SENSORS TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1: Spectrl Response of CMOS Imge Sensor...3 Figure 2: Byer CFA Ptterns...4
More informationN Mean SD Mean SD Shelf # Shelf # Shelf #
NOV xercises smple of 0 different types of cerels ws tken from ech of three grocery store shelves (1,, nd, counting from the floor). summry of the sugr content (grms per serving) nd dietry fiber (grms
More informationSPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION
MODULE  Specil Products nd Fctoriztion 4 SPECIAL PRODUCTS AND FACTORIZATION In n erlier lesson you hve lernt multipliction of lgebric epressions, prticulrly polynomils. In the study of lgebr, we come
More informationElectric Circuits. Simple Electric Cell. Electric Current
Electric Circuits Count Alessndro olt (74587) Georg Simon Ohm (787854) Chrles Augustin de Coulomb (736 806) André Mrie AMPÈRE (775836) Crbon Electrode () Simple Electric Cell wire Zn Zn Zn Zn Sulfuric
More informationA generic Decision Support System for integrated weed management
A generic Decision Support System for integrted weed mngement By: Per Rydhl, IPM Consult, Denmrk nd: Nicols MunierJolin (INRA), Frnce Robert Msin, University of Pdov, Itly Murizio Sttin (IBAFCNR), Itly
More informationBasic Math Review. Numbers. Important Properties. Absolute Value PROPERTIES OF ADDITION NATURAL NUMBERS {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, }
ƒ Bsic Mth Review Numers NATURAL NUMBERS {1,, 3, 4, 5, } WHOLE NUMBERS {0, 1,, 3, 4, } INTEGERS {, 3,, 1, 0, 1,, } The Numer Line 5 4 3 1 0 1 3 4 5 Negtive integers Positive integers RATIONAL NUMBERS All
More informationUniform convergence and its consequences
Uniform convergence nd its consequences The following issue is centrl in mthemtics: On some domin D, we hve sequence of functions {f n }. This mens tht we relly hve n uncountble set of ordinry sequences,
More informationHelicopter Theme and Variations
Helicopter Theme nd Vritions Or, Some Experimentl Designs Employing Pper Helicopters Some possible explntory vribles re: Who drops the helicopter The length of the rotor bldes The height from which the
More informationTHE PARAMETERS OF TRAPS IN KFELDSPARS AND THE TL BLEACHING EFFICIENCY
GEOCHRONOMETRIA Vol. 2, pp 152, 21 Journl on Methods nd Applictions of Asolute Chronology THE PARAMETERS OF TRAPS IN KFELDSPARS AND THE TL BLEACHING EFFICIENCY ALICJA CHRUŒCIÑSKA 1, HUBERT L. OCZKOWSKI
More informationPolynomial Functions. Polynomial functions in one variable can be written in expanded form as ( )
Polynomil Functions Polynomil functions in one vrible cn be written in expnded form s n n 1 n 2 2 f x = x + x + x + + x + x+ n n 1 n 2 2 1 0 Exmples of polynomils in expnded form re nd 3 8 7 4 = 5 4 +
More informationA Performance Extension Measurement Analysis Model of Enterprise Green Technology Innovation based on Extension Theory
Interntionl Journl of Hyrid Informtion Technology, pp.35136 http://dx.doi.org/10.1457/hit.015.8.11.31 A Performnce Extension Mesurement Anlysis Model of Enterprise Green Technology Innovtion sed on Extension
More information9 CONTINUOUS DISTRIBUTIONS
9 CONTINUOUS DISTIBUTIONS A rndom vrible whose vlue my fll nywhere in rnge of vlues is continuous rndom vrible nd will be ssocited with some continuous distribution. Continuous distributions re to discrete
More informationStraight pipe model. Orifice model. * Please refer to Page 3~7 Reference Material for the theoretical formulas used here. Qa/Qw=(ηw/ηa) (P1+P2)/(2 P2)
Air lek test equivlent to IX7nd IX8 In order to perform quntittive tests Fig. shows the reltionship between ir lek mount nd wter lek mount. Wter lek mount cn be converted into ir lek mount. By performing
More informationTITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COINTAP METHOD OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
