Big Bang Theory Experiment Hypothesis Variable

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1 Chemistry Semester 1 Course Review Unit 1 : Nature of Science Scientific method Significant figures Metric system Base units Big Bang Theory Experiment Hypothesis Variable Control Accuracy Precision 1. Using the picture above, list lab safety rules that are being ignored. 2. What are the steps to the scientific method? 1

2 3. Convert the following into scientific notation: a) 1500 = c) = b) 123 = d) 1.52 = 4. Convert the following into decimal notation (ordinary notation): a) 4.59 x 10 3 = c) 280 x 10-4 = b) 5 x 10 2 = d) 1.4 x 10-5 = 6. Round the following numbers to 2 significant figures: a) 0.826mg b) 19.88mL c) 19250cm d)950l 7. What is the SI unit for the following measurements: a) length b) mass c) time d) volume 8) What measurement in millimeters is indicated on the ruler below? 9) Convert the following: a) 850cm to mm b) 2500 mg to kg c) kL to L 10) Suppose a lab refrigerator should hold a constant temperature of 38.0 F. A temperature sensor is tested 10 times in the refrigerator. The temperatures from the test yield the temperatures of: 37.8, 38.3, 38.1, 38.0, 37.6, 38.2, 38.0, 38.0, 37.4, Is the distribution of values from the test: accurate (yes or no), precise (yes or no). 11) Explain the Big Bang Theory. 2

3 Unit 2: Atomic Structure Atom Compound Subatomic Particles Proton Neutron Electron Nucleus Atomic Number Average Atomic Mass Mass Number Isotope Neutral Theory 1. What is an atom? 2. What is the overall charge of an atom? Why? 3. Isotopes are atoms of the same element, which have the same number of (protons / neutrons) but a different number (protons / neutrons). 4. How do isotopes C-12 and C-14 differ from each other? How are they similar? 5. What parts of Dalton s atomic theory are now known to be incorrect? 6. Progression of the atomic model: Dalton Thompson Rutherford Description of supporting evidence & experiments Major findings Drawing and description of atomic model 7. Identify the three basic particles in the atom. Give their location, charge, and mass. (Fill in the table) Particle Location Charge Mass (amu) 8. Fill in the blanks for the elements using the periodic table 3

4 Physical Science Semester 1 Exam Review Element Symbol Atomic # #Protons # Electrons #Neutrons Mass # Carbon I Unit 3: Electron Wave-Particle Duality Electron Excited State Ground State Quantum Valance Electron Frequency Energy Wavelength Electron Configuration Electromagnetic Spectrum Orbitals Period Energy Level Cloud Shapes 1. Electrons can act as a or according to the - duality model. 2. What is a quantum of energy? 3. When an electron absorbs energy, it jumps to the state. 4. How does an electron produce light in things such as fireworks or neon signs? Use the diagram to answer questions 5-7: 5. Which region is referred to as the s-block on the diagram? How many electrons can each level of the s-cloud hold? 6. Which region is referred to as the p-block on the diagram? How many electrons can each level of the p-cloud hold? 7. Which region is referred to as the d-block on the diagram? How many electrons can each level of the d-cloud hold? 8. What energy level are the outer electrons for Potassium found? This is indicated by Potassium s. 9. Indentify the number of valance electrons for the following elements and draw the corresponding electron-dot structure: a) Calcium b) Carbon c) Neon 10. Draw the shape of the s-sublevel: Draw the shape of the p-sublevel: 4

5 11. Write the electron configuration for: Lithium: Argon: Iron: Barium: 12. Identify the element with the electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p According to the quantum mechanical model, the location of an electron is based on. 14. What does the electromagnetic spectrum show? 15. On the electromagnetic spectrum, as the wavelength increases, frequency, and energy. 16. A barium atom (gains / loses) electrons when it forms a barium ion. What is the symbol for a barium ion? A fluorine atom(gains / loses) electrons when it forms a fluorine ion. What is the symbol for a fluorine ion? Unit 4: Periodic Table Atomic Number Atomic Mass Atomic Symbol Group (family) Period Group Names Metals Nonmetals Metalloids Periodic trend Atomic radius Ionic Radius Electronegativity Octet Rule Use the diagram to answer questions 1-3 : 1. Which region contains group 18? What is the name of this group? 2. Which region contains the alkaline earth metals? 3. Which region contains elements with an electron configuration that ends with p 5? 4. The 10 short columns in the middle of the periodic table make up the. 5. The order of the elements on the periodic table is based upon the. What particle of the atom is represented by this number? The diagram below lists the information found on the periodic table. Use this diagram to answer question Au Gold The element s is 79, the is Au, and the Atomic mass is. 7. How many groups are on the periodic table? 8. How many periods are on the periodic table? 5

