Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry

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1 Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Covalent Bonding Part II Molecular Geometry The purpose of this lab is to use molecular models to help you understand the theoretical concepts of covalent bonding and molecular structure. Molecular models are designed to produce molecular structures in three-dimensional space. These structures help to clearly see some features concerning shapes of molecules, such as dipole moment, polarity, and bond angle. In this lab, you will use the valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) model to predict molecular structures. The VSEPR model considers the interaction among the electrons within a molecule as the determining factor of structure. Each group of electrons in the Lewis diagram acts as an arm of electron density projecting from the central atom. In this context, each group (or arm) of electrons are considered to be one of the following: A single bond A double bond A triple bond An unshared pair of electrons Application of the VSEPR model to molecules that contain multiple bonds reveals that a double or triple bond has essentially the same effect on bond angles as does a single bond. Therefore, a multiple bond is counted as one bonding group when predicting. The electron-pair, or arrangement of electron groups around a central atom, is based on the number of groups around that atom. Because electron pairs repel one another, the best arrangement of a given number of electron pairs is the one that minimizes the repulsions among them. Table 1 lists the five basic arrangements of electron-pair. Table 1 Electron groups around Electron-pair Geometry Bond Angle central atom 2 Linear 180 o 3 Trigonal planar 120 o 4 Tetrahedral o 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 120 o /90 o /180 o 6 Octahedral 90 o /180 o The molecular of a molecule or ion is the arrangement of atoms in space and can be determined from the electron-pair. The molecular, rather than the electron-pair, is always given when describing the shapes of molecules. The following steps are used to predict molecular geometries with the VSEPR model: Draw the Lewis structure of the molecule or ion Count the total number of electron pairs (or groups) around the central atom and arrange them in a way that minimizes electron-pair repulsions (see table 1) Describe the molecular in terms of the angular arrangement of the bonded atoms only (see table 2) 1

2 Table 2 Electron groups around central atom Electron-pair Geometry Atoms bonded to the central atom Molecular Geometry 2 Linear 2 Linear 3 Trigonal planar 3 Trigonal planar 2 Bent 4 Tetrahedral 4 Tetrahedral 3 Trigonal pyramidal 2 Bent 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 5 Trigonal bipyramidal 4 See-saw 3 T-shaped 2 Linear 6 Octahedral 6 Octahedral 5 Square pyramidal 4 Square planar If the central atom has both lone pairs and bonding pairs, then determining the molecular is a little more complicated. Three types of repulsive forces in such molecules include those between bonding pairs, those between lone pairs, and those between a bonding pair and a lone pair. Lone electron pairs use more space than do bonding pairs and result in a distortion of the ideal electron-pair predicted by VSEPR theory. In general, according to the VSEPR model, the repulsive forces decrease in the following order: Lone-pair vs. lone-pair > lone-pair vs. bonding-pair > bonding-pair vs. bonding-pair Consider the ammonia molecule (NH 3 ) which has 4 electron groups that include 3 bonded atoms and 1 lone pair of electrons. VSEPR predicts tetrahedral electron-pair with o bond angles, but the lone pair of electrons takes up more space and pushes the bonding electrons closer together, thus distorting the bond angles. The molecular of ammonia is trigonal pyramidal and the experimentally measured H N H bond angle in ammonia is o. Bond Polarity & Dipole Moment When a covalent bond exists between two different atoms, the electrons in the bond are not shared equally because the two atoms have different electronegativities. The bonding electrons are more attracted to the more electronegative atom which creates an excess of electron density near it and results in a bond dipole moment and a polar molecule. The bond dipole is symbolized with a crossed arrow above the Lewis structure to indicate the direction of the electron shift. The charge separation can also be represented with a negative delta sign (δ ) near the atom with excess electron density and with a δ + near the electron deficient atom. The bond dipole is a vector, meaning it has both a magnitude and direction, and the dipole moment of the molecule is the vector sum of the individual bond dipoles. For example, CO 2 has two bonding atoms and no lone pairs resulting in a linear molecular. Oxygen is more electronegative than carbon, so the electron density shifts towards the oxygen atom. Because the two C=O bonds are positioned opposite one another, the dipoles cancel each other out resulting 2

3 in a nonpolar CO 2 molecule. Dipole moments can be used to distinguish between molecules that have the same formula but different molecular structures. Hybridization is the term applied when two or more non-equivalent atomic orbitals of the same atom combine to form a hybrid orbital in preparation for covalent bonding. Hybridization is used to describe the bonding scheme only when the arrangement of electron pairs have been predicted using VSEPR. Table 3 lists the types of hybridization that occur for the respective VSEPR electron-pair geometries. Table 3 Electron groups around central atom Electron-pair Geometry Hybridization of the central atom 2 Linear sp 3 Trigonal planar sp 2 4 Tetrahedral sp 3 5 Trigonal bipyramidal sp 3 d 6 Octahedral sp 3 d 2 In this lab, you will use a molecular model kit to help visualize simple molecules. The kit consists of colored centers that correspond to various common geometries and connecting joints to link the centers. The list of colored centers and their representative atoms are listed on the lid of the box. It will be easier to start by building the 5 basic electron-pair geometries and then adapt them as necessary to build the molecules on the data sheet. 3

4 Lab Report Write the preferred Lewis structures and then determine the electron-pair, the hybridization of the central atom, the molecular, and the dipole moment for each of the following molecules or ions. The first row is filled in as an example. Build the models to help visualize the! Molecular formula BeCl 2 Lewis Structure F Be F Electron-pair Hybridization of central atom Molecular Dipole moment Linear sp Linear No NH 3 NO 3 BF 3 CH 4 H 2 O BrF 3 PCl 5 SF 4 of 6.75 pts 4

5 Molecular formula Lewis Structure Electron-pair Hybridization of central atom Molecular Dipole moment IF 5 XeF 4 SF 6 XeF 2 HCN BF 4 N 3 H 2 O 2 H 2 S CO 2 N 2 of 8.25 pts 5

6 Post Lab Questions 1. How many atoms are directly bonded to the central atom in the following molecular geometries (assume there are no lone pairs): a) Tetrahedral molecule? b) Trigonal bipyramidal molecule? c) Octahedral molecule? 2. In the trigonal bipyramidal molecule, why does a lone pair occupy an equatorial position rather than an axial position? 3. Determine the molecular geometries of the following ions a) NH 2 b) ICl 2 c) ICl 4 4. Determine the molecular of the following molecules and state the hybridization of each carbon. Indicate if the molecule is polar or non polar. Molecule Molecular Geometry C hybridization Polarity a) CH 4 b) C 2 H 4 c) C 2 H 2 of 7 pts Total for lab of 25 pts 6

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