TITLE THE PRINCIPLES OF COINTAP METHOD OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING Sung Joon Kim*, DongChul Che Kore Aerospce Reserch Institute, 45 EoeunDong, YouseongGu, Dejeon, 35333, Kore Phone : 824286231 FAX
More informationThe Velocity Factor of an Insulated TwoWire Transmission Line
The Velocity Fctor of n Insulted TwoWire Trnsmission Line Problem Kirk T. McDonld Joseph Henry Lbortories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 Mrch 7, 008 Estimte the velocity fctor F = v/c nd the
More informationand thus, they are similar. If k = 3 then the Jordan form of both matrices is
Homework ssignment 11 Section 7. pp. 24925 Exercise 1. Let N 1 nd N 2 be nilpotent mtrices over the field F. Prove tht N 1 nd N 2 re similr if nd only if they hve the sme miniml polynomil. Solution: If
More informationUplift Capacity of KSeries Open Web Steel Joist Seats. Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611; email: psgreen@ce.ufl.edu
Uplift Cpcity of KSeries Open Web Steel Joist Sets Perry S. Green, Ph.D, M.ASCE 1 nd Thoms Sputo, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 2 1 Assistnt Professor, Deprtment of Civil nd Costl Engineering, University of Florid,
More informationDevelopment of 590MPa grade DP GA steel for automotive outer panel use
Acciio Development of 590MP grde DP GA steel for utomotive outer pnel use M. B. Moon, S. W. Lee, S. J. Prk Recently high strength steels with high formility for utomotive prts hve een eing developed to
More informationOperations with Polynomials
38 Chpter P Prerequisites P.4 Opertions with Polynomils Wht you should lern: Write polynomils in stndrd form nd identify the leding coefficients nd degrees of polynomils Add nd subtrct polynomils Multiply
More informationr 2 F ds W = r 1 qe ds = q
Chpter 4 The Electric Potentil 4.1 The Importnt Stuff 4.1.1 Electricl Potentil Energy A chrge q moving in constnt electric field E experiences force F = qe from tht field. Also, s we know from our study
More informationThe Acoustic Design of Soundproofing Doors and Windows
3 The Open Acoustics Journl, 1, 3, 337 The Acoustic Design of Soundproofing Doors nd Windows Open Access Nishimur Yuy,1, Nguyen Huy Qung, Nishimur Sohei 1, Nishimur Tsuyoshi 3 nd Yno Tkshi 1 Kummoto Ntionl
More informationVersion 001 CIRCUITS holland (1290) 1
Version CRCUTS hollnd (9) This printout should hve questions Multiplechoice questions my continue on the next column or pge find ll choices efore nswering AP M 99 MC points The power dissipted in wire
More information4.0 5Minute Review: Rational Functions
mth 130 dy 4: working with limits 1 40 5Minute Review: Rtionl Functions DEFINITION A rtionl function 1 is function of the form y = r(x) = p(x) q(x), 1 Here the term rtionl mens rtio s in the rtio of two
More informationRidgewood South Natural Areas Priority Evaluation. Background Report
Ridgewood South Nturl Ares Priority Evlution Bckground Report September 2013 Ridgewood South Nturl Ares Priority Evlution Bckground Report Ridgewood South Nturl Ares Priority Evlution Bckground Report
More informationSquare Roots Teacher Notes
Henri Picciotto Squre Roots Techer Notes This unit is intended to help students develop n understnding of squre roots from visul / geometric point of view, nd lso to develop their numer sense round this
More informationLINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND THEIR REPRESENTING MATRICES
LINEAR TRANSFORMATIONS AND THEIR REPRESENTING MATRICES DAVID WEBB CONTENTS Liner trnsformtions 2 The representing mtrix of liner trnsformtion 3 3 An ppliction: reflections in the plne 6 4 The lgebr of
More informationRecognition Scheme Forensic Science Content Within Educational Programmes