6 Use the diagrams below to answer questions Which diagram correctly depicts the trend in electronegativity? 10. Which diagram correctly depicts the trend in atomic radius? 11. Elements in the same group have similar. They behave similarly because they have the same number of. 12. Metals are located on the side of the periodic table and nonmetals are on the side. Unit 5: Bonding Ionic bond Ionic compound Covalent bond Covalent compound Ions Physical properties Valence Electron Cation Octet rule Intramolecular forces Anion Intermolecular forces Polarity 1. How does a intermolecular forces differ from a intramolecular force? 2. Which electrons are involved in bonding? 3. What types of elements are involved in ionic bonding? Covalent? 4. What type of bond is formed by the transferring of electrons? Sharing electrons? 5. How does an element form a cation? Anion? 6. Why does Magnesium form a +2 charge? 7. How many valance electrons does each of the following elements have? 6

7 a) Sodium b) Oxygen d) Krypton 8. List the general characteristics of ionic and covalent bonds (i.e. physical properties (hardness, state of matter,boiling point, melting point, conductivity), strength) Ionic Covalent Unit 6: Chemical Nomenclature Ionic compound Polyatomic ions Nonmetals Covalent compound Anion Binary Compound Valence Electron metals Diatomic Molecules Ions Transition Metals Subscript Cation Octet rule Superscript 1. Identify all seven diatomic elements: 2. For the following ionic names, write the missing chemical formula or chemical name. a. nickel (II) oxide b. calcium carbonate c. potassium nitrate d. ammonium bromide e. gold (III) iodide f. zinc phosphide g. lithium sulfate h. Na 2 SO 4 i. Al 2 O 3 j. SnO k. K 2 S l. (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4 m. ZnCl 2 n. PbCO 3 3. For the following molecular (covalent) compounds write the missing formula or name. a. carbon monoxide b. xenon tetrafluroide c. silicon dioxide d. iodine pentachloride e. P 2 O 5 f. P 4 O 10 g. SF 7 h. NI 3 7

8 Unit 7: The Mole Mole Atoms Avogadro s Number Representative Particle Hydrate Molar Mass Empirical Formula Molecular Formula Subscript Percent composition Show all work for calculations: 1. Give conversion factors (in fraction form) for converting between the following A.) FROM moles TO atoms B.) FROM grams TO moles of Boron C.) FROM atoms TO moles 2. What is the molar mass of Rb 2 Cr 2 O 7? 4. What is the number of molecules in g of H 2 O? 3. How many molecules are in 0.26 mol of CO 2? 5. What is the mass of 1.75 x molecules of NH 3? 6. Which of the following are empirical formulas? H 2 O H 2 O 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 N 2 H 5 Unit 8: Chemical Reactions Chemical Change Physical Change Coefficient Molar Ratio Conservation of Matter Balanced Reaction Chemical Reaction Synthesis Decomposition Single Replacement Double Replacement Combustion Aqueous Solution Precipitate 1. Differentiate between a precipitate and an aqueous solution. 8

9 2. List the 5 types of chemical reactions AND state how you would identify their type simply by looking at the equation: Type of reaction: How you would identify the type simply by looking at the form of the equation? S = Synthesis (Combination) D = SR = DR = C = 2 or more reactants and only 1 product 3. Why do chemical equations need to be balanced? 4. Balance the following equations and identify the type of reaction occurring: a. Zn + HCl ---> ZnCl 2 + H 2 type b. KClO 3 ---> KCl + O 2 type c. S 8 + F 2 ---> SF 6 type d. Fe + O 2 ---> Fe 2 O 3 type e. C 2 H 6 + O 2 ---> CO 2 + H 2 O type f. MgO Mg + O 2 type 9

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