Recognition Scheme Forensic Science Content Within Eductionl Progrmmes one Introduction The Chrtered Society of Forensic Sciences (CSoFS) hs been ccrediting the forensic content of full degree courses
More informationUnion, Intersection and Complement. Formal Foundations Computer Theory
Union, Intersection nd Complement FAs Union, Intersection nd Complement FAs Forml Foundtions Computer Theory Ferury 21, 2013 This hndout shows (y exmples) how to construct FAs for the union, intersection
More informationAPPLICATION OF TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF TABLET COMPRESSION MACHINES AT HLL LIFECARE LIMITED, INDIA
Interntionl Journl of themticl Sciences Vol. 10, No. 34, JulyDecember 2011, pp. 171182 Serils Publictions APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI EXPERIENTAL DESIGN FOR PROCESS OPTIIZATION OF TABLET COPRESSION ACHINES
More informationProject 6 Aircraft static stability and control
Project 6 Aircrft sttic stbility nd control The min objective of the project No. 6 is to compute the chrcteristics of the ircrft sttic stbility nd control chrcteristics in the pitch nd roll chnnel. The
More information15.6. The mean value and the rootmeansquare value of a function. Introduction. Prerequisites. Learning Outcomes. Learning Style
The men vlue nd the rootmensqure vlue of function 5.6 Introduction Currents nd voltges often vry with time nd engineers my wish to know the verge vlue of such current or voltge over some prticulr time
More informationP.3 Polynomials and Factoring. P.3 an 1. Polynomial STUDY TIP. Example 1 Writing Polynomials in Standard Form. What you should learn
33337_0P03.qp 2/27/06 24 9:3 AM Chpter P Pge 24 Prerequisites P.3 Polynomils nd Fctoring Wht you should lern Polynomils An lgeric epression is collection of vriles nd rel numers. The most common type of
More informationAnswer, Key Homework 10 David McIntyre 1
Answer, Key Homework 10 Dvid McIntyre 1 This printout should hve 22 questions, check tht it is complete. Multiplechoice questions my continue on the next column or pge: find ll choices efore mking your
More informationStudy on enzymeassisted aqueous extraction of oil from soybean
8 Journl Scientific & Industril Reserch J SCI IND RES VOL 69 NOVEMBER 2010 Vol. 69, November 2010, pp. 8865 Study on enzymessisted queous extrction oil from soyben JunQing Qin*, DeHui Qin, XingMo
More informationIn the following there are presented four different kinds of simulation games for a given Büchi automaton A = :
Simultion Gmes Motivtion There re t lest two distinct purposes for which it is useful to compute simultion reltionships etween the sttes of utomt. Firstly, with the use of simultion reltions it is possile
More informationPerformance analysis model for big data applications in cloud computing
Butist Villlpndo et l. Journl of Cloud Computing: Advnces, Systems nd Applictions 2014, 3:19 RESEARCH Performnce nlysis model for big dt pplictions in cloud computing Luis Edurdo Butist Villlpndo 1,2,
More informationVendor Rating for Service Desk Selection
Vendor Presented By DATE Using the scores of 0, 1, 2, or 3, plese rte the vendor's presenttion on how well they demonstrted the functionl requirements in the res below. Also consider how efficient nd functionl
More informationFeedback is always welcome, please contact me at Copyright Flash Bang Pop! 2013 Summary of KS1 Changes
The comprisons detiled in the document, compre the current 2000 Science Curriculum with the mster version of the 2014 Science Curriculum tht ws pulished y the DoE in Septemer 2013. Top 10 KS1 Science Curriculum
More informationMATLAB: Mfiles; Numerical Integration Last revised : March, 2003
MATLAB: Mfiles; Numericl Integrtion Lst revised : Mrch, 00 Introduction to Mfiles In this tutoril we lern the bsics of working with Mfiles in MATLAB, so clled becuse they must use.m for their filenme
More informationARTICLE IN PRESS. i n t e r n a t i o n a l j o u r n a l o f m e d i c a l i n f o r m a t i c s x x x ( 2 0 1 2 ) xxx xxx
IJB2938; No. of Pges 12 i n t e r n t i o n l j o u r n l o f m e d i c l i n f o r m t i c s x x x ( 2 0 1 2 ) xxx xxx j ourn l homepge: www.ijmijournl.com Description nd comprison of qulity of electronic
More informationCorrection methods for pulsed neutron source reactivity measurement in accelerator driven systems
NUKLEONIKA 2013;58(2):287 293 ORIGINAL PAPER Correction methods for pulsed neutron source rectivity mesurement in ccelertor driven systems Pweł Gjd, Jerzy Jnczyszyn, Włdysłw Pohorecki Astrct. Importnt
More informationORBITAL MANEUVERS USING LOWTHRUST
Proceedings of the 8th WSEAS Interntionl Conference on SIGNAL PROCESSING, ROBOICS nd AUOMAION ORBIAL MANEUVERS USING LOWHRUS VIVIAN MARINS GOMES, ANONIO F. B. A. PRADO, HÉLIO KOII KUGA Ntionl Institute
More informationHillsborough Township Public Schools Mathematics Department Computer Programming 1
Essentil Unit 1 Introduction to Progrmming Pcing: 15 dys Common Unit Test Wht re the ethicl implictions for ming in tody s world? There re ethicl responsibilities to consider when writing computer s. Citizenship,
More informationRechargeable lithium/iodine battery with superior highrate capability by using iodinecarbon composite as cathode
This journl is The Royl Society of Chemistry 11 Electronic Supplementry Informtion Rechrgele lithium/iodine ttery with superior highrte cpility y using iodinecron composite s cthode Y. L. Wng, Q. L.
More informationWhy is the NSW prison population falling?
NSW Bureu of Crime Sttistics nd Reserch Bureu Brief Issue pper no. 80 September 2012 Why is the NSW prison popultion flling? Jcqueline Fitzgerld & Simon Corben 1 Aim: After stedily incresing for more thn
More informationAntiSpyware Enterprise Module 8.5
AntiSpywre Enterprise Module 8.5 Product Guide Aout the AntiSpywre Enterprise Module The McAfee AntiSpywre Enterprise Module 8.5 is n ddon to the VirusScn Enterprise 8.5i product tht extends its ility
More informationMATLAB Workshop 13  Linear Systems of Equations
MATLAB: Workshop  Liner Systems of Equtions pge MATLAB Workshop  Liner Systems of Equtions Objectives: Crete script to solve commonly occurring problem in engineering: liner systems of equtions. MATLAB
More informationIntroducing Kashef for Application Monitoring
WextWise 2010 Introducing Kshef for Appliction The Cse for Reltime monitoring of dtcenter helth is criticl IT process serving vriety of needs. Avilbility requirements of 6 nd 7 nines of tody SOA oriented
More informationEnterprise Risk Management Software Buyer s Guide
Enterprise Risk Mngement Softwre Buyer s Guide 1. Wht is Enterprise Risk Mngement? 2. Gols of n ERM Progrm 3. Why Implement ERM 4. Steps to Implementing Successful ERM Progrm 5. Key Performnce Indictors
More informationelectropneumatics AND SAFETY
electroneumatics AND SAFETY OF mchinery NEW MACHINERY directive 2006/42/EC STANDARDS EN/IEC 62061  EN ISO 138491 SAFETY OF MACHINERY rinciple of the sfety of mchinery: To gurntee the sfety nd helth
More informationTheories of light and Interference S BALASUBRAMANYA SGL IN PHYSICS SARVODAYA PU COLLEGE, TUMKUR Important paints
Theories of light nd nterference S BALASUBRAMANYA SGL N PHYSCS SARVODAYA PU COLLEGE, TUMKUR mportnt pints Theories of Light Newton s Corpusculr theory (1675) Christin Huygen s Wve theory (1678) Mxwell
More informationAN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE IT SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONS
AN ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHODOLOGY TO EVALUATE IT SOLUTIONS FOR ORGANIZATIONS Spiros Vsilkos (), Chrysostomos D. Stylios (),(b), John Groflkis (c) () Dept. of Telemtics Center, Computer Technology
More information